80 terms

Key Terms Chapter 31-35

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A. Mitchell Palmer
Nicknamed the "Fighting Quaker"; prosecuted over 6000 suspected Communists with his power as Attorney General
Al Capone
Nicknamed "Scarface"; gang member famous for being involved in the St. Valentine's Day Massacre; captured for dodging his taxes.
Sacco and Vanzetti case
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzettie were being tried for the murder of a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard. Because they were Italian, atheists, anarchists, and draft dodgers, the court may have been prejudiced in their judgment of the case.
Red Scare
Fear of Russia that created a tiny Communist Party in America in 1917; there was a nationwide crusade against left-wingers who Americanism was suspect.
John T Scopes/ Scopes Trial
teacher from TN who was put on trial for teaching evolutionism.
Knight of the Invisible Empire
Bill Wilkinson (originator of the second Ku Klux Klan)
Fundamentalism
Those who believed in this took the Bible for its most literal meaning and severely opposed the evolutionists theory
Wright Brothers
Inventors of the first successful airplane, originally bike repairmen
Charles Lindbergh/kidnapping
The Flyin' Fool; made first solo trans-Atlantic trip in his plane; his infant son was kidnapped for ransom and later killed, leading to Congress passing the law which making interstate abduction in some cases punishable by death
Andrew Mellons
Treasury Secretary under Coolidge; catalyst to the reduction and/or repeal of several taxes, helped lower national debt from 26 to 10 billion; caretaker of the rich.
Flappers
Symbolized young American women with "devil may care" independence (wild ambition); very adventurous women who sported unique clothes such as a one-piece bathing suit
Sigmund Freud
Argued that sexual repression was responsible for a variety of nervous and emotional ills
Henry Ford / Model T
Inventor in the auto industry; mass produced car was cheap, rugged, and reasonably reliable; mastered the assembly line production.
Equal Rights Amendment
Was campaigned for by Alice Paul's National Woman's party; basically the 19th amendment allowing women to vote.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
American author of novels and short stories; works are writings of the Jazz Age; regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the twentieth century; wrote The Great Gatsby
Ernest Hemingway
American author and journalist; influenced twentieth century fiction
Marcus Garvey
Jamaican publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, orator; proponent of the Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements; founded the Universal Negro Improvement
Association and African Communities League.
Calvin Coolidge
30th President of the United States; was governor of Massachusetts; succeeded to the Presidency upon the sudden death of president; gained reputation as a small-government conservative
Warren G. Harding
Appointed 4 of 9 Supreme Court Justices including William Taft; under his policies corporations could once again expand as the anti-trust laws were not enforced
Charles Evan Hughes
Secretary of State who gained rights to exploit Middle Eastern oil for American use and embodied his ideas within the Five-Power Naval Treaty of 1922
Adkins v Children's Hospital
The court reversed its ruling in the Muller v. Oregon case by invalidating a minimum wage law for women in this case
Charles R. Forbes
Appointed as the first Director of the Veterans' Bureau by President Warren G. Harding on August 9, 1921 and served until February 28, 1923
Teapot Dome Scandal
Albert B. Fall leased land in Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny; he received a "loan" (actually a bribe) of $100,000 from Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair later that fall.
Adjusted Compensation Act
This act gave every former soldier a paid-up insurance policy due in twenty years; passed by Congress twice (the second time to override President Calvin Coolidge's veto).
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
A bank for all the banks; first time that the policies shifted from Hoover to FDR
McCumber Tariff
Raised the tariff from 27 percent to 35 percent;
Europe needed to sell goods to the U.S. in order to get the money to pay back its debt, but this made it hard for these Europeans to sell such goods.
kellogg-briand pact
stated that all countries who would sign this would not use war for offensive means
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
A farming tariff promised to pass through Congress with minimal changes; ended up with 1000 amendments
Election of 1928
Won by Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
Elect of the 1928 presidential elections; held a "from rags to riches story"; successful engineer and businessman; blamed by the public as the one responsible for causing the Great Depression
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929; 16,410,030 share of stocks were sold in a quick attempt
Bonus Expeditionary Army
Soldiers who had gone to Washington D.C. to demand the full bonus that they were to be paid from World War I; started many riots
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Won the 1932 election; came up with the New Deal; concentrated on his three R's: relief, recovery, reform
Eleanor Roosevelt
The most active First Lady in history; represented the rising role of women in American society; Roosevelt's wife and distant niece
New Deal
Promised to help end the Great Depression with several federal programs: relief, recovery, reform; proposed by FDR
Brain Trust
A small group of reform minded intellectuals, mostly young college professors who came up with most of the New Deal legislations
The 3 R's
Roosevelt's New Deal programs where relief and recovery were short term, while reform was permanent; long-term goals aimed at programs that produced the Great Depression.
Hundred Days Congress
March 9 to June 16, 1933; this special session was mostly Democratic, and the measures passed derived from earlier progressivism, but mostly were made to deal with the panic.
Father Coughlin
Michigan Catholic priest who began broadcasting in 1930 with the slogan,"Social Justice"; had millions of followers who listened to his anti-New Deal speeches, until silenced by superiors.
WPA (Works Progress Administration)
It's objective was employment on useful projects; spent about $11 biliion on thousands of roads, buildings, and bridges, providing nearly 9 million jobs.
PWA (Public Works Administration)
headed by Harold L. Ickes; made for long-term recovery as over $4 billion was spent on 34,000 projects; famous for making the Grand Coulee Dam of the Columbia River.
