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Gender identity refers to

the sense of being male or female.

The belief that boys are more independent than girls is a

gender schema.

When his mother offered to play leapfrog with him, Jorge protested, "I'm not going to play a girl's game!" Jorge's reaction best illustrates the impact of

gender schemas

Girls typically play in ________ groups than do boys and, during their teens, girls spend ________ time with friends than do boys.

smaller; more

Behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position define a


Hormone injections exposing a female embryo to excess testosterone sometimes cause female infants to be born with

masculine appearing genitals.

The social roles assigned to women and men

differ widely across cultures.

Women are more likely than men to

tend and befriend.

A gender role refers to

a set of expected behaviors for males or for females.

In comparison to parental influence, peer influence is

more likely to affect a child's language accent.

Since 1960, Americans have experienced a(n)

increase in the incidence of depression and an increase in work hours.

Norms are best described as

rules for socially acceptable behavior.

It has been suggested that our sensitivity to peer influence is genetically predisposed because it has facilitated the process of human mating. This suggestion best illustrates

an evolutionary perspective.

People are most likely to notice the impact of environmental influences on behavior when confronted by

cultural diversity.

A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of

social harmony.

The gender gap in aggression is LEAST likely to involve hurting others by

excluding them

Voluntary migration, a sparsely populated environment, and shift to a capitalist economy have most clearly fostered


Professor Shankar believes that her students' most important personal characteristics are those that distinguish them as uniquely different from most other people. Her attitude best illustrates one of the consequences of


Individualism is to collectivism as ________ is to ________.

independence; interdependence

Which of the following would you MOST likely observe on extended visits to foreign countries?

more men than women involved in fistfights

Migdalia insists on wearing very feminine-looking outfits because she wants to be treated like a woman. This best illustrates the impact of

gender typing.

Children tend to organize their worlds into male and female categories. This best illustrates their use of

gender schemas.

Professor Smith emphasizes that gender similarities and differences are products of a continuous interplay among genetically predisposed traits, culturally shaped roles, and personally constructed expectations and assumptions. The professor's emphasis best illustrates

a biopsychosocial approach.

Compared with many Asian and African parents, today's Westernized parents are more likely to teach their children to value

personal independence

Religious and ethnic diversity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by


Premature infants who are regularly touched and massaged are more likely than their unstimulated counterparts to show signs of

rapid weight gain.

For children from impoverished environments, stimulating educational experiences during early childhood are most likely to

prevent the degeneration of activated connections between neurons

Failing to understand the norms of the community into which we have recently moved is most likely to contribute to

culture shock.

An infant boy was raised as a girl following a botched circumcision. During adolescence, the child ________ boys and ________ the assigned female identity.

wanted no part of kissing; did not accept

Compared with females, males use conversation to

communicate solutions.

As people progress through adulthood, women become

more assertive and men become more empathic.

A human egg contains ________ chromosome and a human sperm contains ________ chromosome.

an X; either an X or a Y

Although Adam didn't care for the taste of fried green tomatoes, he began eating them when he saw that his classmates were doing so. His behavior best illustrates the importance of

peer influence.

Kids choose peers who share their own attitudes and interests as their friends. This best illustrates

selection effect

The preservation of innovation best illustrates the survival value of


Since 1960, most Western cultures have changed with remarkable speed. The LEAST likely explanation for these variations involves changes in

the human gene pool.

In agricultural societies, children typically socialize into more distinct gender roles than do children in nomadic societies. This best illustrates that gender-role differences between social groups result from

cultural influence.

The male answer syndrome suggests that men are less likely than women to demonstrate

social modesty

Voluntary migration, a sparsely populated environment, and shift to a capitalist economy have most clearly fostered


Compared with people in individualist cultures, those in collectivist cultures are

more likely to display signs of humility and more likely to defer to others' wishes.

Compared with men, women experience a greater risk of

eating disorders.

People whose gender identity feels mismatched with their biological sex are


Those who suggest that choices we make today determine what our future will be like are emphasizing the importance of

human responsibility

Sex reassignment surgery today would most likely be recommended for individuals who are


The invention and transmission of dating and courtship customs best illustrate

cultural influence.

Frans avoids talking with food in his mouth because other people think it is crude and inappropriate. This best illustrates the impact of


Cultural diversity best illustrates our

adaptive capacities.

An awareness that children's temperaments influence parents' child-rearing practices should inhibit our tendency to

blame parents for our own dysfunctional characteristics

Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that

person-to-person differences within cultural groups are larger than differences between groups.

A willingness to switch jobs and move from one part of the country to another best illustrates one of the consequences of


People expect men to be ________ hungry for political power than women. When men and women are both perceived to be politically power hungry, men are ________ likely than women to suffer voter backlash.

more; less

Female children are more likely to be labeled "tomboys" if they were exposed to excess ________ during their prenatal development.


Behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position define a


In everyday behavior, men are LESS likely than women to

smile at others.

The belief that boys are more independent than girls is a

gender schema

A boy who consistently exhibits traditionally masculine interests and behavior patterns demonstrates

gender typing

Mr. Eskenazi frowns when his son cries but hugs his daughter when she cries. Mr. Eskenazi's contribution to the gender typing of his children would most likely be highlighted by

social learning theorists.

Men and women are most likely to differ in their


When Mr. Thompson lived overseas for a year, he was very surprised at how much respect he received from people simply because he was an older person. His sense of surprise suggests that he had NOT previously lived in a culture characterized by


A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of

social harmony.

People living in a culture that promotes collectivism are more likely than those in individualist cultures to report experiencing

family loyalty

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