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the insulating material which covers many axons is called

myelin sheath

which of the following describes selective permeability

only certain molecules are allowed to cross the membrane freely

afferent neurons carry impulses toward

muscles, glands and the central nervous system

the membrane of a neuron is specialized to

control the exchange of chemicals between inside and outside the cell

glial cells serves as which of the following functions

create myelin sheath, insulate axon and enable the the action potential to travel more quickly down the axon

neurotransmitters are released by which one of these structures

terminal bulbs

neurons are basic units of the nervous system, These cells are designed to be sustained through the process of receiving life support supplies and nutrients through transport systems. Whereas oxygen and water pass through the cell membrane through_____________ transport, other critical substance such as vitamins pass through the cell membrane through ___________transport system


an impulse travels down the cell from the soma to the ________through the terminal buttons


tourett syndrome represents a disorder of both_____________ neurons, or neurons sending impulses to the basal ganglia and _________ neurons, or cells carrying impulses away for the basal ganglia

afferent; efferent

a neuron may have many braches of __________but will have only one _______

dendrite; axon

which of the following is not preformed by neuroglia

producing action potentials

the blood brain barrier enables limited passages of materials across the membranes of a brains capillaries. THis passage may occur via both active and passive transport. Small molecules that can dissolve in fatty membranes are able to cross passively. an example of one these substances is

carbon dioxide and oxygen

when the neuronal membrane is at the rest, the potassium channels:

permit potassium ions to pass slowly

the__________is defined as the difference in the electrical charge between the inside and the axon membrane

membrane potential

the sodium potassium pump transports three_______ions out of the cell while drawing in two_____ions into it


the concentration gradient refers to

the difference in distributions of various ions between the inside and the outside of the membrane

which of the following is true of ion distribution across the neural membrane when the cell is at resting potential

sodium ions are highly concentrated outside the cell

for the cell to become hyperpolarized what need to happen

there has to be an increase in the negative charge internal to the cell

the decrease in the negative charge is


the actions potential of a neuron depends mostly on what movement of ions

sodium ions entering the cell

the concentration gradient for potassium tends to

push potassium out of the cell

the electrical gradient for sodium tends to

pull sodium into the cell

when a neuron reaches the threshold for depolarization

the membrane becomes highly permeable to sodium ions for a brief time

sodium channels in the cell membrane are

voltage sensitive or activated

reverse polarity

increased positive charge internal rather than external aka depolarization

action potentials are

all or none

refractory period

happens immediately after an action potential, where it resists production of another action potential

what happens during a refractory period

sodium channels are closed and potassium channels are traveling out of the cell

the strength of the potential

remains the same

graded potentials are to_________ as actions potentials are to_________

intensity of stimulus; all or none

temporal summation

repeated impulses over a brief period are accumulated

the firing of the postsynaptic neuron relies upon

graded potentials


sodium, depolarization


hyperpolarization, chloride

usually a _________ at the synapse will not be sufficient to create the threshold of excitation

single transmission

spatial summation

means that several inputs converge onto the post synaptic from different locations

neurons create chemicals that serve as


neurotransmitters are synthesized in

terminal vesicles

more than _______ substancces have been identified as NTS


when an actions potential reaches the vesicles the chemical is released

into the synaptic cleft

the chemicals crosses the celft and

attaches to receptor cites on the post synaptic neuron

the second messengers communicates to areas

within the cell

a metabotropic synapse by way of its second messenger

can influence activity in much or all or the post synaptic cell

ionotropic effects

may depolarize or hyperpolarize the postsynaptic membrane

exocytosis is the process by which neurotransmitters are

excerted into the synpatic cleft

which of the following characterizes the ionotropic effects

rapid, long lasting

the basic building blocks for the majority of neurotransmitter are

amino acids

neuropeptides synthesis is to the ________ as other neurotransmitter are to the ___________

soma; axon terminals

which of the following is more typical of a metabotropic effect rather than an ionotropic effect

produces long lasting effects on the post synaptic cell

first messengers are capable of directly __________or ________the post synaptic cell membrane. These ___________effects impact a small area of the postsynaptic cell

depolarize; hyperpolarize; iontropic

the diffusion of a neurotransmitters across the synaptic cleft is a

chemical process

what happens when a neurotransmitter is released by a presynaptic neuron

the neurotransmiter diffuses across the cleft the neurotransmitters undergoes a process of exocytosis

at ionotropic synapses the cell that recives the chemical message

is the presynaptic cell

the only area of the cerebral cortex known to receive input from all sensory modalities is the

frontal lobe

when the post synaptic cells depolarizes ______ ions enter the cell


the central sulcus separates the

frontal and the partial

reuptake is an alternative to which other process

metabolism of neurotransmitters

the presynaptic terminal ordinarily reabsorbs released neurotransmitters through a protein called

a transporter protein

autoreceptors monitor the

amount of neurotransmitters released and are metabotropic receptors

someone who suddenly loses the ability to identify objets by feeling them has probably suffered damange to what area of the cerebral cortex

parietal lobe

chemicals within the body and brain may serve as both neurotransmitters and hormones. Neurotransmitters systems may activate IPSP or EPSP potentials. Hormones activate ___________ and create__________

second messengers; metabotropic

which lobe seems espcially involved in the comprehension of spoken language

temporal lobe

neurons within the cortext are organized in

6 laminae and columnar fashion

the precentral gyrus is also knows as the _________________ and is located in the________________ lobe

primary motor area; frontal


pons, medulla, cerebellum (older)


newer superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, tectum, tegmentum, substantia nigra


most anterior cortical lobes, thalamus,hypoothalmus, pituitary gland, basal ganglia, ventricels, hippocampus, contralateral control

hindbrain controls

life support refelexes

midbrain controls

eye movements aka mesencephalon


pathways for sensory information to communicate


feeding, drinking, temp. sex

basal ganglia

intergated movements-speech




spinal fluid

what structures compose the limbic system

thalmus, hypothalmus, amygdala

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