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Chapter 1-8


Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range

AMDR of carbohydrates

45-65% of kcal intake per day

percent of intake of carb from sugar

below 25%

Adequate intake of daily fiber

20-38 g per day

Fat soluble vitamins

A, D, E, K


dietary reference intakes


recommended daily allowance

amount of carbs from whole grain

at least half

function of carbs

energy, protein sparing mechanism, pH balance

sources of carbs

potatoes, beans, peas, grains (starches)
oatmeal, beans, broccoli, citrus (fiber)

recommended intake of fiber

about 25 grams

AMDR of fats

20-30% of daily kcals

AMDR of saturated fats

less than 10% of daily kcals

functions of fats

help digest and absorb some vitamins
electrical conduction
thermal regulation
cushions organs
provides padding for pregnancy
adds flavor

AMDR of protein

10-25% of daily kcals

RDI of protein


function of protein:

fluid and electrolyte balance
carrier molecules
acid base balance



Function of Thyamine (B1)

coenzyme energy metabolism; muscle nerve action

intake recommendations of Thyamine (b1)

Men: 1.2 mg
Women: 1.1 mg

symptoms of deficiency of Thyamine (B1)

headaches, tiredness, edema, nervous system problems, disorientation

sources of thyamine (b1)

lean pork, whole or enriched graisn, flours, legumes, seeds, and nuts

water soluble or fat soluble: Thiamine (B1)




function of riboflavin (b2)

coenzyme energy metabolism

intake recommendations of riboflavin (b2)

Men: 1.3 mg
Women: 1.1 mg

symptoms of deficiency of riboflavin (b2)

ariboflavinosis with cheilosis, glossitis, seborrheic dermatitis

sources of riboflavin (b2)

milk/dairy products; meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dark leafy greens, whole and enriched breads and cereals

water or fat soluble: riboflavin (b2)


function of niacin (b3)

cofactor to enzymes involved in energy metabolism; glycolysis, and TCA cycle

symptoms of deficiency of niacin (b3)


symptoms of toxicity of niacin (b3)

vasodilation, liver damage, gout, and arthritic reactions

recommended daily intake of niacin (b3)

men: 16 mg NE
women: 14 mg NE

sources of niacin (b3)

meats, poultry, and fish, legumes, whole and enriched cereals, milk



function of pyridoxine (b6)

forms coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate for energy metabolism; CNS; hemoglobin synthesis

symptoms of deficiency of pyridoxine (b6)

dermatitis, altered nerve function, weakeness, anemia, OCAs decrease B6 levels

water or fat soluble: niacin (b3)


symptoms of toxicity of pyridoxine (b6)

ataxia, sensory neruopathy

recommended daily intakes of pyridoxine (b6)

1.3 mg

sources of pyridoxine (b6)

whole grains, cereals, legumes, poultry, fish, pork, eggs

function of folate

coenzyme metabolism, fetal neural tube formation

deficiency of folate

megaloblastic anemia, many drugs affect folate use

toxicity of folate

megadoses may mask pernicious anemia

RDI of folate


food sources of folate

leafy green vegetables, legumes, ascorbic acid containing foods



function of cobalamin

transport/storage of folate; metabolism of fatty acids. amino acids

water or fat soluble:pyridoxine (b6)


water or fat soluble: folate


water or fat soluble: cobalamin (b12)


deficiency of cobalamin (b12)

pernicious anemia, CNS damage

RDI cobalamin (b12)

2.4 mcg

sources of cobalamin (b12)

animal sources

function of biotin

metabolism of carboydrate, fat, and protein

deficiency of biotin:

produced by avidin and long term antibiotics

RDI of biotin

30mcg Al

source of biotin

liver, kidney, peanut butter, egg yolks, intestinal synthesis

water or fat soluble: biotin


function of Choline

synthesis of acetylcholine and lecithin

deficiency of choline


toxicity of choline

body odor, liver damage, hypotension

RDI of choline

men:550 mg

source of choline

milk, eggs, peanuts

water or fat soluble : choline


function of Pantothenic acid

part of coenzyme A

deficiency of pantothenic acid

not possible

RDI of pantothenic acid

5 mg Al

sources of pantothenic acid

widespread in food

water or fat soluble: patothenic acid


function of Vitamin C

antioxidant, coenzyme, collagen formation, would healing, iron absorption, hormone synthesis

deficiency of vitamin C


toxicity of vitamin C

cramps, nausea, kidney stone formation, gout, rebound scurvy

RDI of vitamin C

men 90mg
women 75mg

food sources of vitamin C

fruits, vegetables

water or fat soluble: vitamin C


fucntion of vitamin A

maintains epithelial tissues, rhodopsin formation for vision, bone growth reproduction

