Chapter 42 - Homework and Quiz Questions
Terms in this set (13)
In an open circulatory system, blood is _____.
A. always inside of vessels and is under lower pressure than in closed circulatory systems
B. not always confined to blood vessels and is under higher pressure than in closed circulatory systems
C. not always confined to blood vessels and is under lower pressure than in closed circulatory systems
D. always inside of vessels and is under higher pressure than in closed circulatory systems
Which of the following is the correct sequence of blood flow in birds and mammals?
A. pulmonary vein → left atrium → left ventricle pulmonary circuit
B. vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle pulmonary artery
C. vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle pulmonary vein
D. left ventricle → aorta → lungs → systemic circulation
Damage to the sinoatrial node in humans _____.
A. would have a negative effect on peripheral resistance
B. would have a direct effect on blood pressure monitors in the aorta
C. would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions
D. would block conductance between the bundle branches and the Purkinje fibers
The greatest difference in the concentration of respiratory gases is found in which of the following pairs of mammalian blood vessels?
A. the pulmonary vein and the jugular vein
B. the veins from the right and left legs
C. the pulmonary vein and the aorta
D. the pulmonary artery and the inferior vena cava
A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. To travel from the artery to the thumb and then back to the left ventricle, this red blood cell must pass through _____.
A. three capillary beds
B. one capillary bed
C. four capillary beds
D. two capillary beds
The velocity of blood flow is the lowest in capillaries because _____.
A. the capillaries have internal valves that slow the flow of blood
B. the diastolic blood pressure is too low to deliver blood to the capillaries at a high flow rate
C. the systemic capillaries are supplied by the left ventricle, which has a lower cardiac output than the right ventricle
D. the total cross-sectional area of the capillaries is greater than the total cross-sectional area of the arteries or any other part of the circulatory system
What will be the long-term effect of blocking the lymphatic vessels associated with a capillary bed?
A. the area of the blockage becoming abnormally small
B. the accumulation of more fluid in the interstitial areas
C. an increase in the blood pressure in the capillary bed
D. more fluid entering the venous capillaries
To become bound to hemoglobin for transport in a mammal, atmospheric molecules of oxygen must cross _____.
A. one membrane-that of the lining in the lungs-and then bind directly to hemoglobin, a protein dissolved in the plasma of the blood
B. two membranes-in and out of the cell lining the lung-and then bind directly to hemoglobin, a protein dissolved in the plasma of the blood
C. four membranes-in and out of the cell lining the lung, in and out of the endothelial cell lining an alveolar capillary and then bind directly to hemoglobin, a protein dissolved in the plasma of the blood
D. five membranes-in and out of the cell lining the lung, in and out of the endothelial cell lining an alveolar capillary, and into the red blood cell-to bind with hemoglobin
Compared with the interstitial fluid that bathes active muscle cells, blood reaching these muscle cells in arteries has a _____.
A. lower osmotic pressure
B. higher PO2
C. lower pH
D. greater bicarbonate concentration
Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize _____.
A. blood pressure
B. active transport
Carbon dioxide levels in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid affect pH. This enables the organism to sense a disturbance in gas levels as _____.
A. the brain alters the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid to force the animal to retain more or less carbon dioxide
B. the brain directly measures and monitors oxygen levels and causes breathing changes accordingly
C. the medulla oblongata, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing
D. stretch receptors in the lungs cause the medulla oblongata to speed up or slow breathing
The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in _____.
A. hemoglobin concentration
D. the partial pressure of oxygen
Most of the carbon dioxide produced by humans is _____.
A. converted to bicarbonate ions by an enzyme in red blood cells
B. simply dissolved in the plasma
C. bound to hemoglobin
D. transported in the erythrocytes as carbonic acid
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