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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. reinforcement contingencies
  2. phobias
  3. higher-order conditioning
  4. observational learning
  5. learning
  1. a any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience; shapes our personal habits, traits, preferences, and emotional responses
  2. b the circumstances or roles that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers
  3. c occurs when an organisms responding is influenced bu the observation of others who are called models
  4. d in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus
  5. e irrational fears of specific objects or situations

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences; b.f. skinner
  2. the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed; the interval length varies around a predetermined average; a rat is reinforced for the first lever press after a minute interval has elapsed, but the following intervals are three minutes, two minutes, four minutes, etc. average is two minutes
  3. events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs; food, water, warmth, sex, affection
  4. a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning
  5. the initial stage of learning something

5 True/False questions

  1. classical conditioninga form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences; b.f. skinner


  2. punishmentoccurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response; when rat presses lever, it receives a shock


  3. negative reinforcementoccurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus


  4. variable ratio (VR) schedulehe reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses; a rat reinforced every tenth lever press; a salesperson receives a bonus for every fourth set of golf clubs sold


  5. extinctionthe gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency because the response is no longer followed by reinforcement