deficiency of vitamin A

nigh blindness, keratomalacia, degeneration of epithelial tissue, inhibited growth

toxicity of vitamin A

hypervitaminosis A, blistered skin, weakness, anorexia, vomiting, enlarged spleen and liver

requirements of vitamin A

men 900mcg RAE
women 700mcg RAE

sources of vitamin A

deep green, yellow, and orange fruits and vegetables, animal fat, whole milk, fortified skim and lowfat milk, butter, liver egg yolks, fatty fish

water or fat soluble: vitamin A


function of Vitamin D

calcium and phosphorus absorption; bone mineralization

deficiency of vitamin D

bone malfomation, rickets, osteomalacia

toxicity of vitamin D

hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria

requirements of vitamin D

5mcg Al

sources of vitamin D

animal fat sources, butter egg yolks, fatty fish, liver, fortified milk; body synthesis

water or fat soluble: vitamin D


function of Vitamin E

antioxidant for PUFA and vitamin A; antioxidant with selenium and ascorbic acid

deficiency of vitamin E

primary deficiency rare, secondary deficiency caused by fat absorption neurologic disorders

toxicity of vitamin E


function of vitamin K

cofactors in synthesis of blood clotting factors; protein formation

water or fat soluble: vitamin E


water or fat soluble: vitamin K


deficiency of vitamin K

blood cogaulation inhibited; hemorrhagic disease

toxicity of vitamin K

therapeutic vitamin K reactions in neonatesm causing hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia

requirements of vitamin K

men120mcg Al
women 90mcg Al

sources of vitamin k

green leafy vegetables, intestinal synthesis

function of calcium

bone and tooth formation; blood clotting; muscle contraction/relaxation; CNS; blood pressure

deficiency of Calcium

reduced bone density, osteoporosis

toxicity of calcium

constipation, urinary stones, reduced iron and zinc absorption

RDI of calcium

100-1200 mg

food sources of calcium

milk, milk based products, green leafy vegetables, legumes

major/minor? calcium


function of phosphorus

bone and tooth formation

deficiency of phosphorus


toxicity of phosphorus

increased Ca excretion

RDI Phosphorus


sources of phosphorus

dairy foods, egg, meat, fish, poultry

major/minor? phosphorus


function of magnesium

structure. storage; cofactor; nerve and muscle function; blood clotting

deficiency of magnesium

secondary with muscle twitching, weakness, convulsions from FVD

RDA of magnesium

Men: 420 mg
Women 320mg

sources of magnesium

whole grains, legumes, grean leafy vegetables, hard water

function of sulfur

component of protein structure

deficiency of sulfur

only if protein malnourished

RDI of sulfur

protein adequate diets contain adequate levels

sources of sulfur

protein containing foods

function of sodium

major extracellular electrolyte for fluid regulation, body fluid levels, acid-base balance, nerve impulse and contraction; blood pressure/volume

deficiency of sodium

FVD with headache; muscle weakness, decreased concentration, memory and appetite loss

toxicity of sodium

sodium sensitive hypertenstion



source of sodium

table salt, naturally in many foods, processed foods

function of potassium

major intracellular electrlyte for fluid regulation; muscle function

deficiency of potassium

muscle weakness, confusion, decreased apetite, cardiac dysrhythmias caused by FVD from vomiting diarrha or diuretics

toxicity of potassium

from diet or supplements if renal disease present

RDI of potassium


sources of potassium

unpoprcessed foods, fruits, vegetables, diary products, meats, legumes

chloride function

acid-base balance, gastric hydrochloric acid for digestion

defieciency of chlride

FVD caused by vomiting/ diarrhea

chloride RDI


source of chloride

table salt

Iron function

distributes oxygen in hemoglobin and myoglobin

deficiency of iron

microcytic anemia

toxicity of iron

hemosiderosis, hemochromatosis

RDI of iron

men 8mg
women 18mg

food sources of iron

meat, fish, poultry, egg yolks, vegetables, legumes, whole grains

zinc function

cofractor for more than 200 enzymes; carbohydrate metabolism

zinc deficiency

decreases would healing' decreases taste and smell; impaired sexual and physical development; immune disorders

toxicity of zinc

similar to flu with vomiting diarrhea fever exhastion

RDA of zinc

men 11mg
women 8mg

iodine function

thyroxine synthesis regulates growth and development BMR regulation

deficiency iodine

decreases thyroxine causing sluggishness and weight gain, goiter, cretinism

RDA iodine

150 mcg

sources iodine

iodized salt, seafood

fluoride function

bone and tooth formation increases resistance to decay increases mineralization

fluoride deficienc

increases dental caries

toxicity fluoride


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