Psychology Exam 2 Review (Chapter 14)

What is meant by the term personality?
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In Freud's theory, what is the superego? How does the superego develop from the ego?Represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (conscience) and for future aspirations. Forces the ego to consider the real and ideal.What kinds of conflicts exist between the id, the ego, and the superego?- The ego needs to suppress id desires to satisfy the superego (pride - satisfy superego vs. guilt - fails superego) - The id won't allow these desires to be repressed, so it finds a substitute outlet - The ego develops additional defenses (defense mechanisms) to handle these new outlets and keep the desires repressed - The superego's demands may oppose those of the id, so the ego struggles to reconcile the two. - The id makes impulsive demands, the superego makes restraining demands, and the external world has real-life demandsWhat would be the consequences of a weak or strong id, or ego, or superego?- Strong id: solely concerned with personal pleasure; care nothing about the outside world's demands or the future - Weak id: care little about personal pleasure - Strong ego: always compromise between the id and superego - Weak ego: express all unrestrained sexual or aggressive impulses - Strong superego: virtuous, yet guilt ridden - Weak superego: outrageously self-indulgent and remorselessWhat is repression?Banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feeling, and memories from consciousness; underlies all other defense mechanisms; often incomplete, so repressed urges may appear as symbols in dreams or as slips of the tongueWhat is a defense mechanism?The ego's protective methods of reducing or redirecting anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.How do repression and defense mechanisms help resolve conflicts among the id, ego and superego?- Ego suppresses id desires to satisfy the superego - Id finds a substitute outlet - The ego develops additional defenses (defense mechanisms) to handle these new outlets and keep the desires repressedRegressionRetreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixatedDisplacementShifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or personSublimationSocially unacceptable impulses or idealizations are unconsciously transformed into socially acceptable actions or behavior, possibly resulting in a long-term conversion of the initial impulseProjectionDisguising one's own threatening impulses by attributing them to othersReaction formationSwitching unacceptable impulses into their oppositesRationalizationOffering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actionsDenialRefusing to believe or even perceive painful realitiesWhat are the two most significant ways in which the theories of the neo-Freudians differ from Freud's theory?1. Placed more emphasis on the conscious mind's role in interpreting experience and in coping with the environment. 2. Doubted that sex and aggression were all consuming motivations - emphasize loftier motives and social interactionsIn Jung's theory, what is the collective unconscious?A common reservoir of images (archetypes) derived from our species' universal experiences (shared, inherited, memory traces)What is a structured (objective) personality test?- Assesses personality along several scales; each measures a personality trait - Consists of hundreds of true/false questions; each assesses a personality trait - The score on each scale indicates the degree to which that person characterizes that traitHow is the MMPI an example of a structured (objective) personality test?Consists of 10 scales, which are evaluated togetherWhat is the problem with structured (objective) personaity tests?People may misrepresent themselves; handled by using validity scales (lying + bizarre); have a low predictive validity (0.30)What is an unstructured (projective) personality test?- Designed to get past a person's own defenses. - The person is given an unstructured task; the structure the person gives that task indicates unconscious issuesHow are the TAT and the Rorschach examples of unstructured (projective) personality tests>(TAT): People express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes (Rorschach): Uses a set of 10 inkblots to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the inkblotsHow valid is each of these kinds of tests considered to be?They both lack validity and have little evidence to show their reliability.What are the major criticisms of Freud's psychoanalytic theory?- Development is lifelong, not just in childhood - Dreams don't disguise and fulfill wishes; slips of the tongue can equal competition between verbal choices in the memory network; defense mechanisms don't disguise sexual/aggressive impulses; suppressed sexuality doesn't cause psychological disorders (sexual inhibition has decreased, psychological disorders have not) - Freud had few objective observations and few testable hypotheses - His theory fails to predict behavior and traits - Repression is not a metal response to traumaWhich of Freud's ideas have received confirmation in contemporary research?We have limited access to all that goes on in our mind - the subconscious does existHow do humanistic theories view personality?Focus on the ways that people strive for self-determination and self-realizationWhat is Maslow's concept of self-actualization?- The motivation to fulfill one's potential. - One of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved.What three conditions did Rogers believe to be necessary to promote personal growth?