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Module 3 Practice Questions

These are the practice questions for our anatomy and physiology exam module 3.
STUDY
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The percentage of blood volume occupied by erythrocytes is called the ________.
hematocrit
What are the roles of albumin?
carrier to shuttle certain molecules through the circulation...important blood buffer...major blood protein contributing to plasma osmotic pressure
What are the characteristics of a mature erythrocyte?
lack mitochondria, no nucleus, biconclave shape (little doughnuts)...flattened discs with depressed centers...
One molecule of hemoglobin can bind a maximum of _____ oxygen molecules.
four
Erythropoiesis is best defined as:
erythrocyte production...
Erythropoietin is made primarily by the:
kidneys (makes most) [while the liver makes a small amount]
Aging red blood cells are fragmented and trapped in the:
spleen
A patient who lacks intrinsic factor would likely develop:
pernicious anemia...erythrocytes grow, but do not divide due to the fact that B12 cannot be absorbed by the digestive system (p642)
The migration of white blood cells out of the capillary blood vessels is called:
diapedesis
Match the following:
Basophil, Eosinophil, Macrophage, Lymphocyte,
Neutrophil

1.The most numerous type of white blood cell
2.Highly phagocytic cell with a "U" shaped nucleus
3.Bilobed nucleus and dark-staining cytoplasmic granules
4.Small agranulocyte that can live for years
5.Has a role in killing parasitic worms
Neutrophil...Macrophage...Basophil...lymphocyte....Eosinophil


1.The most numerous type of white blood cell
2.Highly phagocytic cell with a "U" shaped nucleus
3.Bilobed nucleus and dark-staining cytoplasmic granules
4.Small agranulocyte that can live for years
5.Has a role in killing parasitic worms
What are the characteristics of basophils?
rarest WBC's; cytoplasm contains large, coarse histamine con't granules...stains purplish black...nucleus bilobed;
What are the characteristics of eosinophils?
2 - 4% of all leukocytes...approx size of neutrophils...deep red nucleus...nucleus resembles telephone receiver...large coarse granules (brick red to crimson staining) pack the cytoplasm...lead counterattack against parasitic worms.."group surround and digest
What are the characteristics of macrophages?
develop from monocytes that leave the blood stream and enter the body tissues...actively phagocytic...defend against (viruses, intracellular bacterial parasites, chronic infections such as tuberculosis)...important in activating lymphocytes
What are the characteristics of lyphocytes?
~>25% or more of WBC pop...second most numerous WBC's in the blood...large dark-purple nucleus that occupies most of the cell volume...nucleus spherical or slightly indented...thin rim of pale blue cytoplasm...mostly in lymph tissues....Tcells and Bcells
What are the characteristics of neutrophils?
most numerous WBC's...50-70% of WBC pop...twice as large as erythrocytes (RBC's)...stains pale lilac...contains very fine granules (2 varieties)...contain hydrolytic enzymes and defensins...nuclei are 3 to 6 lobed (polymorphonuclear)...neutrophils are our body's bacteria slayers (respiratory burst)
Which of the following is considered a lymphocyte?
Neutrophil
Macrophage
B cell
Basophil
B cell
Overproduction of white blood cells is called:
leukemia and/or infectious mononucleosis (p
Platelets are derived from:
megakaryocytes
What is the sequence of homeostasis from start to end in blood clotting?
vascular spasm...platelet plug formation...coagulation (p649)
Which of the following is true regarding the extrinsic pathway of blood clotting?
The extrinsic pathway does not involve calcium ions.
...The extrinsic pathway is triggered by tissue factor.
...The extrinsic pathway is slower than the intrinsic pathway of blood clotting.
The extrinsic pathway is independent of procoagulants.
The extrinsic pathway is triggered by tissue factor. (p650)
Match the following:
Plasmin
Platelet-derived growth factor
Heparin
Thrombin
Prothrombin activator

1.Inhibits coagulation
2.Converts fibrinogen to fibrin
3.Generates thrombin
4.Fibrin-digesting enzyme
5.Stimulates blood vessel healing
Plasmin (4. Fibrin-digesting enzyme)...Platelet-derived growth factor (5. Stimulates blood vessel healing)...Heparin (1.Inhibits coagulation)...Thrombin (2.Converts fibrinogen to fibrin)...Prothrombin activator (3.Generates thrombin)...
A free-floating blood clot is called a thrombus.

True
False
False (It is called an "embolus") (p653)
Blood type is determined by:

antibodies present on the surface of erythrocytes./ glycoproteins present in the plasma./ glycoproteins present on the surface of erythrocytes./
antibodies present in the plasma.
glycoproteins present on the surface of erythrocytes. (p654)
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can develop when an Rh+ woman is pregnant with an Rh- baby.

True
False
True (p655)
Match the following:

Would make antibodies to the A agglutinogen but not the B agglutinogen /
Would make antibodies to the B agglutinogen but not the A agglutinogen /
Would make antibodies to the A and B agglutinogens/
Would have type A and B agglutinogens

1.Person with type B blood
2.Person with type A blood
3.Person with type AB blood
4.Person with type O blood
See Textbook p654, 655 and Table 17.4 p655 Would make antibodies to the A agglutinogen but not the B agglutinogen 1.Person with type B blood /
Would make antibodies to the B agglutinogen but not the A agglutinogen 2.Person with type A blood /
Would make antibodies to the A and B agglutinogens 4.Person with type O blood/ Would have type A and B agglutinogens 3.Person with type AB blood
Choose the true statement about fetal hemoglobin.

Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than does adult hemoglobin.

Fetal hemoglobin is called hemoglobin A.

Fetal hemoglobin contains four alpha chains.

Fetal hemoglobin is produced until the baby is one year old.
Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than does adult hemoglobin.
Match the following:

Increase in number significantly during bacterial infections ...Form a temporary plug at the site of bleeding...Play a critical role in immunity...Differentiate into macrophages...Contain the anticoagulant heparin granules

1.Monocyte
2.Platelets
3.Neutrophils
4.Lymphocyte
5.Basophils
Increase in number significantly during bacterial infections (3. Neutrophils) ...Form a temporary plug at the site of bleeding (2.Platelets)..Play a critical role in immunity (4.Lymphocyte) ...Differentiate into macrophages (1.Monocyte )...Contain the anticoagulant heparin granules 5.Basophils
Match the following:

Have both antigens A and B...
Have the antigen A ...
Have only anti-A antibody...
Have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies...

1.Blood group O
2.Blood group AB
3.Blood group B
4.Blood group A
Have both antigens A and B...2.Blood group AB
Have the antigen A ...4.Blood group A
Have only anti-A antibody... 3.Blood group B Have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies... 1.Blood group O again see Text page 655
Match each of the following functions of blood with the correct example.

Protection

Regulation

Distribution

1. Delivering oxygen from the lungs
2. Maintaining appropriate body temperature
3. Preventing infection
Match each of the following functions of blood with the correct example.

Protection

Regulation

Distribution

1. Delivering oxygen from the lungs
2. Maintaining appropriate body temperature
3. Preventing infection
Match each component of plasma with its description and/or importance.

Electrolytes
Water
Albumin
Non-protein nitrogenous substances
Globulins

1.Ninety percent of plasma volume; dissolving and suspending medium for solutes of blood
2.Produced by liver; exerts osmotic pressure to maintain water balance between blood and tissues
3.Involved in transport of lipids; involved in immune response
4.Byproducts of cellular metabolism (urea, uric acid)
5.Sodium, calcium, potassium, chloride, phosphate, sulfate
Match each component of plasma with its description and/or importance.

Electrolytes
Water
Albumin
Non-protein nitrogenous substances
Globulins

1.Ninety percent of plasma volume; dissolving and suspending medium for solutes of blood
2.Produced by liver; exerts osmotic pressure to maintain water balance between blood and tissues
3.Involved in transport of lipids; involved in immune response
4.Byproducts of cellular metabolism (urea, uric acid)
5.Sodium, calcium, potassium, chloride, phosphate, sulfate
Match the following disorders with the appropriate descriptions.

Hemorrhagic anemias
Sickle-cell anemia
Iron-deficiency anemia
Porphyria
Aplastic anemia

1.Caused by defective synthesis of heme groups and production of nonfunctional hemoglobin molecules
2.Result from bleeding
3.Results from destruction or inhibition of the red marrow by certain bacterial toxins, drugs, and ionizing radiation
4.Can result from inadequate intake of iron-containing foods and impaired iron absorption
5.Caused by abnormal hemoglobin from a change in DNA, resulting in a change in one of the 287 amino acids
Match the following disorders with the appropriate descriptions.

