244 terms

Weeks 1-3 Combined

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Epithelium (Epithelial Tissue)
Protection, secretion and absorption. Cells are attached to a membrane
Connective Tissue
Supporting structure (main function), connects muscles etc.
Muscular Tissue
Used for movement
Nervous Tissue
Used for Communication and coordination
Simple Epithelial Tissue
Single layer of cells attached to membrane
Stratified Epithelium
Multiple layer of cells attached to membrane (signifies protective layer)
Pseudostratified Epithelium
Appears to be multiple layers of cells, but actually all cells are attached directly to membrane
Columnar Cells
Cells are tall and thin - like columns
Cuboidal Cells
Cells are cube-shaped
Squamous Cells
Flat, round cells - Skin cells
Exocrine Glands
Glands that secrete fluid via ducts
Endocrine Glands
Glands that deliver fluid directly into bloodstream (not via a duct)
Endothelium
Cells that line blood vessels
Mesothelium
Membrane-making cells (reside within membranes)
Tendons
Connective Tissue that connects muscle to bone
Ligaments
Connective Tissue that connects one bone to another
Capsule
Connective Tissue that surrounds joints
Embryonic Connective Tissue
Primitive Connective Tissue found only in fetuses (embryos)
Loose Connective Tissue
Adipose (fat) connective tissue
Dense Connective Tissue
Connective tissue found in tendons, ligaments, and capsules
Specialized Connective Tissue
Connective tissue found in blood, bones and cartilage
Erythrocytes
Type of blood cell, lacking nucleus. Red pigment
Leukocytes
White blood cells (contain nucleus)
Platelets
Very small cell fragments found in blood
Osteon
Cells found in bone
Isolated Chondrocytes
Cells that make up cartilage
206
Number of bones in the human body
650 (approximately)
Number of muscles in the human body
Volantary Muscles
Muscles that can be contracted at will - striated cells
Involantary Muscles
Muscles that make up internal organs - smooth muscle cells
Cardiac Muscle
Involantary muscle cells, but cells are striated and contain darker intercolated disks
Neuron
Cells that make up nervous tissue.
Dendrites
The branch-like extensions of a Neuron
Axon
The trunk (non-branched) end of a Neuron
Epidermis
The outer-most layer of skin. Composed of 100% dead cells. Thickest skin - Palms of hands and soles of feet. Thinnest skin - found on scalp
Dermis / Corium
The cell layer that make up the middle part of skin structure
Hypodermis
The deepest cell layer. Mostly composed of adipose cells
Desmosomes
A cell specializing in cell-to-cell adhesion. Fingerprints are desmosomes in the dermis pushing up through the epidermis
dys-
Difficulty (and destruction)
myel/o
Bone Marrow
para-
Beside
hem/o
hemat/o
sanguin/o
Blood
my/o
Muscle
meta-
After, later in time; A later stage; Change, transformation
metr/o
hyster/o
Uterus
cost/o
Ribs
hepat/o
Liver
proct/o
Rectum and Anus
chondr/o
Cartilage
pharyng/o
Throat
leuk/o
White
cyan/o
Blue
cirrh/o
Yellow
lute/o
Yellow
erythr/o
Red
rubr/o
Red
melan/o
Black
chlor/o
Green
colp/o
Vagina
angi/o
vessel (blood vessels)
-emia
Condition of the Blood
-ptosis
Drooping, dropping-down
-lysis
Breaking down (Destruction)
-plegia
Paralysis
-paresis
Weakness; Partial Control (partial paralysis)
-gram
-graph
Tracing (the activity of tracing/recording)
-gravida
Pregnancy
-plasia
Increase in cell number (and therefor size)
-pnea
Breathing
-calculus
Stone - formation of (large stones eg. kidney: renal calculi)
-lith
Stone - very small (otolith - the tiny stones found within the ear)
histology
The study of tissues
Visceral Surface
The side of a membrane that FACES the organ
Parietal Surface
The side of a membrane that faces AWAY from the organ
Meninges
Membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal-cord
Pleura
Membrane that surrounds the lungs
Pericardium
Membrane that surrounds the heart
Peritoneum
Membrane surrounding the abdomin
CVA
abbreviation for a stroke
intramuscular
One of four types of injections: Injection into the muscle
intravenous
One of four types of injections: Injection into the vein
subcutaneous
One of four types of injections: Injection under the skin
intradermal
One of four types of injections: Injection into (within) the skin
Signs (diagnostic)
Observations by a Doctor
Symptoms (diagnostic)
Problems reported by a patient
Syndrome (diagnostic)
A group of symptoms and signs that when combined present a picture of disease or condition
Midsagittal
Dividing the body (or segment) equally into left / right halves (vertical line)
Parasagittal
Dividing the body (or segment) into unequal left / right protions (vertical line)
Frontal / Coronal
