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40 terms

ch 19 bio

the credit of this goes to gary its just that it wasnt working on mine so I copied the terms and made a new one
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Community
an assemblage of species living close enough together for potential interaction
Species richness
the total number of different species on the community
Species diversity
considers both diversity factors: species richness and relative abundance
Stability
refers to the community's ability to resist change and return to its original species composition after being disturbed
Trophic structure
the feeding relationships among the various species making up the community
Interspecific competition
when populations of two or more species in a community rely on similar limiting sources
Competitive exclusion principle
the concept that populations of two species cannot coexist in a community if their niches are nearly identical
Resource partitioning
differentiation of niches that enables species to coexist in a community
Niche
the sum total of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment
Predation
the interspecific interaction where the consumer is the predator and the food species is the prey (predator adaptations, plant defenses against herbivores, animal defenses against predators)
Cryptic coloration
a passive defense that makes potential prey difficult to spot against its background
Warning coloration
animals with chemical defenses are often brightly colored
Batesian mimicry
a palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model
Mullerian mimicry
two or more unpalatable species resemble each other
Keystone predator
species that reduces the density of the strongest competitorsin a community
Symbiotic relationships
an interaction between two or more species that live together in a direct contact
Disturbances
episodes that damage biological communities, at least temporarily, by destroying organisms and altering the availability of resources such as mineral nutrients and water
Ecological succession
the process of community change
Primary succession
when a community arises in a virtually lifeless area with no soil
Secondary succession
occurs where a disturbance has destroyed an existing commnuity but left the soil intact
Ecosystem
consists of all the organisms in a given area plus the physical environment, including soil, water, and air
Energy flow
the passage of enterthrough the components of the ecosystem
Chemical cycling
the use and reuse of chemical elements such as carbon and nitrogen within the ecosystem
Trophic levels
a level in a food chain
Food chain
the sequence of food transfer from trophic level to trophic level
Food web
a network of interconnecting food chains
Biomass
the amount, or mass,of organic material in an ecosystem
Primary productivity
the rate at which plants and other producers build biomass, or organic matter
Energy pyramid
the cumulative loss of energy from a food chain can be represented in a diagram
Biogeochemical cycles
any of the various chemical circuits occurring in an ecosystem, involving both abiotic and biotic components of the ecosystem
Abiotic reservoir
the part of an ecosystem where a chemical, such as carbon ir nitrogen, accumulates or is stockpiled outside of living organisms
Biome
major types of ecosystems that cover large geographic regions
Tropics
the region from the Tropic of Cancer to the Tropic of Capricorn
Temperate zones
latitudes between the tropics and the Arctic Circle in the north and the Antarctic Cirlcle in the south
Photic zone
the region of an aquatic ecosystem into which light penetrates and where photosynthesis occurs
Aphotic zone
the region of an aquatic ecosystem beneath the photic zone, where light does not penetrate enought for photosynthesis to take place
benthic zone
a seafloor or the bottom of a freshwater lake, pond, river, or stream
Estuary
the area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean
Intertidal zone
the area where land meets sea
Pelagic zone
the open ocean itself