Hemorrhagic anemias
Sickle-cell anemia
Iron-deficiency anemia
Porphyria
Aplastic anemia

1.Caused by defective synthesis of heme groups and production of nonfunctional hemoglobin molecules
2.Result from bleeding
3.Results from destruction or inhibition of the red marrow by certain bacterial toxins, drugs, and ionizing radiation
4.Can result from inadequate intake of iron-containing foods and impaired iron absorption
5.Caused by abnormal hemoglobin from a change in DNA, resulting in a change in one of the 287 amino acids
Match the following types of blood cell formed elements with the appropriate descriptions.

Agranulocytes
Eosinophils
Neutrophils
Platelets
Basophils

1.The most numerous of white blood cells; stain pale lilac since the very fine granules take up both acid and basic stains
2.Their deep red nucleus has two lobes connected by a broad band of nuclear material; large, coarse granules stain red with acid dyes
3.Their cytoplasm contains large, coarse granules that stain purplish-black from basic dyes.
4.Their cytoplasm lacks visible cytoplasmic granules.
5.Not complete cells, but fragments of cells; very small compared to other cellular components
Match the following types of blood cell formed elements with the appropriate descriptions.

Agranulocytes
Eosinophils
Neutrophils
Platelets
Basophils

1.The most numerous of white blood cells; stain pale lilac since the very fine granules take up both acid and basic stains
2.Their deep red nucleus has two lobes connected by a broad band of nuclear material; large, coarse granules stain red with acid dyes
3.Their cytoplasm contains large, coarse granules that stain purplish-black from basic dyes.
4.Their cytoplasm lacks visible cytoplasmic granules.
5.Not complete cells, but fragments of cells; very small compared to other cellular components
Match the following components of the clotting mechanism with the appropriate functions.

Serum
Prothrombin
Thrombin
Von Willebrand factor (VWF)
Tissue factor (TFIII), or tissue thromboplastin

1.Assist platelets to adhere to the collagen fibers
2.Triggers the "shortcut" extrinsic mechanism that bypasses several steps of the intrinsic pathway
3.Inactive form of thrombin
4.Catalyzes conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin strands
5.Plasma minus the clotting proteins
Match the following components of the clotting mechanism with the appropriate functions.

Serum
Prothrombin
Thrombin
Von Willebrand factor (VWF)
Tissue factor (TFIII), or tissue thromboplastin

1.Assist platelets to adhere to the collagen fibers
2.Triggers the "shortcut" extrinsic mechanism that bypasses several steps of the intrinsic pathway
3.Inactive form of thrombin
4.Catalyzes conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin strands
5.Plasma minus the clotting proteins
Match each of the following parts of separated blood with its definition.

Plasma
Hematocrit
Buffy coat

1.Thin white colored area in centrifuged blood that contains WBC and platelets
2.Erythrocyte portion of centrifuged blood
3.The liquid portion of centrifuged blood that sits atop everything else
Match each of the following parts of separated blood with its definition.

Plasma
Hematocrit
Buffy coat

1.Thin white colored area in centrifuged blood that contains WBC and platelets
2.Erythrocyte portion of centrifuged blood
3.The liquid portion of centrifuged blood that sits atop everything else
A healthy adult male has approximately ___ liters of blood.

7-8 /or/
2-3 /or/
3-4 /or/
1-2 /or/
5-6
A healthy adult male has approximately ___ liters of blood.

7-8 /or/
2-3 /or/
3-4 /or/
1-2 /or/
5-6
A major plasma protein that maintains the blood osmotic pressure is:

fibrin.
fibrinogen.
albumin.
globulin.
angiotensinogen.
A major plasma protein that maintains the blood osmotic pressure is:

fibrin.
fibrinogen.
albumin.
globulin.
angiotensinogen.
Diapedesis refers to:

the type of movement erythrocytes use in the tissue spaces...the secretion of chemicals that trigger the inflammatory process....
the engulfing of foreign bodies by leukocytes....
the chemical attraction leukocytes use to reach the site of tissue damage....
the escape of leukocytes from blood vessels into tissue spaces.
Diapedesis refers to:

the type of movement erythrocytes use in the tissue spaces...the secretion of chemicals that trigger the inflammatory process....
the engulfing of foreign bodies by leukocytes....
the chemical attraction leukocytes use to reach the site of tissue damage....
the escape of leukocytes from blood vessels into tissue spaces.
Granulocytes do NOT include:

eosinophils.
basophils.
monocytes.
PMNs.
neutrophils.
Granulocytes do NOT include:

eosinophils.
basophils.
monocytes.
PMNs.
neutrophils.
Mature red blood cells in the circulating blood are filled with:

nuclei and all other cellular organelles.
lysosomes.
hemoglobin molecules.
mitochondria.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
Mature red blood cells in the circulating blood are filled with:

nuclei and all other cellular organelles.
lysosomes.
hemoglobin molecules.
mitochondria.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
Pernicious anemia may result from:

1rupture of red blood cells caused by parasites.
2abnormal production of hemoglobin caused by genetic defect.
3the absence or depressed synthesis of globin chains.
4excessive bleeding.
5the lack of vitamin B12 in diet or deficiency of intrinsic factor needed to absorb B12.
Pernicious anemia may result from:

1rupture of red blood cells caused by parasites.
2abnormal production of hemoglobin caused by genetic defect.
3the absence or depressed synthesis of globin chains.
4excessive bleeding.
5the lack of vitamin B12 in diet or deficiency of intrinsic factor needed to absorb B12.
The final step in clot formation is:

1fibrinogen ? fibrin.
2the release of chemical by platelets.
3platelet plug formation.
4formation of prothrombin activator.
5prothrombin ? thrombin.
The final step in clot formation is:

1fibrinogen ? fibrin.
2the release of chemical by platelets.
3platelet plug formation.
4formation of prothrombin activator.
5prothrombin ? thrombin.
The most numerous leukocyte is the:
The most numerous leukocyte is the:
The terms biconcave and anucleated apply to:

thrombocytes.
leukocytes.
white blood cells.
platelets.
red blood cells.
The terms biconcave and anucleated apply to:

thrombocytes.
leukocytes.
white blood cells.
platelets.
red blood cells.
Which leukocyte(s) contains histamine in its granules?
Which leukocyte(s) contains histamine in its granules?
Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

1Maintaining normal pH in the body
2Delivering oxygen from the lungs to all body tissues
3Maintaining normal body temperature
4Preventing infection
5Transporting hormones from endocrine organs to target tissues
Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

1Maintaining normal pH in the body
2Delivering oxygen from the lungs to all body tissues
3Maintaining normal body temperature
4Preventing infection
5Transporting hormones from endocrine organs to target tissues
Which of the following statements about platelets is INCORRECT?
1Platelets are fragments of a larger cell called a megakaryocyte.
2The life span of platelets is between 30 to 60 days.
3Platelets contain serotonin, ADP, calcium, and PDGF.
4The formation of platelets is regulated by the hormone thrombopoietin.
5Platelets are essential for clotting process.
Which of the following statements about platelets is INCORRECT?
1Platelets are fragments of a larger cell called a megakaryocyte.
2The life span of platelets is between 30 to 60 days.
3Platelets contain serotonin, ADP, calcium, and PDGF.
4The formation of platelets is regulated by the hormone thrombopoietin.
5Platelets are essential for clotting process.
Which property do white blood cells have in common?1WBCs are nucleated and have a protective function.
2All WBCs have a phagocytic function.
3WBCs transport oxygen.
4All WBCs are granulocytes.
Which property do white blood cells have in common?1WBCs are nucleated and have a protective function.
2All WBCs have a phagocytic function.
3WBCs transport oxygen.
4All WBCs are granulocytes.
Individuals with malaria have a better chance of surviving if they have which type of anemia?
1Hemorrhagic anemia
2Sickle-cell anemia
3Athlete's anemia
4Iron-deficiency anemia
5Aplastic anemia
Individuals with malaria have a better chance of surviving if they have which type of anemia?
1Hemorrhagic anemia
2Sickle-cell anemia
3Athlete's anemia
4Iron-deficiency anemia
5Aplastic anemia
Which of the following types of white blood cells kills parasitic worms, destroys antibody complexes, and inactivates some inflammatory chemicals of allergy? Eosinophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Basophils
Neutrophils
Which of the following types of white blood cells kills parasitic worms, destroys antibody complexes, and inactivates some inflammatory chemicals of allergy? Eosinophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Basophils
Neutrophils
Which of the following is a function of neutrophils?
1Release histamine and other mediators of inflammation
2Kill parasitic worms
3Mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies
4Phagocytize bacteria
5Seal small tears in blood vessels
Which of the following is a function of neutrophils?
1Release histamine and other mediators of inflammation
2Kill parasitic worms
3Mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies
4Phagocytize bacteria
5Seal small tears in blood vessels
Which of the following is a function of erythrocytes?1Release histamine
2Phagocytize bacteria
3Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
4Mount immune response
5Kill parasitic worms
Which of the following is a function of erythrocytes?1Release histamine
2Phagocytize bacteria
3Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
4Mount immune response
5Kill parasitic worms
Which of the following is a function of basophils?
1Kill parasites
2Phagocytize bacteria
3Mount immune response
4Transport blood gases
5Release histamine during allergic reaction
Which of the following is a function of basophils?
1Kill parasites
2Phagocytize bacteria
3Mount immune response
4Transport blood gases
5Release histamine during allergic reaction
Which of the following is a function of lymphocytes?
1Maintain body temperature
2Regulate pH
3Carry oxygen
4Produce albumin
5Destruction of virus-containing cells
Which of the following is a function of lymphocytes?
1Maintain body temperature
2Regulate pH
3Carry oxygen
4Produce albumin
5Destruction of virus-containing cells
The percentage of total volume used to determine the number of erythrocytes in a blood sample is referred to as the: 1reticulocyte count.
2ESR
3red blood cell count.
4hematocrit.
The percentage of total volume used to determine the number of erythrocytes in a blood sample is referred to as the: 1reticulocyte count.
2ESR
3red blood cell count.
4hematocrit.
The buffy coat that appears after a sample of blood has been centrifuged contains:

