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40 terms

PATHO quiz 3

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Hemolysis
"The destruction of red blood cells which leads to the release of hemoglobin from within the red blood cells into the blood plasma.
hemoglobin test
reveals how much hemoglobin is in a person's blood
albumin
The main protein in human blood and the key to the regulation of the osmotic pressure of blood. Chemically, is soluble in water, precipitated by acid, and coagulated by heat
anisocytosis
Excessive inequality in the size of the red blood cells. is apparent on a blood smear
anticoagulant
Any agent used to prevent the formation of blood clots
differentiation
The process by which cells become progressively more specialized; a normal process through which cells mature
eosinophil
A type of leukocyte (white blood cell) with coarse round granules of uniform size within its cytoplasm and typically a bilobate (two-lobed) nucleus
fibrin
The protein formed during normal blood clotting that is the essence of the clot
gamma globulin
A major class of immunoglobulins found in the blood, including many of the most common antibodies circulating in the blood. Also called immunoglobulin G (IgG).
White Blood Cell Differential
an examination and enumeration of the distribution of leukocytes in a stained blood smear. The different kinds of white cells are counted and reported as percentages of the total examined. Differential white blood cell count provides more specific information related to infections and diseases
hemoglobin
"the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.
dyscrasia
pertaining to an abnormal condition of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, or prenatal Rh incompatibility
macrophage
A type of white blood that ingests (takes in) foreign material. Key players in the immune response to foreign invaders such as infectious microorganisms
Megakaryocyte
A giant cell in the bone marrow that is the ancestor of blood platelets
neutropenia
is a condition in which the number of neutrophils in the bloodstream is decreased
serum
The clear liquid that can be separated from clotted blood. it differs from plasma, the liquid portion of normal unclotted blood containing the red and white cells and platelets
thrombosis
The formation or presence of a blood clot in a blood vessel. The vessel may be any vein or artery
acute lymphocytic leukemia
A rapidly progressing form of leukemia in which there are too many very young (immature) white blood cells called lymphoblasts in the bloodstream and bone marrow
Apheresis
The process of removing a specific component from blood and returning the remaining components to the donor, in order to collect more of one particular part of the blood than could be separated from a unit of whole blood
coagulation time
the time required for blood to clot in a glass tube; a measure of the intrinsic system of coagulation. In the Lee-White method, blood in test tubes is maintained at a constant temperature and examined regularly until clotting occurs; the test can be also be performed in capillary tubes
bone marrow biopsy
The removal of a sample of bone marrow and a small amount of bone (usually from the hip) through a large needle. Two samples are taken. The first by aspiration (suction with a syringe). The second sample is a core biopsy to obtain bone marrow together with bone fibers
chronic myelogenous leukemia
A chronic malignant disease in which too many white blood cells belonging to the myeloid line of cells are made in the bone marrow
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
is a blood test that detects and is used to monitor inflammation activity. It is measured by recording the rate at which red blood cells (RBCs) sediment in a tube over time. It increases (the RBCs sediment faster) with more inflammation
hematocrit
The proportion of the blood that consists of packed red blood cells. is expressed as a percentage by volume
hemophilia
A group of inherited bleeding disorders in which the ability of blood to clot is impaired
multiple myeloma
"is a type of cancer. Cancer is a group of many related diseases. Myeloma is a cancer that starts in plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. It's the most common type of plasma cell cancer.
sideropenia
an abnormally low level of serum iron
palliative
to treat it partially and insofar as possible, but not cure it completely
pernicious anemia
A blood disorder caused by inadequate vitamin B12 in the blood. Patients who have this disorder do not produce the substance in the stomach that allows the body to absorb vitamin B12
polycythemia vera
"Overproduction (proliferation) of red blood cells due to bone marrow disease (myeloproferative disorder). tends to evolve into acute leukemia or a condition with the marrow replaced by scar tissue (myelofibrosis).
red blood cell morphology
test to check the changes of RBCs,
purpura
A hemorrhagic area in the skin. The area of bleeding within the skin, by definition, is greater than 3 millimeters in diameter
relapse
The return of signs and symptoms of a disease after a patient has enjoyed a remission
remission
Disappearance of the signs and symptoms of cancer or other disease. can be temporary or permanent
thalassemia
Not just one disease but rather a complex series of genetic (inherited) disorders all of which involve underproduction of hemoglobin, the indispensable molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen
erythropoiesis
red blood cell production that occurs in bone marrow and involves maturation of nucleated precursors into erythrocytes regulated by the hormone erythropoietin produced in the kidneys
leukapheresis
a process by which blood is withdrawn from a vein, white blood cells are selectively removed, and the remaining blood is reinfused in the donor. It is a treatment or supportive care measure in patients with leukocytosis R/T leukemia. The white blood cells may be used for treating patients with blood deficiencies or for research
myeloblast
an immature cell found in the bone marrow and not normally in the peripheral blood; it is the most primitive precursor in the granulocytic series, which matures to develop into the promyelocyte and eventually the granular leukocyte
platelet pheresis
the removal of platelets from withdrawn blood; the remainder of the blood being reinfused into the donor
poikilocytosis
an abnormal degree of variation in the shape of the erythrocytes in the blood