27 terms

Judicial Branch/ Supreme Court Cases Review

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Chief Justice
head justice of Supreme Court
Judicial Review
1)power to rule a law unconstitutional
2)balances out 3 branches
3)makes judicial branch final interpreters of Constitutional
writ of certiorari
procedure to see if the U.S. Supreme Court will hear a case
precedent
a decision made by the Supreme Court to be followed by lower courts
appeal
request made after a trial, asking a higher court to decide if the trial was conducted properly
judicial branch
interprets the laws, settles disputes
original jurisdiction
right and power for courts to interpret and apply the law (to hear a case) FIRST
U.S. District Courts
courts where most federal TRIALs begin, have original jurisdiction, have a jury
U.S. Supreme Court
highest court of the U.S, 9 justices,
Brown vs Board of Education
determined that "separate but equal" segregation was NOT equal in public education- 14th amendment
Bush vs Gore
determined that states cannot violate the 14th amendment equal protection when undertaking election recounts
Gideon vs Wainright
upheld the 6th amendment right that all defendants must be appointed a lawyer if they cannot afford one
Hazelwood vs Kuhlmeier
1st amendment does not protect all types of speech in school, school may censor newspapers
In re Gault
determined that juvenile court must comply with due process & the 14th amendment
Marbury vs Madison
court case that established judicial review
Miranda vs Arizona
upheld 5th amendment protection from self-incrimination, rights must be read to you
Plessy v Ferguson
determined that "separate but equal" , segregation was not discrimination
Tinker vs Des Moines
upheld a student's 1st amendment right to engage in symbolic speech in school (wearing arm bands)
United States vs Nixon
limited executive privilege for the president; upheld the idea of Rule of Law
self-incrimination
protected by the 5th amendment- a person cannot be forced to testify against themselves
D.C. vs Heller
upheld the 2nd amendment, right to bear arms
appellate jurisdiction
authority to review a case for error from a lower court
U.S. District Court, U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, U.S. Supreme Court
The order of Federal Court system, lowest to highest
1st amendment
protects freedom of speech, religion, expression, press, assembly, petition
14th amendment
Defines citizenship and provides EQUAL PROTECTION under law
5th amendment
protects against self incrimination, emin
6th amendment
guarantees right to counsel (lawyer)