1RBCs.
2WBCs.
3serum.
4plasma.
The buffy coat that appears after a sample of blood has been centrifuged contains:

1RBCs.
2WBCs.
3serum.
4plasma.
Which of the following factors has the greatest effect on making RBCs very efficient oxygen transporters?

1They carry 20% of the carbon dioxide released by tissues back to the lungs.
2They don't contain a nucleus.
3They represent most of the formed elements in the blood.
4They generate ATP by anaerobic mechanisms and do not consume any of the oxygen they carry.
Which of the following factors has the greatest effect on making RBCs very efficient oxygen transporters?

1They carry 20% of the carbon dioxide released by tissues back to the lungs.
2They don't contain a nucleus.
3They represent most of the formed elements in the blood.
4They generate ATP by anaerobic mechanisms and do not consume any of the oxygen they carry.
Another term for reduced hemoglobin is:

1deoxyhemoglobin.
2carbaminohemoglobin.
3oxyhemoglobin.
4hemoglobin S.
Another term for reduced hemoglobin is:

1deoxyhemoglobin.
2carbaminohemoglobin.
3oxyhemoglobin.
4hemoglobin S.
____________ is an illustration of iron deficiency seen in individuals who have expanded their blood by increased activity.

1Sickle-cell anemia
2Microcytic anemia
3Macrocytic anemia
4Athlete's anemia
____________ is an illustration of iron deficiency seen in individuals who have expanded their blood by increased activity.

1Sickle-cell anemia
2Microcytic anemia
3Macrocytic anemia
4Athlete's anemia
The process of actively metabolizing oxygen to produce bleach and hydrogen to kill bacteria is known as:

1amoeboid movement.
2respiratory burst.
3diapedesis.
4chemotaxis.
The process of actively metabolizing oxygen to produce bleach and hydrogen to kill bacteria is known as:

1amoeboid movement.
2respiratory burst.
3diapedesis.
4chemotaxis.
Which of the following substances is responsible for limiting a platelet plug to the immediate area of damage?

1Thromboxane A2
2Adenosine diphosphate
3Serotonin
4Prostacyclin
Which of the following substances is responsible for limiting a platelet plug to the immediate area of damage?

1Thromboxane A2
2Adenosine diphosphate
3Serotonin
4Prostacyclin
Erythroblastosis fetalis is caused by:

1increase in the number of erythrocytes in the newborn.
2loss of blood by the fetus.
3Rh incompatibility between an Rh-negative mother and her Rh-positive baby during pregnancy.
4malfunction of the thymus during fetal development.
Erythroblastosis fetalis is caused by:

1increase in the number of erythrocytes in the newborn.
2loss of blood by the fetus.
3Rh incompatibility between an Rh-negative mother and her Rh-positive baby during pregnancy.
4malfunction of the thymus during fetal development.
Which of the following plasma expanders would be associated with the least complications?

1Human serum albumin
2Hetastarch
3Dextran
4Ringer's solution
Which of the following plasma expanders would be associated with the least complications?

1Human serum albumin
2Hetastarch
3Dextran
4Ringer's solution
Eighty-five percent of Americans carry the ______ Rh agglutinogen on their RBCs.

...C
...K
...E
...D
Eighty-five percent of Americans carry the ______ Rh agglutinogen on their RBCs.

...C
...K
...E
...D
Which antibodies would be found in the serum of a person with AB blood?

1anti-B antibodies
2Neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies
3Both anti-B and anti-A antibodies
4anti-A antibodies
Which antibodies would be found in the serum of a person with AB blood?

1anti-B antibodies
2Neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies
3Both anti-B and anti-A antibodies
4anti-A antibodies
Each hemoglobin molecule has four polypeptide chains: two alpha chains and two beta chains.

True
False
Each hemoglobin molecule has four polypeptide chains: two alpha chains and two beta chains.

True
False
Eosinophils are erythrocytes that fight parasitic infection or allergic reaction.

True
False
Eosinophils are erythrocytes that fight parasitic infection or allergic reaction.

True
False
Hemoglobin serves to transport oxygen, but NOT carbon dioxide.

True
False
Hemoglobin serves to transport oxygen, but NOT carbon dioxide.

True
False
Plasma contains water, proteins, nutrient molecules, and hormones.

True
False
Plasma contains water, proteins, nutrient molecules, and hormones.

True
False
Reticulocytes are sometimes found in circulating blood and are filled with hemoglobin and some ribosomes.

True
False
Reticulocytes are sometimes found in circulating blood and are filled with hemoglobin and some ribosomes.

True
False
The buffy coat in centrifuged blood contains RBC and platelets.

True
False
The buffy coat in centrifuged blood contains RBC and platelets.

True
False
The RBC count in both men and women is between 5.1 and 5.8 million per microliter of blood.

True
False
The RBC count in both men and women is between 5.1 and 5.8 million per microliter of blood.

True
False
Vitamin D is essential for the synthesis of RBC.

True
False
Vitamin D is essential for the synthesis of RBC.

True
False
When oxygen is bound to hemoglobin it becomes oxyhemoglobin.

True
False
When oxygen is bound to hemoglobin it becomes oxyhemoglobin.

True
False
One of the regulatory functions of blood is to maintain normal temperatures in body tissues.

True
False
One of the regulatory functions of blood is to maintain normal temperatures in body tissues.

True
False
The most abundant component of plasma is protein.

True
False
The most abundant component of plasma is protein.

True
False
Formed elements of blood include erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.

True
False
Formed elements of blood include erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.

True
False
Hemoglobin is the protein that makes red blood cells red.

True
False
Hemoglobin is the protein that makes red blood cells red.

True
False
Blood cell formation is referred to as hemostasis.

True
False
Blood cell formation is referred to as hemostasis.

True
False
Dissolved proteins are an important part of blood clotting.

True
False
Dissolved proteins are an important part of blood clotting.

True
False
Blood is NOT important in the regulation of the body's pH.

True
False
Blood is NOT important in the regulation of the body's pH.

True
False
Which of the following is not a role of the pericardium?

1It anchors the heart to surrounding structures.
2It facilitates heart contraction.
3It prevents overfilling of the heart with blood.
4It protects the heart.
Which of the following is not a role of the pericardium?

1It anchors the heart to surrounding structures.
2It facilitates heart contraction.
3It prevents overfilling of the heart with blood.
4It protects the heart.
The lining of the heart chambers is called the:

1endocardium.
2epicardium.
3myocardium.
4pericardium.
The lining of the heart chambers is called the:

1endocardium.
2epicardium.
3myocardium.
4pericardium.
The superior chambers of the heart are called the:

1ventricles.
2superior sulci.
3atria.
4coronary chambers.
The superior chambers of the heart are called the:

1ventricles.
2superior sulci.
3atria.
4coronary chambers.
Freshly oxygenated blood is delivered to the _____ and then it passes into the _______, to be pumped to the entire body.

1right ventricle; right atrium
2right atrium; right ventricle
3left ventricle; left atrium
4left atrium; left ventricle
Freshly oxygenated blood is delivered to the _____ and then it passes into the _______, to be pumped to the entire body.

1right ventricle; right atrium
2right atrium; right ventricle
3left ventricle; left atrium
4left atrium; left ventricle
Into which chamber of the heart do the pulmonary veins deliver blood?

1Right atrium
2Left atrium
3Left ventricle
4Right ventricle
Into which chamber of the heart do the pulmonary veins deliver blood?

