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Deforming the Earth's Crust (Part 1)
Terms in this set (48)
The process by which the shape of a rock changes because of the stress or amount of force placed on it. Rock layers bend when stress is placed on them. But when enough stress is placed on rocks, they can reach bend and then break.
The type of stress that occurs when an object is squeezed, such as when two tectonic plates collide. When compression occurs at a convergent boundary, large mountain ranges can form.
A form of stress; occurs when forces act to stretch an object. This occurs at divergent plate boundaries, such as mid-ocean ridges when two tectonic plates pull away from each other.
The bending of rock layers because of stress in the earth's crust.
Types of folds
Folds can be large or small. The largest folds are measured in kilometers and the smaller are measured in centimeters. Anticlines- upward arching folds and synclines- downward, troughlike folds. Also, (3) monocline- rock layers are folded so that both ends of the fold are horizontal.
Upward arching folds
Downward troughlike folds.
Rock layers are folded so that both ends of the fold are horizontal.
The surface along which rocks break and slide past each other.
The blocks of crust on each side of the fault. The type of fault that forms depends on how the hanging wall and footwall move in relationship to each other.
large side down
large side up.
When a normal fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move down relative to the footwall. Normal faults usually occur when tectonic forces cause tension that pulls rocks apart.
When a reverse fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move up relative to the footwall. This movement is the reverse of a normal fault. Reverse faults usually happen when tectonic forces cause compression that pushes rocks together.
These form when opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally. If you were standing on one side of a strike-slip fault looking across the fault when it moved, the ground on the other side would appear to move to your left or right.
Exist because tectonic plates are continually moving around and colliding with one another. (Example: Andes Mountains)
Form when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upward.
When tectonic forces put enough tension on the Earth's crust, a large number of normal faults can result. These mountains form when this tension causes large blocks of the Earth's crusts to drop down relative to other block. (Example: Tetons in western Wyoming)
Most of *these* mountains are located at convergent boundaries where oceanic crust sinks into the asthenosphere at subduction zones. The rock that is melted in subduction zones forms magma, which rises to the Earths's surface and erupts to form *these* mountains. *These* mountains can also form under the sea. Sometimes
*these* mountains are located at convergent boundaries where oceanic crust sinks into the asthenosphere at subduction zones. The rock that is melted in subduction zones forms magma, which rises to the Earths's surface and erupts to form *these* mountains.
mountains can also form under the sea. Sometimes
mountains can rise above the ocean surface to become islands.
(Ring of Fire)
The rising of regions of Earth's crust to higher elevations.
The sinking of regions of Earth's crust to lower elevations.
A set of deep cracks that forms between two tectonic plates that are pulling away from each other. As tectonic plates pull apart, stress between the plates causes a series of faults to form along the rift zone. The blocks of crust in the center of the rift zone subside.
the theory that earth is divided into plates that move around
the place where two tectonic plates push into one another
the place where two tectonic plates move away from one another
which type of boundary produces strike slip fault
name two kinds of stress
compression and tension
name 3 kings of faults
normal, reverse, strike slip
name three kinds of folds
anticline, syncline , monocline
fault block mountain
Himalayas or Appalachian
The place where tectonic plates touch.
A fault block boundary
This is not a type of tectonic plate; When tectonic forces put enough tension on the Earth's crust, a large number of normal faults can result. Fault-block mountains form when this tension causes large blocks of the Earth's crust to drop down relative to other blocks.
The three ways that tectonic plates can move relative to each other:
Collide, separate and slide
When two plates with continental crust collide, what happens to the continental crust.
*They buckle and thicken which pushes the continental......
Boundary formed when tectonic plates collide
boundary formed when tectonic plates separate
boundary formed when tectonic plates slide past horizontally
What type of boundary produces strike-slip faults?
Which type of boundary produces earthquakes
*Transform boundary, convergent boundary, divergent boundary.
When rock is heated it becomes less dense and then tends to do this
When rock cools, it becomes more dense and tends to do this
sink below the surface
plate motion due to higher densities
plate motion due to gravity
plate motion due to heating and cooling of rocks
Tectonic plates how fast?
centimeters per year
Scientist use to measure the rate of tectonic plate movement.
Global positioning system