MasteringMicrobiology - Ch. 15 HW

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What cellular macromolecules make up the complement pathway?

a. Lipids

b. Nucleic acids

c. Carbohydrates

d. Proteins
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An inflammatory response would result from which of the following? a. Jellyfish sting b. A headache c. VomitingaIf a person turns their ankle, how would one determine if damage to the tissue in the ankle has occurred? a. The ankle is very warm to the touch. b. The ankle swells. c. The ankle is red, swollen, and warm to the touch. d. The ankle is red.cWhat is the function of inflammation in response to a burn from a hot iron? a. To repair the damaged tissue b. To destroy the agent causing injury c. To destroy the agent causing injury, to limit the effects of the agent on the rest of the body, and to repair the damaged tissue d. To limit the effects of the agent on the rest of the bodyaWhat direct effect do histamines and leukotrienes have on capillaries? a. They decrease the diameter of capillaries. b. They allow capillary walls to open and become leaky. c. They prevent phagocytes from sticking to the walls of capillaries.bDiapedesis is a. the attachment of phagocytes to the walls of capillaries. b. the migration of phagocytes through blood vessels to the site of tissue damage. c. the production and release of chemicals during inflammation. d. the increase in the diameter of blood vessels.bWhy is vasodilation important to tissue repair? a. It allows more nutrients to be delivered to the site of damage. b. It allows for an increase in oxygen to the site of damage. c. It allows for an increased delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and phagocytes to the site of damage. d. It allows more phagocytes to travel to the site of damage.cPus is comprised of a. collected cells from damaged tissue. b. dead phagocytes. c. excess fluid from leaky blood vessels. d. unused histamines and leukotrienes.bWhich of the following can release histamines? a. The complement system b. Wood from a splinter c. Invading bacterial cells d. Cells from damaged tissues and the complement pathway e. Cells from damaged tissuesdWhich of the complement pathways employs properdin? a. Classical pathway b. Alternative pathway c. Lectin pathway d. Alternative and lectin pathways all employ properdin. e. Classical, alternative, and lectin pathways all employ properdin. f. The classical and alternative pathways both require properdin.bIn the classical pathway, which of the following directly activates cellular responses? a. C2aC4b b. C3a, C5a, and C5bC6C7 c. C5bC6C7 d. C3b e. C4aC2bC3b f. C3a and C5abAntibodies from cellular immune responses are used in a. the alternative pathway. b. both the classical and alternative pathways. c. the classical pathway. d. the lectin pathway.cWhich of the complement pathways was discovered first? a. The lectin pathway b. The classical pathway c. The alternative pathwaybWhich of the following are functions of lectins? a. They act as opsonins for phagocytosis, they attach to carbohydrates on some bacterial and viral surfaces, and they activate C2 and C4. b. They act as opsonins for phagocytosis. c. They produce antibodies. They attach to carbohydrates on some bacterial and viral surfaces. d. They can activate C2 and C4. They produce factor P (properdin).aBasophils, platelets, and _____ are all capable of secreting histamines. a. monocytes b. complement c. mast cells d. neutrophilscWhich of the following groupings contain things that are all true indicators of inflammation? a. redness, heat, edema, pain b. redness, coolness, numbness, fever c. blueness, coolness, edema, pain d. redness, heat, edema, pain, feveraIncreased permeability of the vessels leads to _____ and pain. a. heat b. redness c. edema d. fevercThe process of blood clotting leads to the formation of _____ a potent mediator of inflammation. a. prostaglandin b. bradykinin c. leukotriene d. histaminebHistamines are released when mast cells are exposed to _____, which are fragments of complement proteins. a. bradykinins b. C3a and C5a c. C3 and C5 d. plateletsbInflammatory mediators such as bradykinin and histamine cause blood vessels to _____. a. vasoconstrict b. increase permeability c. lengthen d. vasodilatedLeukocytes have the ability to cross the vessel wall out of the blood stream and into the tissues. This process is known as _____. a. phagocytosis b. apoptosis c. diapedesis d. phagocytosiscAcute and chronic inflammations differ in that acute inflammation _____. a. involves the formation of pus b. always involves a fever c. develops quickly, ends quickly, and is typically beneficial d. develops slowly, lasts a long time, and is potentially damagingcIf a person could not form C2, which result of complement would be affected? a. Opsonization b. Cytolysis c. Chemotaxis and inflammation d. Cytolysis, chemotaxis, inflammation, and opsonizationd