1Right atrium
2Left atrium
3Left ventricle
4Right ventricle
Match the following:

Anterior interventricular artery
Circumflex artery
Right marginal artery
Posterior interventricular artery

1.Supplies blood to the right side of the myocardium
2.Runs to the apex of the heart
3.Supplies blood to the interventricular septum and anterior walls of both ventricles
4.Supplies blood to the left atrium and posterior walls of the left ventricle
Match the following:

Anterior interventricular artery
Circumflex artery
Right marginal artery
Posterior interventricular artery

1.Supplies blood to the right side of the myocardium
2.Runs to the apex of the heart
3.Supplies blood to the interventricular septum and anterior walls of both ventricles
4.Supplies blood to the left atrium and posterior walls of the left ventricle
The most muscular chamber of the heart is the ________.

1right ventricle
2left atrium
3right atrium
4left ventricle
The most muscular chamber of the heart is the ________.

1right ventricle
2left atrium
3right atrium
4left ventricle
Match the following:

Mitral valve
Aortic semilunar valve
Tricuspid valve
Pulmonary semilunar valve

1.Valve between the right atrium and right ventricle
2.Valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
3.Gatekeeper to systemic circuit
4.Prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle
Match the following:

Mitral valve
Aortic semilunar valve
Tricuspid valve
Pulmonary semilunar valve

1.Valve between the right atrium and right ventricle
2.Valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
3.Gatekeeper to systemic circuit
4.Prevents backflow of blood into the right ventricle
Which of the following is a difference between cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle?

Unlike skeletal muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells can be autorhythmic.
/ Unlike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle is not striated.
/ Unlike skeletal muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells do not rely on an influx of calcium ions for depolarization.
/ Unlike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle does not use a sliding filament mechanism for contraction.
Which of the following is a difference between cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle?

Unlike skeletal muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells can be autorhythmic.
/ Unlike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle is not striated.
/ Unlike skeletal muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells do not rely on an influx of calcium ions for depolarization.
/ Unlike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle does not use a sliding filament mechanism for contraction.
The role of the atrioventricular node (AV node) is to:

initiate a sinus rhythm.
/ initiate ventricular depolarization.
/ conduct impulses to the sinoatrial node (SA node).
/ slow down impulses so that the atria can contract to fill the adjacent ventricles with blood.
The role of the atrioventricular node (AV node) is to:

initiate a sinus rhythm.
/ initiate ventricular depolarization.
/ conduct impulses to the sinoatrial node (SA node).
/ slow down impulses so that the atria can contract to fill the adjacent ventricles with blood.
Which is correctly paired?

Fibrillation: premature contraction
/ Arrhythmia: AV node failure
/ Ectopic focus: an abnormal pacemaker
/ Heart block: uncoordinated atrial and ventricular contraction
Which is correctly paired?

Fibrillation: premature contraction
/ Arrhythmia: AV node failure
/ Ectopic focus: an abnormal pacemaker
/ Heart block: uncoordinated atrial and ventricular contraction
The P wave of an electrocardiogram represents:

ventricular repolarization.
/ atrial repolarization.
/ atrial depolarization.
/ ventricular depolarization.
The P wave of an electrocardiogram represents:

ventricular repolarization.
/ atrial repolarization.
/ atrial depolarization.
/ ventricular depolarization.
The second heart sound (the 'dup' of 'lub-dup') is caused by:

opening of the semilunar valves.
/ opening of the atrioventricular valves.
/ closure of the atrioventricular valves.
/ closure of the semilunar valves.
The second heart sound (the 'dup' of 'lub-dup') is caused by:

opening of the semilunar valves.
/ opening of the atrioventricular valves.
/ closure of the atrioventricular valves.
/ closure of the semilunar valves.
Match the following:

/ Diastole
/ Cardiac output
/ Stroke volume
/ Cardiac cycle
/ Systole

1.The events associated with blood flow through the heart during one complete heartbeat
2.Contraction
3.Relaxation
4.The volume of blood pumped by one ventricle with each heartbeat
5.The amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute
Match the following:

/ Diastole
/ Cardiac output
/ Stroke volume
/ Cardiac cycle
/ Systole

1.The events associated with blood flow through the heart during one complete heartbeat
2.Contraction
3.Relaxation
4.The volume of blood pumped by one ventricle with each heartbeat
5.The amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute
Which of the following would lead to a decrease in heart rate?

Parasympathetic stimulation
/ Sharply decreased blood volume
/ Exercise
/ Norepinephrine
Which of the following would lead to a decrease in heart rate?

Parasympathetic stimulation
/ Sharply decreased blood volume
/ Exercise
/ Norepinephrine
In the fetus, blood from the left and right sides of the heart normally mix.

True
False
In the fetus, blood from the left and right sides of the heart normally mix.

True
False
Match the following:

/ Ventricular repolarization
/ A slower depolarizing pacemaker
/ Ventricular depolarization
/ Atrial depolarization
/ A faster depolarizing pacemaker

1.P wave
2.QRS complex
3.T wave
4.SA node
5.AV node
Match the following:

/ Ventricular repolarization
/ A slower depolarizing pacemaker
/ Ventricular depolarization
/ Atrial depolarization
/ A faster depolarizing pacemaker

1.P wave
2.QRS complex
3.T wave
4.SA node
5.AV node
Match the following:

The right ventricle sends blood into this vessel
/ Brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper body to right atrium
/ The left ventricle sends blood into this vessel
/ Brings oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
/ Brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower body to right atrium

1.Pulmonary veins
2.Pulmonary trunk
3.Inferior vena cava
4.Superior vena cava
5.Aorta
Match the following:

The right ventricle sends blood into this vessel
/ Brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper body to right atrium
/ The left ventricle sends blood into this vessel
/ Brings oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
/ Brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower body to right atrium

1.Pulmonary veins
2.Pulmonary trunk
3.Inferior vena cava
4.Superior vena cava
5.Aorta
Match the following structure with its description.

/ Epicardium
/ Serous pericardium
/ Fibrous pericardium
/ Endocardium
/ Myocardium

1.Loosely fitting superficial part of the sac enclosing the heart
2.Thin, slippery, two-layer membrane
3.Inner layer of pericardium (called the visceral layer)
4.Middle layer of the heart, composed mainly of cardiac muscle
5.Glistening white sheet of endothelium lining the heart
Match the following structure with its description.

/ Epicardium
/ Serous pericardium
/ Fibrous pericardium
/ Endocardium
/ Myocardium

1.Loosely fitting superficial part of the sac enclosing the heart
2.Thin, slippery, two-layer membrane
3.Inner layer of pericardium (called the visceral layer)
4.Middle layer of the heart, composed mainly of cardiac muscle
5.Glistening white sheet of endothelium lining the heart
Match each area of the heart with the structure from which it receives blood.
/ Coronary artery
/ Right atrium
/ Right ventricle
/ Left ventricle
/ Left atrium

1.Vena cavae
2.Right atrium
3.Pulmonary veins
4.Left atrium
5.Aorta
Match each area of the heart with the structure from which it receives blood.
/ Coronary artery
/ Right atrium
/ Right ventricle
/ Left ventricle
/ Left atrium

1.Vena cavae
2.Right atrium
3.Pulmonary veins
4.Left atrium
5.Aorta
Indicate the valve separating the following areas of the heart.
/ Left atrium and left ventricle
/ Right atrium and right ventricle
/ Left ventricle and aorta
/ Right ventricle and pulmonary artery

1.Bicuspid (mitral) valve
2.Aortic semilunar valve
3.Tricuspid valve
4.Pulmonary semilunar valve
Indicate the valve separating the following areas of the heart.
/ Left atrium and left ventricle
/ Right atrium and right ventricle
/ Left ventricle and aorta
/ Right ventricle and pulmonary artery

1.Bicuspid (mitral) valve
2.Aortic semilunar valve
3.Tricuspid valve
4.Pulmonary semilunar valve
Match each area of the heart with the "exit" through which the blood leaves.

/ Right ventricle
/ Right atrium
/ Left ventricle
/ Left atrium

1.Tricuspid valve
2.Pulmonary semilunar valve
3.Bicuspid valve
4.Aortic semilunar valve
Match each area of the heart with the "exit" through which the blood leaves.

/ Right ventricle
/ Right atrium
/ Left ventricle
/ Left atrium

1.Tricuspid valve
2.Pulmonary semilunar valve
3.Bicuspid valve
4.Aortic semilunar valve
Match each of the following vessels with the correct "destination."

Pulmonary artery
/ Aorta
/ Pulmonary veins
/ Coronary artery
/ Superior vena cava

1.Right atrium
2.Left atrium
3.The "body"
4.The lungs
5.Myocardium
Match each of the following vessels with the correct "destination."

Pulmonary artery
/ Aorta
/ Pulmonary veins
/ Coronary artery
/ Superior vena cava

1.Right atrium
2.Left atrium
3.The "body"
4.The lungs
5.Myocardium
Match each of the following terms with its definition.

ESV
/ CO
/ EDV
/ SV
/ HR

1.Amount of blood ejected by one contraction of the heart
2.Amount of blood in the ventricle at the end of relaxation
3.Amount of blood in the ventricle at the end of contraction
4.The amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute
5.The frequency at which the heart beats
Match each of the following terms with its definition.