Dividing the body (or segment) into anterior / posterior portions
Transverse
Dividing the body (or segment) into upper / lower portions (horizontal line)
Oblique
A diagonal division
Supine
Lying on back
Prone
Lying on stomach
Words ending in:
-a (Vertebra)
Vertebrae
Words ending in:
-ax (Thorax)
Thoraces
Words ending in:
-ex or -ix (Appendix)
Appendices
Words ending in:
-is (Metastasis)
Metastases
Words ending in:
-ma (Sarcoma)
Sarcomata
Words ending in:
-nx (Phalanx)
Phalanges
Words ending in:
-on (Ganglion)
Ganglia
Words ending in:
-us (Nucleus)
Nuclei
Words ending in:
-um (Ovum)
Ova
Words ending in:
-y (Biopsy)
Biopsies
-centesis
Puncture To Withdraw Fluid (arthrocentesis: puncture to withdraw fluid from a joint)
-ectomy
Surgical Removal (gastrectomy: surgically remove the stomach)
-ostomy
Surgically Create an Opening (colostomy: surgically create an opening for the colon [through the abdominal wall])
-otomy
Cutting Into (thoracotomy: cutting into the chest)
-pexy
Surgical Fixation (nephropexy: surgical fixation of a kidney)
-plasty
Surgical Repair (dermatoplasty: surgical repair of the skin)
-rrhaphy
Suture (myorrhaphy: suture together muscle)
-gram
Record or Picture (electrocardiogram: record of heart's electricity)
-graph
Instrument for Recording (electrocardiograph: instrument for recording the heart's electrical activity)
-graphy
Process of Recording (electrocardiography: process of recording the heart's electrical activity)
-meter
Instrument for Measuring (audiometer: instrument to measure hearing)
-metry
Process of Measuring (audiometry: process of measuring hearing)
-scope
Instrument for Viewing (gastroscope: instrument to view stomach)
-scopy
Process of Visually Examining (gastroscopy: process of visually examining the stomach)
-algia
Pain (gastralgia: stomach pain)
-cele
Hernia, Protrusion (cystocele: protrusion of the bladder)
-cyte
Cell (erythrocyte: red cell)
-dynia
Pain (cardiodynia: heart pain)
-ectasis
Dilation (bronchiectasis: dilated bronchi)
-gen
That Which Produces (pathogen: that which produces disease)
-genesis
Produces, Generates (spermatogenesis: produces sperm)
-genic
Producing, Produced By (carcinogenic: producing cancer)
-ia
State, Condition (bradycardia: condition of a slow heart)
-iasis
Abnormal Condition (lithiasis: abnormal condition of stones)
-iatry
Medical Treatment (podiatry: medical treatment for the foot)
-ism
State Of (hypothyroidism: state of low thyroid)
-itis
Inflammation (dermatitis: inflammation of skin)
-logist
One Who Studies (cardiologist: one who studies the heart)
-logy
Study Of (cardiology: study of the heart)
-lysis
Destruction (hemolysis: blood destruction)
-lytic
Destruction (thrombolytic: clot destruction)
-malacia
Abnormal Softening (chondromalacia: abnormal cartilage softening)
-megaly
Enlargement, Large (cardiomegaly: enlarged heart)
-oid
Resembling (fibroid: resembling fibers)
-oma
Tumor, Mass, Swelling (carcinoma: cancerous tumor)
-osis
Abnormal Condition (cyanosis: abnormal condition of being blue)
-pathy
Disease (myopathy: muscle disease)
-phobia
Fear (photophobia: fear of light)
-plasia
Development, Growth (hyperplasia: excessive development)
-plasm
Formation, Development (neoplasm: new formation)
-ptosis
Drooping (blepharoptosis: drooping eyelid)
-rrhage
Excessive, Abnormal Flow (hemorrhage: excessive bleeding)
-rrhagia
Abnormal Flow Condition (cystorrhagia: abnormal flow from the bladder)
-rrhea
Discharge, Flow (rhinorrhea: discharge from the nose)
-rrhexis
Rupture (hysterorrhexis: ruptured uterus)
-sclerosis
Hardening (arteriosclerosis: hardening of an artery)
-stenosis
Narrowing (angiostenosis: narrowing of a vessel)
-therapy
Treatment (Chemotherapy: treatment with chemicals)
-trophy
Nourishment, Development (hypertrophy: excessive development)
-ule
Small (venule: small vein)
-ac
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (cardiac: pertaining to the heart)
-al
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (duodenal: pertaining to the duodenum)
-an
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (ovarian: pertaining to the ovary)
-ar
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (ventricular: pertaining to a ventricle)
-ary
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (pulmonary: pertaining to the lungs)
-atic
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (lymphatic: pertaining to lymph)
-eal
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (esophageal: pertaining to the esophagus)
-iac
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (chondriac: pertaining to cartilage)
-ic
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (gastric: pertaining to the stomach)
-ile
