Chapter 8 - Early Civilizations in Africa
Terms in this set (57)
discovered Great Zimbabwe, thought Africans couldn't have built it because of 19th century European prejudice.
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.
located in West Africa, its rich soil gave rise to several civilizations; it also helped unite the region by enabling merchants and travelers to spread goods and ideas up and down the river
A long, narrow valley in Earth's crust where two continental plates are separating or between two faults.
2,900 mile long river in a "u" shape; dumps into Atlantic
an ancient region of northeastern Africa (southern Egypt and northern Sudan) on the Nile
An Egyptian name for Nubia, the region alongside the Nile River south of Egypt, where an indigenous kingdom with its own distinctive institutions and cultural traditions arose beginning in the early second millennium B.C.E. It was deeply influenced by Egyptian culture and at times under the control of Egypt, which coveted its rich deposits of gold and luxury products from sub-Saharan Africa carried up the Nile corridor.
kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity
major trading state serving as a transit point for goods carried from South Asia into the lands surrounding the Mediterranean
a pejorative term applied to any country or society which willfully walls itself off from the rest of the world. Axum
followers of Christianity in Egypt
East African highland nation lying east of the Nile River.
desertification of the Sahara
the process of degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting effecting the still growing, largest desert in the world, stretching 3,000 miles across the African continent, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea, and measuring 1,200 miles from north to south.
a flat grassland in tropical or subtropical regions
Fleets of the Desert
Capital of a flourishing kingdom in southern Nubia from the fourth century B.C.E. to the fourth century C.E.. In this period Nubian culture shows more independence from Egypt and the influence of Sub-Saharan Africa.
An African culture that existed around 500 BCE in Northern Nigeria. They lived along the Niger river and produced terra cotta sculptures.
an island in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa
a family of languages widely spoken in the southern half of the African continent
the longest and largest river in sub-saharan africa (was formally the congo river)
an account of a Greek seafarer's travels down the coast of Cape Guardafui at the tip of the Horn of Africa to the Strait of Madagascar
possibly modern Dar es Salaam, commercial metropolis, exported ivory, rhinoceros horn, and tortoiseshell and importing glass, wine, grain, and metal goods such as weapons and tools
a Bantu language with Arabic words spoken along the East African coast
southern African language group characterized by the use of "clicking" sounds
people who live in what is now called Ghana, in west africa, and who are known fro their artful weaving and colorful asasia, or kente cloth.
Ashanti of Ghana. Supreme god of heaven, earth, sun, and moon. Creator of all the realms
spirit figures that were made by the Kongo and Songye people of Congo
a member of a North African, primarily Muslim people living in settled or nomadic tribes from Morocco to Egypt
a region of northern Africa on the Mediterranean coast between Egypt and Gibraltar
It is an Arabic word, literally meaning "place of sunset" or "the west"
the arabian term for the east african coast
roman traders called east African coast - trading power
city-state on east African coast; fishing limited trade from 800-1000; turned to agriculture, increased trade in pottery and stoneware; major trading center by 14th century
a port city in southern Kenya on a coral island in a bay of the Indian Ocean
an island in the Indian Ocean off the east coast of Africa. Means "coast of Zanj"
a coastal city that dominated Africa gold trade between about 1100 and 1300; the present-day capital of Somalia.
This was a kingdom in West Africa. Between the Niger and Senegal Rivers came one of the most important things of this empire, the gold and salt trade. Gold and salt was a very big export for them.
capital of Ghana
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west africa
Mali trading city that became a center of wealth and learning
a Nilo-Saharan language spoken by the Songhai people in Mali and Niger
african societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states
modified the older system of village headmen to a form of divine kinship in which the ruler and his relatives were thought to have a special power that ensured fertility of people & crops in Katanga
kingdom based on agriculture; formed on lower Kongo River; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy
a river in southern Africa, flowing east through Zimbabwe and Mozambique into the Indian Ocean.
hunting and foraging people who spoke a Khoisan language, lived in small family communities of twenty to twenty-five members throughout southern Africa
Desert of southern Africa
an extended family unit that has combined into a larger community
relating to a social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother
10-15 million people taken from Africa between 1500 and 1870, Several million more people killed in slave raids and forced marches to the coast. Most bought from African slave traders, at least 15% died in horrible conditions aboard slave ships.
paintings of the San peoples of southern Africa; evidence of aboriginal people lived in the area for ten thousand years
Benin was famous for its bronze and brass sculptures; main function=please the king
tall structure with inscriptions in Ethiopia. There are 1,300 stelae found at Axum in Ethiopia.
Poets and storytellers who served as advisors to the king and treated with respect.
epic of West Africa; passed down by bard for seven hundred years; relates to the heroic exploits of Son-Jara, the ruler and founder of Mali's empire.
Staunch Christians, the Zagwe devoted themselves to the construction of new churches and monasteries. These were often modeled after Christian religious
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