ESV
/ CO
/ EDV
/ SV
/ HR

1.Amount of blood ejected by one contraction of the heart
2.Amount of blood in the ventricle at the end of relaxation
3.Amount of blood in the ventricle at the end of contraction
4.The amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute
5.The frequency at which the heart beats
Cardiac output is:

/ the amount of blood pumped out of each ventricle in one minute.
/ the amount of blood pumped out of the heart during every ventricular contraction.
/ the number of impulses fired by the SA node in one minute.
/ the number of times the heart beats in one minute.
/ the amount of blood filling each ventricle at the end of diastole.
Cardiac output is:

/ the amount of blood pumped out of each ventricle in one minute.
/ the amount of blood pumped out of the heart during every ventricular contraction.
/ the number of impulses fired by the SA node in one minute.
/ the number of times the heart beats in one minute.
/ the amount of blood filling each ventricle at the end of diastole.
Choose the correct sequence of current flow through the heart wall.

/ AV node, SA node, Purkinje fibers, AV bundle of His, right and left bundle branches
/ SA node, AV node, AV bundle of His, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
/ Purkinje fibers, AV node, AV bundle of His, right and left bundle branches, SA node
/ SA node, Purkinje fibers, AV node, AV bundle of His, right and left bundle branches
/ AV node, Purkinje fibers, AV node, AV bundle of His, right and left bundle branches
Choose the correct sequence of current flow through the heart wall.

/ AV node, SA node, Purkinje fibers, AV bundle of His, right and left bundle branches
/ SA node, AV node, AV bundle of His, right and left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers
/ Purkinje fibers, AV node, AV bundle of His, right and left bundle branches, SA node
/ SA node, Purkinje fibers, AV node, AV bundle of His, right and left bundle branches
/ AV node, Purkinje fibers, AV node, AV bundle of His, right and left bundle branches
During pulmonary circulation blood leaves the:

/ right atrium and goes directly to the left ventricle.
/ right ventricle and goes directly to the aorta.
/ left ventricle and moves to the lungs.
/ right atrium and goes directly to the lungs.
/ right ventricle and moves to the lungs.
During pulmonary circulation blood leaves the:

/ right atrium and goes directly to the left ventricle.
/ right ventricle and goes directly to the aorta.
/ left ventricle and moves to the lungs.
/ right atrium and goes directly to the lungs.
/ right ventricle and moves to the lungs.
During systemic circulation blood leaves the:

/ right ventricle and goes directly to the aorta.
/ left ventricle and goes directly to the aorta.
/ right atrium and goes directly to the lungs.
/ lungs and moves to the left atrium.
/ right ventricle and moves to the lungs.
During systemic circulation blood leaves the:

/ right ventricle and goes directly to the aorta.
/ left ventricle and goes directly to the aorta.
/ right atrium and goes directly to the lungs.
/ lungs and moves to the left atrium.
/ right ventricle and moves to the lungs.
Identify the correct sequence of blood flow through the chambers of the heart.

/ Lungs, right ventricle, left ventricle, right atrium, left atrium
/ Right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, left atrium, left ventricle
/ Right ventricle, left ventricle, left atrium, lungs, right atrium
/ Left atrium, left ventricle, right ventricle, right atrium, and lungs
/ Left ventricle, left atrium, lungs, right ventricle, right atrium
Identify the correct sequence of blood flow through the chambers of the heart.

/ Lungs, right ventricle, left ventricle, right atrium, left atrium
/ Right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, left atrium, left ventricle
/ Right ventricle, left ventricle, left atrium, lungs, right atrium
/ Left atrium, left ventricle, right ventricle, right atrium, and lungs
/ Left ventricle, left atrium, lungs, right ventricle, right atrium
The absolute refractory period refers to the time during which:

/ the muscle cell is not in a position to respond to a stimulus of any strength.
/ the muscle cell is ready to respond to a threshold stimulus.
/ a cardiac muscle cannot respond to any stimulus and lasts only 1 to 2 milliseconds.
/ a skeletal muscle cannot respond to any stimulus and lasts about 250 milliseconds.
/ the muscle cell is ready to respond to any stimulus.
The absolute refractory period refers to the time during which:

/ the muscle cell is not in a position to respond to a stimulus of any strength.
/ the muscle cell is ready to respond to a threshold stimulus.
/ a cardiac muscle cannot respond to any stimulus and lasts only 1 to 2 milliseconds.
/ a skeletal muscle cannot respond to any stimulus and lasts about 250 milliseconds.
/ the muscle cell is ready to respond to any stimulus.
The cardiac cycle includes all of the following events, except:

/ the number of times the heart beats in one minute.
/ the changes in blood volume in all chambers of the heart.
/ the movement of impulse from the SA node to all regions of the heart wall.
/ the changes in pressure gradients in all chambers of the heart.
/ the closing and opening of the heart valves during each heart beat.
The cardiac cycle includes all of the following events, except:

/ the number of times the heart beats in one minute.
/ the changes in blood volume in all chambers of the heart.
/ the movement of impulse from the SA node to all regions of the heart wall.
/ the changes in pressure gradients in all chambers of the heart.
/ the closing and opening of the heart valves during each heart beat.
The coronary arteries arise from the:

/ inferior vena cava.
/ right atrium.
/ aorta.
/ superior vena cava.
/ pulmonary trunk.
The coronary arteries arise from the:

/ inferior vena cava.
/ right atrium.
/ aorta.
/ superior vena cava.
/ pulmonary trunk.
The endocardium is composed of:

/ simple columnar epithelium.
/ stratified squamous epithelium.
/ cardiac muscle cells.
/ simple squamous epithelium.
/ simple cuboidal epithelium.
The endocardium is composed of:

/ simple columnar epithelium.
/ stratified squamous epithelium.
/ cardiac muscle cells.
/ simple squamous epithelium.
/ simple cuboidal epithelium.
The inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower regions of the body and empties into the:

/ right atrium.
/ left ventricle.
/ aorta.
/ right ventricle.
/ left atrium.
The inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower regions of the body and empties into the:

/ right atrium.
/ left ventricle.
/ aorta.
/ right ventricle.
/ left atrium.
The inner lining of the fibrous pericardium is formed by the:

/ diaphragm.
/ pericardial cavity.
/ parietal layer of serous pericardium.
/ epicardium.
/ myocardium.
/ endocardium.
The inner lining of the fibrous pericardium is formed by the:

/ diaphragm.
/ pericardial cavity.
/ parietal layer of serous pericardium.
/ epicardium.
/ myocardium.
/ endocardium.
The interventricular septum forms a dividing wall between the:

/ right ventricle and left atrium.
/ left atrium and left ventricle.
/ right atrium and right ventricle.
/ left atrium and right atrium.
/ left and right ventricles.
The interventricular septum forms a dividing wall between the:

/ right ventricle and left atrium.
/ left atrium and left ventricle.
/ right atrium and right ventricle.
/ left atrium and right atrium.
/ left and right ventricles.
The pacemaker of the heart is the:

/ Purkinje fibers.
/ Bundle of His.
/ the bundle branches.
/ AV node.
/ SA node.
The pacemaker of the heart is the:

/ Purkinje fibers.
/ Bundle of His.
/ the bundle branches.
/ AV node.
/ SA node.
The tricuspid valve is located between the:

/ right and left atria.
/ right atrium and right ventricle.
/ right ventricle and the aorta.
/ left atrium and left ventricle.
/ right and left ventricles.
The tricuspid valve is located between the:

/ right and left atria.
/ right atrium and right ventricle.
/ right ventricle and the aorta.
/ left atrium and left ventricle.
/ right and left ventricles.
When the mitral valve closes, it prevents the backflow of blood from the:

/ right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk.
/ left ventricle into the aorta.
/ left ventricle into the left atrium.
/ right atrium into the right ventricle.
/ left atrium into the left ventricle.
When the mitral valve closes, it prevents the backflow of blood from the:

/ right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk.
/ left ventricle into the aorta.
/ left ventricle into the left atrium.
/ right atrium into the right ventricle.
/ left atrium into the left ventricle.
Which is the correct sequence of layers in the heart wall, starting with the outer layer?

/ Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
/ Endocardium, smooth muscle, epicardium
/ Parietal pericardium, myocardium, endocardium
/ Endocardium, epicardium, myocardium
/ Myocardium, pericardium, endocardium
Which is the correct sequence of layers in the heart wall, starting with the outer layer?

/ Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
/ Endocardium, smooth muscle, epicardium
/ Parietal pericardium, myocardium, endocardium
/ Endocardium, epicardium, myocardium
/ Myocardium, pericardium, endocardium
Which of the following statements is NOT true about the shape, position, and location of the heart?