- Genuineness: open with their own feelings, drop facades, are transparent and self-disclosing - Acceptance: unconditional positive regard (total acceptance towards others despite failings), relief to drop pretenses, confess worst → accepted; spontaneity w/o fear of decreased esteem - Empathy: share/mirror other's feelings and reflect meanings; force for changeWhat is the self-concept in Roger's theory of personality?All of our thoughts and feeling about ourselves in answer to the question, "Who am I?"What are the two components of the self-concept: the actual self and the ideal self?(Actual self): an organized pattern of perceived characteristics, along with values attached to those characteristics; may not conform to reality (Ideal self): the standards to which we hold ourselvesWhat are the two components of the ideal self: the want self and the ought self?(Want self): who we think we authentically are (Ought self): who we think we should beHow do the relationships among these components lead to a positive or negative self-concept?Actual = ideal (positive) Actual doesn't = ideal (negative) - mismatch actual-ought: anxiety - mismatch actual-want: depressionWhat is Roger's concept of a personal myth?The personal narrative of stories that provide a person with a sense of direction and meaning (very resistant to change)What is Roger's concept of a person's possible selves?Mental representations of the people we may become in the futureFor Rogers, what are unconditional positive regard and conditions of worth?(Unconditional positive regard): an attitude of total acceptance toward another person (Conditions of worth): the conditions we think we must meet in order for other people to accept us as worthy of their love or positive regardHow do positive regard and conditions of worth relate to the development of the self-concept?Both under the umbrella of acceptance which is a condition necessary to promote personal growthWhat are the major criticisms of humanistic personality theories?- Concepts are vague and subjective - The emphasis on individualism could lead to self indulgence, selfishness, or erosion of moral restraint - It is naive because it fails to appreciate the human capacity for evilHow do trait theories view personality?Define personality in terms of identifiable behavior patterns; traitsWhat is a trait?A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and actWhat problem is Eysenck trying to solve with his personality theory?Reducing normal individual variations to two or three dimensions; wants to link traits to biological systemsWhat are the two major dimensions of personality in Eysenck's theory?Extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instabilityHow does Eysenck define extraversion?Have chronically underaroused nervous systems; may have underreactive NT systems; seeking is a characteristicHow does Eysenck define introversion?Have chronically overaroused nervous systems; inhibited temperament; fear of novelty; ovvereactive brain, attempts to compensate for itWhat is the Big 5 Factor personality theory?Five major personality traits, each of which is expressed in a hierarchy of lower level traitsWhat are the five traits described by the Big 5 theory?Openness to experiences, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticismWhat is the person-situation controversy?Our behavior is influenced by the interaction of our inner disposition with our environment. But, which is more important? Look for genuine personality traits that persist over time and across situations. There is an inconsistency of behaviors, but average personality over many situations is predictable.How do social-cognitive theories view personality?Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits and their social contextWhat is meant by reciprocal determinism?The interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environmentHow is reciprocal determinism shown by how people choose their environments, interpret events, and create situations?(Choose environments: based on disposition, and our environment shapes us (Interpret events): how we perceive the world influences how we interact with it (Create situations): how we vie/treat people influences how they treat us; if we expect that people don't like us, then we make desperate attempts for approval which lead to rejectionWhat are self-control and delayed gratification?(Self-control): the ability to pursue a goal while managing internal conflicts about it, or delay pursuing a goal because of other considerations or constraint (Delayed gratification): the ability to wait to obtain something that a person wantsHow are self-control and delayed gratification examples of reciprocal determinism?They depend on how people interpret a situation and on innate qualitiesWhat are outcome expectancies?A person's assumptions about the likely consequences of a future behavior; combine with goals to produce a characteristic style of behaviorWhat is the specific case of self-efficacy expectations?The belief in how effective a person can be in some areaHow are outcome expectancies and self-efficacy expectations examples of reciprocal determinism?Depend on the situation and traitsWhat is the concept of locus of control?A person's tendency to perceive the control of events as being internal to the self or external to the environmentWhat is an internal locus of control?The person is largely responsible for the things that happen to themWhat is an external locus of control?Things that happen to a person are largely determined by factors outside of the person's controlHow is locus of control an example of reciprocal determinism?Environment vs. selfWhat is learned helplessness?Repeated aversive experiences over which the person has no control leads to the belief that nothing can be done to to change such experiencesHow is learned helplessness example of reciprocal determinism?Attribute personal experiences or issues to the environment (out of their control)