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HS Physics Midterm
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Gravity
Terms in this set (75)
limiting factor
factor that determines the number of sig figs that should be in your answer
scientific method
logical approach to scientific problems
inquiry
learning through observation
accuracy
measure of how close a measurement comes to an actual value of what is being measured
control variable
variables that are kept consistent throughout the entire experiment in all trials
theory
broad and extensively tested explanation of why experiments give certain results
quantitative data
data that has to do with numbers
dependent variable
variable that depends on other factors
inference
make an explanation for the observations using prior knowledge
significant figures
number of digits that carry meaning contributing to its precision
variable
category you are trying to measure
qualitative data
data that has to do with descriptors
natural laws
rules that govern the fundamental workings of the universe
precision
how close a series of measurements are to one another
independent variable
the variable that stands alone and remains unchanged by the variable that is being tested
observation
use one or more of your five senses to know or determine something
experimental variable
variable that is being tested
speed
distance divided by time
instantaneous velocity
the velocity you have at a specific moment
distance
the amount of space you have traveled
vector
quantity that is magnitude, unit, and direction of measurement
constant speed
same distance is traveled every second
initial velocity
the velocity an object has at the beginning of an experiment
model
description of the relationship between variables
instantaneous speed
the speed you are going at one moment
scalar
quantity that is just the magnitude and unit of measurement
displacement
the difference between your starting point and your end point
velocity
displacement divided by the changing time
acceleration
rate of change in the velocity
free fall
object moving under the influence of gravity only
friction
force that opposes the relative motion of bodies
air resistance
the resisting effect on a moving object due to friction of the air
terminal velocity
the maximum velocity at which an object falls when limited by air friction
constant acceleration
an object's velocity changes by the same amount every second
acceleration due to gravity
free falling objects accelerate at 9.81 m/s^2 towards the center of the earth
inertia
measurement of an object's ability to resist motion
net force
the total force acting on an object
dynamics
problems involving motion
law of inertia
Newton's First Law
action and reaction pair
two forces in a pair
force
a push or a pull, or any action that has the ability to change an object's motion
locomotion
the act of moving or the ability to move from one place to another
newton
amount of force needed to cause one kilogram to move with an acceleration of one m/s^2
equilibrium
condition of zero acceleration where all forces are balanced out
Hooke's Law
relationship between force, spring constant, and deformation
mass
fundamental property describing the amount of matter in an object that does not change
frictional forces
forces that resist or oppose motion
weightless
an object feels no net force from gravity
spring's constant
the relationship between strength and deformation
weight
force of gravity on an object
lubricant
fluid used to reduce friction
free-body diagram
drawing of the object you are referencing without supports or connections and the forces acting on that object
coefficient of friction
measure of the strength of sliding friction between two surfaces
deformation
the change in length from extension or compression measured relative to a spring's natural length
static force
maximum net force that can be applied before an object starts sliding
normal force
force perpendicular to both surfaces moving relative to each other
g-force
a force a body feels when undergoing the force of acceleration
range
the horizontal distance traveled by the projectile
velocity vector
speed and direction of the motion of a point along the trajectory
trajectory
the path the projectile follows
unit vector
arbitrary vector to show components of a resultant that take on the magnitude of a scalar quantity
equilibrium
all the forces acting on an object are balanced and the net force is equal to 0
projectile
any object that is moving through the air affected only by gravity
magnitude
value of measurement
scalar
number and unit that can be positive, negative, or zero
vector
a mathematical quantity with both direction and magnitude
displacement
change in position
resultant
vector that connects the starting position to the final position
Newton's First Law
an object in motion stays in motion and an object at rest stays at rest unless a force acts on it.
Newton's Second Law
F=ma
Newton's Third Law
For every action there is an equal reaction going in the opposite direction
shape, size, weight
What affects terminal velocity?
Achieve free fall, get away from all sources of gravity
Two ways to achieve weightlessness?
surface type, force holding surfaces together, coefficient of friction
Three factors influencing friction?
dropped, thrown in the air
2 ways objects can be in free fall?
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