/ The heart is shaped like a cone, with the base facing the right shoulder.
/ The heart is enclosed in a double-layered sac called the pleural membrane.
/ The heart is located between the two lungs within the mediastinum.
/ Approximately two-thirds of the heart is found to the left of the midline.
Which of the following statements is NOT true about the shape, position, and location of the heart?

/ The heart is shaped like a cone, with the base facing the right shoulder.
/ The heart is enclosed in a double-layered sac called the pleural membrane.
/ The heart is located between the two lungs within the mediastinum.
/ Approximately two-thirds of the heart is found to the left of the midline.
The vessels that carry oxygen to the myocardial cells are called:

/ aortic arteries.
/ pulmonary veins.
/ coronary arteries.
/ coronary veins.
/ pulmonary arteries.
The vessels that carry oxygen to the myocardial cells are called:

/ aortic arteries.
/ pulmonary veins.
/ coronary arteries.
/ coronary veins.
/ pulmonary arteries.
The cells of the myocardium behave as a single, coordinated unit called a:

/ pacemaker.
/ contractile unit.
/ cardiac cycle.
/ functional syncytium.
/ sarcomere.
The cells of the myocardium behave as a single, coordinated unit called a:

/ pacemaker.
/ contractile unit.
/ cardiac cycle.
/ functional syncytium.
/ sarcomere.
The ability of some cardiac muscle cells to initiate their own depolarization and cause depolarization of the rest of the heart is called:

/ automaticity.
/ the absolute refractory period.
/ a functional syncytium.
/ fibrillation.
/ an action potential.
The ability of some cardiac muscle cells to initiate their own depolarization and cause depolarization of the rest of the heart is called:

/ automaticity.
/ the absolute refractory period.
/ a functional syncytium.
/ fibrillation.
/ an action potential.
Guided by powerful signaling molecules, the human heart develops from:

/ mesoderm.
/ endoderm.
Guided by powerful signaling molecules, the human heart develops from:

/ mesoderm.
/ endoderm.
Which of the following structures lies on the outside surface of the heart and is an integral part of the cardiac wall?

/ the parietal layer of serous pericardium
/ The fibrous pericardium
/ the pericardial sac
/ the epicardium
Which of the following structures lies on the outside surface of the heart and is an integral part of the cardiac wall?

/ the parietal layer of serous pericardium
/ The fibrous pericardium
/ the pericardial sac
/ the epicardium
The trabeculae carneae are located in the:

/ endocardium.
/ ventricles.
/ atrium.
/ epicardium.
The trabeculae carneae are located in the:

/ endocardium.
/ ventricles.
/ atrium.
/ epicardium.
What part of the heart is considered the systemic circuit pump?

/ The left atrium
/ The right ventricle
/ The left ventricle
/ The right atrium
What part of the heart is considered the systemic circuit pump?

/ The left atrium
/ The right ventricle
/ The left ventricle
/ The right atrium
The __________ are attached to the AV valve flaps.

/ chordae tendineae.
/ pectinate muscles.
/ papillary muscles.
/ trabeculae carneae.
The __________ are attached to the AV valve flaps.

/ chordae tendineae.
/ pectinate muscles.
/ papillary muscles.
/ trabeculae carneae.
Which of the following valves is most often faulty in the heart?

/ The pulmonary semilunar valve
/ The tricuspid valve
/ The mitral, or bicuspid, valve
/ The aortic semilunar valve
Which of the following valves is most often faulty in the heart?

/ The pulmonary semilunar valve
/ The tricuspid valve
/ The mitral, or bicuspid, valve
/ The aortic semilunar valve
Which of the following factors gives the myocardium its high resistance to fatigue?

/ A very large number of mitochondrion in the cytoplasm
/ the coronary circulation
/ Gap junctions
/ The presence of intercalated discs
Which of the following factors gives the myocardium its high resistance to fatigue?

/ A very large number of mitochondrion in the cytoplasm
/ the coronary circulation
/ Gap junctions
/ The presence of intercalated discs
The _________ nerve carries parasympathetic fibers to the SA node.

/ facial
/ vagus
/ accessory
/ hypoglossal
The _________ nerve carries parasympathetic fibers to the SA node.

/ facial
/ vagus
/ accessory
/ hypoglossal
An enlarged R wave on an ECG would indicate:

/ cardiac ischemia.
/ a myocardial infarction.
/ repolarization abnormalities.
/ an enlarged ventricle.
An enlarged R wave on an ECG would indicate:

/ cardiac ischemia.
/ a myocardial infarction.
/ repolarization abnormalities.
/ an enlarged ventricle.
A doctor puts his stethoscope on a patient's chest over the location of the heart and hears a swishing sound. Which of the following conditions is the best diagnosis for the patient's condition?

/ Cardiac tamponade
/ Incompetent cardiac valve
/ Angina pectoris
/ Myocardial infarction
A doctor puts his stethoscope on a patient's chest over the location of the heart and hears a swishing sound. Which of the following conditions is the best diagnosis for the patient's condition?

/ Cardiac tamponade
/ Incompetent cardiac valve
/ Angina pectoris
/ Myocardial infarction
An ECG measures the contraction of the atria and the ventricles.

True
False
An ECG measures the contraction of the atria and the ventricles.

True
False
Both gap junctions and desmosomes are found within intercalated discs.

True
False
Both gap junctions and desmosomes are found within intercalated discs.

True
False
Pericardial fluid is found in the space between the visceral and parietal layers of the pericardium.

True
False
Pericardial fluid is found in the space between the visceral and parietal layers of the pericardium.

True
False
The AV node is the pacemaker of the heart.

True
False
The AV node is the pacemaker of the heart.

True
False
The contraction of the ventricles precedes the QRS complex.

True
False
The contraction of the ventricles precedes the QRS complex.

True
False
The first heart sound is produced by the closure of the atrioventricular valves.

True
False
The first heart sound is produced by the closure of the atrioventricular valves.

True
False
The myocardium is the thickest layer in the wall of the heart.

True
False
The myocardium is the thickest layer in the wall of the heart.

True
False
The right and the left coronary sinuses supply oxygenated blood to the wall of the heart.

True
False
The right and the left coronary sinuses supply oxygenated blood to the wall of the heart.

True
False
The superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and the coronary sinus empty into the left atrium.

True
False
The superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and the coronary sinus empty into the left atrium.

True
False
Ventricular fibrillation is a condition of rapid and irregular contractions of the ventricles.

True
False
Ventricular fibrillation is a condition of rapid and irregular contractions of the ventricles.

True
False
The "discharging" chambers of the heart are the ventricles.

True
False
The "discharging" chambers of the heart are the ventricles.

True
False
The blood vessels that carry blood to and from the body tissues form the pulmonary circuit.

True
False
The blood vessels that carry blood to and from the body tissues form the pulmonary circuit.

True
False
The aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood into the associated ventricles.

True
False
The aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves prevent backflow of blood into the associated ventricles.

True
False
Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle each time the heart beats.

True
False
Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle each time the heart beats.

True
False
When the ventricles are in systole, the atria are in diastole.

True
False
When the ventricles are in systole, the atria are in diastole.

True
False
The vessel layer that has a direct role in vasoconstriction is the:

/ tunica intima.
/ tunica externa.
/ tunica media.
/ endothelium.
The vessel layer that has a direct role in vasoconstriction is the:

/ tunica intima.
/ tunica externa.
/ tunica media.
/ endothelium.
Blood flows directly from _____ into capillary beds.

/ elastic arteries
/ arterioles
/ muscular arteries
/ venules
Blood flows directly from _____ into capillary beds.

/ elastic arteries
/ arterioles
/ muscular arteries
/ venules
The vessels that exhibit the lowest level of permeability are the:

/ sinusoidal capillaries.
/ capillaries found in the kidney.
/ fenestrated capillaries.
/ continuous capillaries.
The vessels that exhibit the lowest level of permeability are the:

/ sinusoidal capillaries.
/ capillaries found in the kidney.
/ fenestrated capillaries.
/ continuous capillaries.
When would the capillary beds surrounding the gastrointestinal organs be open?

/ While sleeping
/ During exercise
/ Between meals
/ During a meal
When would the capillary beds surrounding the gastrointestinal organs be open?

/ While sleeping
/ During exercise
/ Between meals
/ During a meal
Baroreceptors are effective in long-term regulation of blood pressure.

True
False
Baroreceptors are effective in long-term regulation of blood pressure.

True
False
Which of the following is true when comparing arteries and veins?

/ Arteries have valves; veins do not.
/ Arteries are less muscular than veins.
/ Arteries carry blood away from the heart; veins carry blood to the heart.
/ At any given time, there is more blood present in arteries than in veins.
Which of the following is true when comparing arteries and veins?

