How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

173 terms

Human Nutrition

Chapter 1-8
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
AMDR of carbohydrates
45-65% of kcal intake per day
percent of intake of carb from sugar
below 25%
Adequate intake of daily fiber
20-38 g per day
Fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K
dietary reference intakes
recommended daily allowance
amount of carbs from whole grain
at least half
function of carbs
energy, protein sparing mechanism, pH balance
sources of carbs
potatoes, beans, peas, grains (starches)
oatmeal, beans, broccoli, citrus (fiber)
recommended intake of fiber
about 25 grams
AMDR of fats
20-30% of daily kcals
AMDR of saturated fats
less than 10% of daily kcals
functions of fats
help digest and absorb some vitamins
electrical conduction
thermal regulation
cushions organs
provides padding for pregnancy
adds flavor
AMDR of protein
10-25% of daily kcals
RDI of protein
function of protein:
fluid and electrolyte balance
carrier molecules
acid base balance
Function of Thyamine (B1)
coenzyme energy metabolism; muscle nerve action
intake recommendations of Thyamine (b1)
Men: 1.2 mg
Women: 1.1 mg
symptoms of deficiency of Thyamine (B1)
headaches, tiredness, edema, nervous system problems, disorientation
sources of thyamine (b1)
lean pork, whole or enriched graisn, flours, legumes, seeds, and nuts
water soluble or fat soluble: Thiamine (B1)
function of riboflavin (b2)
coenzyme energy metabolism
intake recommendations of riboflavin (b2)
Men: 1.3 mg
Women: 1.1 mg
symptoms of deficiency of riboflavin (b2)
ariboflavinosis with cheilosis, glossitis, seborrheic dermatitis
sources of riboflavin (b2)
milk/dairy products; meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dark leafy greens, whole and enriched breads and cereals
water or fat soluble: riboflavin (b2)
function of niacin (b3)
cofactor to enzymes involved in energy metabolism; glycolysis, and TCA cycle
symptoms of deficiency of niacin (b3)
symptoms of toxicity of niacin (b3)
vasodilation, liver damage, gout, and arthritic reactions
recommended daily intake of niacin (b3)
men: 16 mg NE
women: 14 mg NE
sources of niacin (b3)
meats, poultry, and fish, legumes, whole and enriched cereals, milk
function of pyridoxine (b6)
forms coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate for energy metabolism; CNS; hemoglobin synthesis
symptoms of deficiency of pyridoxine (b6)
dermatitis, altered nerve function, weakeness, anemia, OCAs decrease B6 levels
water or fat soluble: niacin (b3)
symptoms of toxicity of pyridoxine (b6)
ataxia, sensory neruopathy
recommended daily intakes of pyridoxine (b6)
1.3 mg
sources of pyridoxine (b6)
whole grains, cereals, legumes, poultry, fish, pork, eggs
function of folate
coenzyme metabolism, fetal neural tube formation
deficiency of folate
megaloblastic anemia, many drugs affect folate use
toxicity of folate
megadoses may mask pernicious anemia
RDI of folate
food sources of folate
leafy green vegetables, legumes, ascorbic acid containing foods
function of cobalamin
transport/storage of folate; metabolism of fatty acids. amino acids
water or fat soluble:pyridoxine (b6)
water or fat soluble: folate
water or fat soluble: cobalamin (b12)
deficiency of cobalamin (b12)
pernicious anemia, CNS damage
RDI cobalamin (b12)
2.4 mcg
sources of cobalamin (b12)
animal sources
function of biotin
metabolism of carboydrate, fat, and protein
deficiency of biotin:
produced by avidin and long term antibiotics
RDI of biotin
30mcg Al
source of biotin
liver, kidney, peanut butter, egg yolks, intestinal synthesis
water or fat soluble: biotin
function of Choline
synthesis of acetylcholine and lecithin
deficiency of choline
toxicity of choline
body odor, liver damage, hypotension
RDI of choline
men:550 mg
source of choline
milk, eggs, peanuts
water or fat soluble : choline
function of Pantothenic acid
part of coenzyme A
deficiency of pantothenic acid
not possible
RDI of pantothenic acid
5 mg Al
sources of pantothenic acid
widespread in food
water or fat soluble: patothenic acid
function of Vitamin C
antioxidant, coenzyme, collagen formation, would healing, iron absorption, hormone synthesis
deficiency of vitamin C
toxicity of vitamin C
cramps, nausea, kidney stone formation, gout, rebound scurvy
RDI of vitamin C
men 90mg
women 75mg
food sources of vitamin C
fruits, vegetables
water or fat soluble: vitamin C
fucntion of vitamin A
maintains epithelial tissues, rhodopsin formation for vision, bone growth reproduction
deficiency of vitamin A
nigh blindness, keratomalacia, degeneration of epithelial tissue, inhibited growth
toxicity of vitamin A
hypervitaminosis A, blistered skin, weakness, anorexia, vomiting, enlarged spleen and liver
requirements of vitamin A
men 900mcg RAE
women 700mcg RAE
sources of vitamin A
deep green, yellow, and orange fruits and vegetables, animal fat, whole milk, fortified skim and lowfat milk, butter, liver egg yolks, fatty fish
water or fat soluble: vitamin A
function of Vitamin D
calcium and phosphorus absorption; bone mineralization
deficiency of vitamin D
bone malfomation, rickets, osteomalacia
toxicity of vitamin D
hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria
