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the sentiment that mainstream society could not absorb their (immigrants) large numbers and foreign customs

Quota system

an arrangement placing a limit on the number of immigrants from each country

National origins act

reduced immigration until 1927 to 2 percent of each nationality's representation in the 1890 census; After 1927 (later postponed to 1929) the law set a cap of 150,000 immigrants per year and continued to tie admission into the U.S. to the quota system

The Scopes Trial

"Monkey Trial" that pitted creationism against Darwin's theory of evolution. John T. Scopes


or liberal Protestants, tried to reconcile their religion with Charles Darwin's Theory of evolution and recent technological and scientific discoveries


Darwin's theory that human beings and primates share a common ancestor


insisted upon a literal interpretation of the Bible


involved the power of the state to enforce social values; it gave the decade its reputation as the roaring twenties.


force for repeal began the long process to obtain the necessary votes in Congress and state legislatures to amend the Consitution once more


many American writeres, whether they settled in Paris or remained in the U.S., joined the modernist movement, which had begun before the war as intellectuals reacted with excitement to the cultural and social changes that science, industrialization, and urbanization had brought

Freudian psychology

Movement characterized by "getting into the head" of characters, stream of conciousness, conflict of the sublime and carnal. Associated with Hemingway, Greene, Eliot, etc.;the creative energy of the literary renaissance

Harlem Renaissance

broke with older genteel traditions of black literature to reclaim a cultural identity with African American roots

Universal Negro Improvement Association

the black working class's first mass movement; Under the leadership of the Jamaican born, Marcus Garvey, the UNIA built racial pride; challenged white political and cultural hegemony; and championed black separatism

Marcus Garvey

leader of the UNIA, urged blacks to return to Africa because, he reasoned, blacks would never be treated justly in countries ruled by whites

Election of 1928

Hoover won a stunning victory, receiving 58 percent of the popular vote to Smith's 41 percent and 444 electoral votes to Smith's 87

Alfred E. Smith

Governor of NY; a descendant of Irish immigrants and a product of Tamany Hall

Urban masses

The Democrats were on their way to fashioning a new identity as the party or the urban masses, a reorientation the New Deal would complete in the 1930s

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