/ Arteries have valves; veins do not.
/ Arteries are less muscular than veins.
/ Arteries carry blood away from the heart; veins carry blood to the heart.
/ At any given time, there is more blood present in arteries than in veins.
Blood flow would be increased by:

/ increasing cardiac output.
/ decreasing blood pressure.
/ decreasing vessel diameter.
/ increasing blood vessel length.
Blood flow would be increased by:

/ increasing cardiac output.
/ decreasing blood pressure.
/ decreasing vessel diameter.
/ increasing blood vessel length.
Match the following:

/ Pulse pressure
/ Diastolic pressure
/ Mean arterial pressure
/ Systolic pressure

1.Peak of aortic pressure
2.Lowest level of aortic pressure
3.The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
4.Pressure that propels blood to the tissues
Match the following:

/ Pulse pressure
/ Diastolic pressure
/ Mean arterial pressure
/ Systolic pressure

1.Peak of aortic pressure
2.Lowest level of aortic pressure
3.The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
4.Pressure that propels blood to the tissues
Which of the following acts on the kidneys to raise blood pressure?

/ Atrial natriuretic peptide
/ Angiotensin II
/ Epinephrine
/ Antidiuretic hormone
Which of the following acts on the kidneys to raise blood pressure?

/ Atrial natriuretic peptide
/ Angiotensin II
/ Epinephrine
/ Antidiuretic hormone
Hypertension is defined physiologically as a condition of sustained arterial pressure of ______ or higher.

...140/90
...130/90
...130/80
...120/80
Hypertension is defined physiologically as a condition of sustained arterial pressure of ______ or higher.

...140/90
...130/90
...130/80
...120/80
If the net filtration pressure (NFP) is positive, then fluid is reabsorbed into the blood.

True
False
If the net filtration pressure (NFP) is positive, then fluid is reabsorbed into the blood.

True
False
Which of the following would experience increasedblood flow during exercise?

/ Brain
/ Kidneys
/ Skin
/ Intestines
Which of the following would experience increasedblood flow during exercise?

/ Brain
/ Kidneys
/ Skin
/ Intestines
Fluids would be likely to leave or filter out of the capillary if:

...osmotic pressure (OP) in the capillary is high.
...net hydrostatic pressure (HP) is greater than net osmotic pressure (OP).
...net filtration pressure (NFP) is negative.
...net hydrostatic pressure (HP) is less than net osmotic pressure (OP).
Fluids would be likely to leave or filter out of the capillary if:

...osmotic pressure (OP) in the capillary is high.
...net hydrostatic pressure (HP) is greater than net osmotic pressure (OP).
...net filtration pressure (NFP) is negative.
...net hydrostatic pressure (HP) is less than net osmotic pressure (OP).
Cardiogenic shock is most likely to result from:

...multiple heart attacks.
...large-scale blood loss.
...a severe bacterial infection.
...a systemic allergic reaction.
Cardiogenic shock is most likely to result from:

...multiple heart attacks.
...large-scale blood loss.
...a severe bacterial infection.
...a systemic allergic reaction.
Blood flows from the lungs to the _________ via the ___________.

...right atrium; pulmonary arteries
...left atrium; pulmonary arteries
...left atrium; pulmonary veins
...right atrium; pulmonary veins
Blood flows from the lungs to the _________ via the ___________.

...right atrium; pulmonary arteries
...left atrium; pulmonary arteries
...left atrium; pulmonary veins
...right atrium; pulmonary veins
Blood from the brain is returned to the heart via the:

...inferior vena cava.
...abdominal aorta.
...superior vena cava.
...thoracic aorta.
Blood from the brain is returned to the heart via the:

...inferior vena cava.
...abdominal aorta.
...superior vena cava.
...thoracic aorta.
The hepatic portal system collects blood from the ______ and then routes it to the ______.

...liver; kidneys
...kidneys; liver
...GI tract; liver
...liver; GI tract
The hepatic portal system collects blood from the ______ and then routes it to the ______.

...liver; kidneys
...kidneys; liver
...GI tract; liver
...liver; GI tract
Match the following:

...Nitric oxide
...Angiotensin II
...Stretch of vascular smooth muscle
...Sympathetic impulses

1.Metabolic control of blood flow
2.Myogenic control of blood flow
3.Nervous system control of blood flow
4.Hormonal control of blood flow
Match the following:

...Nitric oxide
...Angiotensin II
...Stretch of vascular smooth muscle
...Sympathetic impulses

1.Metabolic control of blood flow
2.Myogenic control of blood flow
3.Nervous system control of blood flow
4.Hormonal control of blood flow
Match the following:

...Brings oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
...Brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower body to right atrium
...Brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper body to right atrium
...The right ventricle sends blood into this vessel
...The left ventricle sends blood into this vessel

1.Pulmonary veins
2.Pulmonary trunk
3.Inferior vena cava
4.Superior vena cava
5.Aorta
Match the following:

...Brings oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
...Brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower body to right atrium
...Brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper body to right atrium
...The right ventricle sends blood into this vessel
...The left ventricle sends blood into this vessel

1.Pulmonary veins
2.Pulmonary trunk
3.Inferior vena cava
4.Superior vena cava
5.Aorta
Match the following blood vessel layers with their descriptions.

...Tunica media
...Tunica interna (tunica intima)
...Tunica externa (tunica adventitia)
...Vessel lumen

1.Composed largely of loosely woven collagen fibers that protect and reinforce the vessel
2.Contains the endothelium (made of simple squamous epithelium)
3.Mostly circularly arranged smooth muscle cells and sheets of elastin
4.Blood-containing space in the center of the vessel
Match the following blood vessel layers with their descriptions.

...Tunica media
...Tunica interna (tunica intima)
...Tunica externa (tunica adventitia)
...Vessel lumen

1.Composed largely of loosely woven collagen fibers that protect and reinforce the vessel
2.Contains the endothelium (made of simple squamous epithelium)
3.Mostly circularly arranged smooth muscle cells and sheets of elastin
4.Blood-containing space in the center of the vessel
Match each of the following areas of a blood vessel with its function.

...Tunica externa
...Tunica interna
...Tunica media
...Vessel lumen

1.Protects and reinforces the vessel; anchors it to surrounding structures
2.Capable of undergoing vasoconstriction or vasodilation to influence blood flow and blood pressure
3.Its flat cells fit closely together to form a slick surface that minimizes friction as blood moves through
4.Provides a space for blood to travel through vessel
Match each of the following areas of a blood vessel with its function.

...Tunica externa
...Tunica interna
...Tunica media
...Vessel lumen

1.Protects and reinforces the vessel; anchors it to surrounding structures
2.Capable of undergoing vasoconstriction or vasodilation to influence blood flow and blood pressure
3.Its flat cells fit closely together to form a slick surface that minimizes friction as blood moves through
4.Provides a space for blood to travel through vessel
Match the following types of vessels with their structures.

...Venules
...Veins
...Elastic arteries
...Muscular arteries
...Capillaries
...Arterioles

1.Thick-walled large arteries near the heart that conduct blood continuously away from the heart
2.Smaller arteries that distribute blood to specific body organs
3.Smallest of the arteries that lead into capillary beds
4.Smallest blood vessels with thin walls that allow exchange between blood and tissue cells
5.Smallest veins leading away from capillaries
6.Contain valves to assist blood flow back toward heart
Match the following types of vessels with their structures.

...Venules
...Veins
...Elastic arteries
...Muscular arteries
...Capillaries
...Arterioles

1.Thick-walled large arteries near the heart that conduct blood continuously away from the heart
2.Smaller arteries that distribute blood to specific body organs
3.Smallest of the arteries that lead into capillary beds
4.Smallest blood vessels with thin walls that allow exchange between blood and tissue cells
5.Smallest veins leading away from capillaries
6.Contain valves to assist blood flow back toward heart
Match each of the following terms with its description.

...Blood viscosity
...Blood pressure
...Total blood vessel length
...Blood flow
...Resistance

1.The volume of blood flowing through a vessel, an organ, or the entire circulation in a given period
2.The force per unit area exerted on a vessel wall by the contained blood
3.Opposition to flow (a measure of the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes through the vessels)
4.A source of resistance related to the thickness, or "stickiness," of the blood
5.A source of resistance related to distance blood has to travel through layers of fat to reach a destination
Match each of the following terms with its description.

...Blood viscosity
...Blood pressure
...Total blood vessel length
...Blood flow
...Resistance

1.The volume of blood flowing through a vessel, an organ, or the entire circulation in a given period
2.The force per unit area exerted on a vessel wall by the contained blood
3.Opposition to flow (a measure of the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes through the vessels)
4.A source of resistance related to the thickness, or "stickiness," of the blood
5.A source of resistance related to distance blood has to travel through layers of fat to reach a destination
Match the following vessels of the pulmonary circuit with the appropriate descriptions.