requirements of vitamin D
5mcg Al
sources of vitamin D
animal fat sources, butter egg yolks, fatty fish, liver, fortified milk; body synthesis
water or fat soluble: vitamin D
function of Vitamin E
antioxidant for PUFA and vitamin A; antioxidant with selenium and ascorbic acid
deficiency of vitamin E
primary deficiency rare, secondary deficiency caused by fat absorption neurologic disorders
toxicity of vitamin E
function of vitamin K
cofactors in synthesis of blood clotting factors; protein formation
water or fat soluble: vitamin E
water or fat soluble: vitamin K
deficiency of vitamin K
blood cogaulation inhibited; hemorrhagic disease
toxicity of vitamin K
therapeutic vitamin K reactions in neonatesm causing hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia
requirements of vitamin K
men120mcg Al
women 90mcg Al
sources of vitamin k
green leafy vegetables, intestinal synthesis
function of calcium
bone and tooth formation; blood clotting; muscle contraction/relaxation; CNS; blood pressure
deficiency of Calcium
reduced bone density, osteoporosis
toxicity of calcium
constipation, urinary stones, reduced iron and zinc absorption
RDI of calcium
100-1200 mg
food sources of calcium
milk, milk based products, green leafy vegetables, legumes
major/minor? calcium
function of phosphorus
bone and tooth formation
deficiency of phosphorus
toxicity of phosphorus
increased Ca excretion
RDI Phosphorus
sources of phosphorus
dairy foods, egg, meat, fish, poultry
major/minor? phosphorus
function of magnesium
structure. storage; cofactor; nerve and muscle function; blood clotting
deficiency of magnesium
secondary with muscle twitching, weakness, convulsions from FVD
RDA of magnesium
Men: 420 mg
Women 320mg
sources of magnesium
whole grains, legumes, grean leafy vegetables, hard water
function of sulfur
component of protein structure
deficiency of sulfur
only if protein malnourished
RDI of sulfur
protein adequate diets contain adequate levels
sources of sulfur
protein containing foods
function of sodium
major extracellular electrolyte for fluid regulation, body fluid levels, acid-base balance, nerve impulse and contraction; blood pressure/volume
deficiency of sodium
FVD with headache; muscle weakness, decreased concentration, memory and appetite loss
toxicity of sodium
sodium sensitive hypertenstion
source of sodium
table salt, naturally in many foods, processed foods
function of potassium
major intracellular electrlyte for fluid regulation; muscle function
deficiency of potassium
muscle weakness, confusion, decreased apetite, cardiac dysrhythmias caused by FVD from vomiting diarrha or diuretics
toxicity of potassium
from diet or supplements if renal disease present
RDI of potassium
sources of potassium
unpoprcessed foods, fruits, vegetables, diary products, meats, legumes
chloride function
acid-base balance, gastric hydrochloric acid for digestion
defieciency of chlride
FVD caused by vomiting/ diarrhea
chloride RDI
source of chloride
table salt
Iron function
distributes oxygen in hemoglobin and myoglobin
deficiency of iron
microcytic anemia
toxicity of iron
hemosiderosis, hemochromatosis
RDI of iron
men 8mg
women 18mg
food sources of iron
meat, fish, poultry, egg yolks, vegetables, legumes, whole grains
zinc function
cofractor for more than 200 enzymes; carbohydrate metabolism
zinc deficiency
decreases would healing' decreases taste and smell; impaired sexual and physical development; immune disorders
toxicity of zinc
similar to flu with vomiting diarrhea fever exhastion
RDA of zinc
men 11mg
women 8mg
iodine function
thyroxine synthesis regulates growth and development BMR regulation
deficiency iodine
decreases thyroxine causing sluggishness and weight gain, goiter, cretinism
RDA iodine
150 mcg
sources iodine
iodized salt, seafood
fluoride function
bone and tooth formation increases resistance to decay increases mineralization
fluoride deficienc
increases dental caries
toxicity fluoride
RDI fluoride
men 4mg
women 3mg
source fluoride
fluoridated water, tea, seafood, seaweed
selenium function
antioxidant cofactor with vitamin E; prevents cell and lipid membrane damage
selenium deficiency
possible keshan disease/cancer
toxicity of selenium
liver damage vomiting diarrhea
RDA selenium
selenium source
meat, fish, eggs, whole grains
copper function
coenzyem in antioxicant reactions and energy metabolism, wound healing nerve fiber protection, iron use
deficiency copper
bone demineralization and anemia
toxicity copper
wilson's disease or with supplements producing vomiting diarrhea
RDA copper
Chromium function
carbohydrate metabolism, part of glucsoe tolerance facter
source of copper
organ meats, seafood, green leafy vegetables
deficiency of chromium
possible link iwth cardiovascular disporder,s hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and unresponsive insulin
chromium RDI
men 35 mcg
women 25 mcg
sources of chromium
animal food, whole grains
manganese function
part of metabolic recation enzymes
manganese deficincey
RDI manganese
men 2.3mg
women 1.8mg
sources of manganese
whole grains, green leafy vegetables, legume
molybdenum function
deficiency of molybdenum
RDA molybdenum
sourse of molybdenum
many foods