Dust Bowl
From eastern Colorado to western Missouri; a prolonged drought combined with strong winds in late 1933.
CCC (Civilian Conservative Corps)
one of the most popular New Deal agencies; created employment for 3 million young men verterans in reforestaion, firefighting, flood control, and swamp drainage.
CIO (The Committee for Industrial Organization)
formed by John C. Lewis in 1935 ; moved the aim to the automobile industry and started the sit-down strike: refused to leave the General Motors plant in Michigan, preventing the importation of strikebreakers.
TVA (Tennesse Valley Authority)
created an act passed in 1933, dubbed the most revolutionary New Deal scheme of the "Planned Economy."; determine the cost of distribution of electricity
Wagner Act
Also known as the National Labor Relations Act; gave unions the right to organize and bargain with management
Social Security Act
Considered the greatest victory for the New Dealers; created a pension and insurance for the old-aged, the handicapped, and delinquent children by taxing employees and employers; was accused by Republicans as a "rugged individualism"
20th amendment
Cut down the "lame-duck period" to six weeks, starting the president's term in January instead of March.
21st amendment
ended Prohibition
Alfred M. Landon
Governor of Kansas; FDR's opponent in the Election of 1936; Republican; "unsure idiot".
London Conference
A conference where 66 nations gathered to create a solution for the worldwide Great Depression; FDR withdrew from the conference, not agreeing with the nations trying to stabilize currencies; reinforced American isolationism
Tydings-McDuffie Act
An act stating that that Philippines would receive independence
Cordell Hull
Secretary of State to FDR; came up with the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act and the Charter of the United Nations; won the Nobel Peace Prize
good neighbor policy
FDR renounced all intervention in Latin America, pulling out troops from countries such as Haiti; sought for peace rather than picking a fight; improved America's image in Latin America's eyes (regional instead of world power)
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
Reversed the high-tariff policy, paving the way for the American-led free trade international economic system to be implemented after World War II
Neutrality Acts
Laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930's; sought to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts
The Quarantine Speech
Given by FDR on October 5, 1937, in Chicago; intensified America's isolationist mood; referred to Japan, Italy, and Germany
cash and carry
Policy requested by FDR at a special session of the United States Congress in 1939; replaced the Neutrality Acts of 1936; allowed for the sale of material to belligerents, as long as the recipients arranged for the transport using their own ships and paid immediately in cash; purpose was to hold neutrality between the United States and European countries while still giving material aid to Britain
Havana Conference
Conference held in the Cuban capital in 1940; the United States agreed to share with its neighbors the responsibility of protecting the Monroe Doctrine
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
American political action group formed in May 1940; advocated American military material support for Britain as the best way to keep the United States out of the conflict in Europe
America First Committee
Foremost non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II; started in 1940
Lend-Lease
Program under which the US supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material; signed in 1941; called "An Act Further to Promote the Defense of the United States"; ended the pretense of the US's neutrality
Eight-Point Atlantic Charter
Agreement between the United States of America and Great Britain that established the vision of Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill for a post-World War II world.
December 7, 1941
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Smith-Connally (Anti-Strike) Act
Authorized the federal government to seize and operate tied-up industries; strikes against any government operated industries was now a crime; government now controlled coal mines and railroads for a short period of time
War Production Board
Halted the manufacturing of non-essential items such as passenger cars; assigned priorities fir transportation and access for raw materials.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American general; launched a secret invasion in North Africa in Nov. 1942
Braceros
Mexican workers brought to America under the program; filled in the empty jobs such as agricultural jobs that American men left behind in order to fight in the war
Douglas MacArthur
American general who led the battles against Japan on the Pacific front; fought against the Japanese in many grueling battles at places such as New Guinea, Australia, and the Philippines; was in charge of overseeing Hirohito and Japan's surrender on the USS Missouri
George S. Patton
An American general who participated in the D-Day invasion on Europe; led American forces into France
Albert Einstein/Manhattan Project
German-born physicist who discovered the theory of general relativity; often regarded as the father of modern physics; received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics; wrote a letter which warned that Germany might develop nuclear weapons which started this effort, led by the United States with participation from the United Kingdom and Canada, which led to the development of the first atomic bomb during World War II
Chester W. Nimitz
Admiral in the United States Navy; held the dual command of Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet, for U.S. naval forces and Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas, for U.S. and Allied air, land, and sea forces during World War II, leading U.S. Navy authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navy's Bureau of Navigation in 1939; served as Chief of Naval Operations from 1945 until 1947; the United States' last surviving Fleet Admiral
Harry S. Truman
33rd President of the United States; Franklin D. Roosevelt's third vice-president; succeeded to the presidency when President Roosevelt died
Thomas E. Dewey
The man who ran against FDR during his fourth elections; his vice-president was isolationist John W. Bricker of Ohio
Casablanca Conference
Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill met and agreed on the term of "unconditional surrender"
Teheran Conference
The Big Three (FDR, Churchill, and Josef Stalin, leader of Russia) met and agreed that the Soviets and Allies would launch simultaneous attacks.
Potsdam Conference
The Soviet Union, Britain, and the US participated in this and told the Axis to surrender or be completely annhilated
D Day
June 6, 1944; Allies launched an all-out assault on Normandy and France
V-E Day
Victory in Europe Day; May 7, 1945; Germans officially surrendered
V-J Day
Victory over Japan Day, also known as Victory in the Pacific Day; August 15, 1945; The Japanese officially surrendered