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (penile: pertaining to the penis)
-ine
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (uterine: pertaining to the uterus)
-ior
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (superior: pertaining to above)
-nic
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (embryonic: pertaining to an embryo)
-ory
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (auditory: pertaining to hearing)
-ose
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (adipose: pertaining to fat)
-ous
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (intravenous: pertaining to within a vein)
-tic
Pertaining To - Adjective Suffix (acoustic: pertaining to hearing)
bi-
Two (bilateral: two sides)
hemi-
Half (hemiplegia: paralysis of one side/half of the body)
mono-
One (monoplegia: paralysis of one extremity)
multi-
Many (multigravida: woman pregnant more than once)
nulli-
None (nulligravida: woman with no pregnancies)
poly-
Many (polyuria: large amounts of urine)
primi-
First (primigravida: first pregnancy)
quadri-
Four (quadriplegia: paralysis of all four limbs)
semi-
Partial, Half (semiconscious: partially conscious)
tetra-
Four (tetraplegia: paralysis of all four limbs)
tri-
Three (triceps: muscle with three heads)
a-
Without, Away From (aphasia: without speech)
an-
Without (anoxia: without oxygen)
ante-
Before, In Front Of (antepartum: before birth)
anti-
Against (antibiotic: against life)
auto-
Self (autograft: a graft from one's own body)
brady-
Slow (bradycardia: slow heartbeat)
Contra-
Against (contraception: against conception)
de-
Without (depigmentation: without pigment)
dys-
Painful, Difficult, Abnormal (dyspnea: difficulty breathing)
endo-
Within, Inner (endoscope: instrument to view within)
epi-
Upon, Over (epigastric: upon or over the stomach)
eso-
Inward (esotropia: inward turning)
eu-
Normal, Good (eupnea: normal breathing)
ex-
External, Outward (exostosis: condition of external bone)
exo-
Outward (exotropia: outward turning)
extra-
Outside Of (extracorporeal: outside of the body)
hetero-
Different (heterograft: graft [like a skin graft] from another species
homo-
Same (homograft: graft [like a skin graft] from the same species)
hydro-
Water (hydrotherapy: water therapy)
hyper-
Over, Above (hypertrophy: overdevelopment)
hypo-
Under, Below (hypodermic: under the skin)
in-
Not; Inward (infertility: not fertile); (inhalation: to breathe in)
inter-
Among, Between (intervertebral: between the vertebrae)
intra-
Within, Inside (intravenous: inside, within a vein)
macro-
Large (macrotia: having large ears)
micro-
Small (microtia: having small ears)
myo-
To Shut (myopia: to shut eyes/squint)
neo-
New (neonatology: study of the newborn)
pan-
All (pansinusitis: inflammation of all the sinuses)
para-
Beside, Near; Abnormal; Two like parts of a pair (paranasal: beside the nose); (paresthesia: abnormal sensation); (paraplegia: paralysis of two like parts of a pair/the legs)
per-
Through (percutaneous: through the skin)
peri-
Around (pericardial: around the heart)
post-
After (postpartum: after birth)
pre-
Before, In Front Of (preoperative: before a surgical operation)
pro-
Before (prolactin: before milk)
pseudo-
False (pseudocyesis: false pregnancy)
retro-
Backward, Behind (retroperitoneal: behind the peritoneum)
sub-
Below, Under (subcutaneous: under, below the skin)
supra-
Above (suprapubic: above the pubic bone)
tachy-
Rapid, Fast (tachcardia: fast heartbeat)
trans-
Through, Across (transurethral: across the urethra)
ultra-
Beyond, Excess (ultrasound: high-frequency sound waves)
un-
Not (unconscious: not conscious)
aden/o
Gland (adenopathy: gland disease)
carcin/o
Cancer (carcinoma: cancerous tumor)
cardi/o
Heart (cardiac: pertaining to the heart)
chem/o
Chemical (chemotherapy: treatment with chemicals)
cis/o
to Cut (incision: process of cutting into)
dermat/o
Skin (dermatology: study of the skin)
enter/o
Small Intestine (enteric: pertaining to the small intestine)
gastr/o
Stomach (gastric: pertaining to the stomach)
gynec/o
Female (gynecology: study of the female)
hemat/o
Blood (hematic (pertaining to the blood)
hydr/o
Water (hydrocele: protrusion of water [in the scrotum])
immun/o
Immunity (immunology: study of immunity)
laryng/o
Voice Box (laryngeal: pertaining to the voice box)
nephr/o
Kidney (nephromegaly: enlarged kidney)
neur/o
Nerve (neural: pertaining to the nerve)
ophthalm/o
Eye (ophthalmic: pertaining to the eye)
ot/o
Ear (otic: pertaining to the ear)
path/o
Disease (pathology: study of disease)
pulmon/o
Lung (pulmonary: pertaining to the lung)
rhin/o
Nose (rhinoplasty: surgical repair of the nose
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