...Pulmonary arterioles
...Pulmonary veins
...Pulmonary venules
...Pulmonary capillaries
...Pulmonary artery

1.First vessel leaving the pulmonary side of the heart to carry blood to the lungs
2.Branches of pulmonary arteries; structurally like veins and venules, with thin walls and large lumens
3.Area of exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
4.Smallest veins; collect blood from capillaries as it flows back toward heart
5.Two from each lung carry blood into the left atrium
Match the following vessels of the pulmonary circuit with the appropriate descriptions.

...Pulmonary arterioles
...Pulmonary veins
...Pulmonary venules
...Pulmonary capillaries
...Pulmonary artery

1.First vessel leaving the pulmonary side of the heart to carry blood to the lungs
2.Branches of pulmonary arteries; structurally like veins and venules, with thin walls and large lumens
3.Area of exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
4.Smallest veins; collect blood from capillaries as it flows back toward heart
5.Two from each lung carry blood into the left atrium
Match the following vessels of the systemic circuit with the appropriate descriptions.

...Left subclavian artery
...Brachial artery
...Coronary arteries
...Brachiocephalic trunk
...Common carotid arteries

1.Muscular artery traveling near the humerus bone
2.Third major branch of the aortic arch
3.First major branch of the aortic arch
4.The only branches of the ascending aorta
5.Supply most of the blood to the head
Match the following vessels of the systemic circuit with the appropriate descriptions.

...Left subclavian artery
...Brachial artery
...Coronary arteries
...Brachiocephalic trunk
...Common carotid arteries

1.Muscular artery traveling near the humerus bone
2.Third major branch of the aortic arch
3.First major branch of the aortic arch
4.The only branches of the ascending aorta
5.Supply most of the blood to the head
During pulmonary circulation blood leaves the:

...right atrium and goes directly to the left ventricle.
...left ventricle and moves to the lungs.
...right ventricle and goes directly to the aorta.
...right atrium and goes directly to the lungs.
...right ventricle and moves to the lungs.
During pulmonary circulation blood leaves the:

...right atrium and goes directly to the left ventricle.
...left ventricle and moves to the lungs.
...right ventricle and goes directly to the aorta.
...right atrium and goes directly to the lungs.
...right ventricle and moves to the lungs.
During systemic circulation blood leaves the:

...right ventricle and moves to the lungs.
...right ventricle and goes directly to the aorta.
...right atrium and goes directly to the lungs.
...left ventricle and goes directly to the aorta.
...lungs and moves to the left atrium.
During systemic circulation blood leaves the:

...right ventricle and moves to the lungs.
...right ventricle and goes directly to the aorta.
...right atrium and goes directly to the lungs.
...left ventricle and goes directly to the aorta.
...lungs and moves to the left atrium.
The endothelium is composed of:

...tunica media muscle cells.
...simple columnar epithelium.
...stratified squamous epithelium.
...simple squamous epithelium.
...simple cuboidal epithelium.
The endothelium is composed of:

...tunica media muscle cells.
...simple columnar epithelium.
...stratified squamous epithelium.
...simple squamous epithelium.
...simple cuboidal epithelium.
The inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower regions of the body and empties into the:

...aorta.
...right atrium.
...left ventricle.
...left atrium.
...right ventricle.
The inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower regions of the body and empties into the:

...aorta.
...right atrium.
...left ventricle.
...left atrium.
...right ventricle.
Which is the correct sequence of layers in the vessel wall from outside to inside? ...Tunica interna, tunica externa, tunica media ...Tunica externa, tunica media, tunica interna ...Tunica interna, tunica externa, tunica media ...Tunica media, tunica interna, tunica externa ...It varies from vessel to vessel.
Which is the correct sequence of layers in the vessel wall from outside to inside? ...Tunica interna, tunica externa, tunica media ...Tunica externa, tunica media, tunica interna ...Tunica interna, tunica externa, tunica media ...Tunica media, tunica interna, tunica externa ...It varies from vessel to vessel.
The major long-term mechanism of blood pressure control is provided by the:

...the heart.
...paravertebral ganglia.
...kidneys.
...the digestive tract.
...the lungs.
The major long-term mechanism of blood pressure control is provided by the:

...the heart.
...paravertebral ganglia.
...kidneys.
...the digestive tract.
...the lungs.
Exchange of gases and nutrients occurs by diffusion between the:

...capillaries and tissue cells.
...arterioles and tissue cells.
...arteries and veins.
...arterioles and venules.
...artery walls and tissue cells.
Exchange of gases and nutrients occurs by diffusion between the:

...capillaries and tissue cells.
...arterioles and tissue cells.
...arteries and veins.
...arterioles and venules.
...artery walls and tissue cells.
Any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally is called:

...varicose veins.
...hypertension.
...arteriosclerosis.
...circulatory shock.
...atherosclerosis.
Any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally is called:

...varicose veins.
...hypertension.
...arteriosclerosis.
...circulatory shock.
...atherosclerosis.
Reduction in lumen diameter of a blood vessel as the smooth muscle contracts is known as:

...arteriosclerosis.
...atherosclerosis.
...vasodilation.
...vasoconstriction.
...varicose veins.
Reduction in lumen diameter of a blood vessel as the smooth muscle contracts is known as:

...arteriosclerosis.
...atherosclerosis.
...vasodilation.
...vasoconstriction.
...varicose veins.
The only vessels that provide direct access to nearly every cell in the body are the:

...arterioles.
...venules.
...arteries.
...capillaries.
...veins.
The only vessels that provide direct access to nearly every cell in the body are the:

...arterioles.
...venules.
...arteries.
...capillaries.
...veins.
Which of the following regulates blood flow at the entrance to each true capillary?

...Tunica externa
...Precapillary sphincter
...Lymph nodes
...Tunica interna
...Valves
Which of the following regulates blood flow at the entrance to each true capillary?

...Tunica externa
...Precapillary sphincter
...Lymph nodes
...Tunica interna
...Valves
Loss of vasomotor tone resulting in a huge drop in peripheral resistance is known as:

...atherosclerosis.
...vascular shock.
...varicose veins.
...hypertension.
...vasoconstriction.
Loss of vasomotor tone resulting in a huge drop in peripheral resistance is known as:

...atherosclerosis.
...vascular shock.
...varicose veins.
...hypertension.
...vasoconstriction.
Which of the following arteries branches to form the common hepatic artery, left gastric artery, and splenic artery?

...Superior mesenteric artery
...Gonadal arteries
...Descending aorta
...Inferior mesenteric artery
...Celiac trunk
Which of the following arteries branches to form the common hepatic artery, left gastric artery, and splenic artery?

...Superior mesenteric artery
...Gonadal arteries
...Descending aorta
...Inferior mesenteric artery
...Celiac trunk
Which of the following veins is the longest in the body?

...Superior vena cava
...Femoral vein
...Inferior vena cava
...Great saphenous vein
...Hepatic portal vein
Which of the following veins is the longest in the body?

...Superior vena cava
...Femoral vein
...Inferior vena cava
...Great saphenous vein
...Hepatic portal vein
Which of the layers of an artery wall is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system and many hormones?

...Outer layer
...Subendothelial layer
...Middle layer
...Inner layer
Which of the layers of an artery wall is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system and many hormones?

...Outer layer
...Subendothelial layer
...Middle layer
...Inner layer
Which of the following types of blood vessels have the thickest tunica media of all vessels?

...Vasa vasorum
...Distributing arteries
...Elastic arteries
...Arterioles
Which of the following types of blood vessels have the thickest tunica media of all vessels?

...Vasa vasorum
...Distributing arteries
...Elastic arteries
...Arterioles
_____________ can compete with plasminogen but cannot dissolve clots and may contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.

...Foamy macrophages
...Cytomegalovirus
...Cholesterol
...Lipoprotein (a)
_____________ can compete with plasminogen but cannot dissolve clots and may contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.

...Foamy macrophages
...Cytomegalovirus
...Cholesterol
...Lipoprotein (a)
The minute-to-minute blood flow through the capillary beds is determined by the:

...amount of elastic fibers in conducting arteries.
...diameter of arterioles.
...constriction of elastic arteries.
...elastic lamina on both sides of the tunica media in muscular arteries.
The minute-to-minute blood flow through the capillary beds is determined by the:

...amount of elastic fibers in conducting arteries.
...diameter of arterioles.
...constriction of elastic arteries.
...elastic lamina on both sides of the tunica media in muscular arteries.
The presence of ___________ stabilizes the wall of capillaries.

...elastic fibers
...pericytes
...smooth muscle
...Valves
The presence of ___________ stabilizes the wall of capillaries.

...elastic fibers
...pericytes
...smooth muscle
...Valves
All but which of the following blood vessels contain intercellular clefts?

...Continuous capillaries
...Arterioles
...Fenestrated capillaries
...Sinusoidal capillaries
All but which of the following blood vessels contain intercellular clefts?

...Continuous capillaries
...Arterioles
...Fenestrated capillaries
...Sinusoidal capillaries
The flow of blood from an arteriole to a venule is called the:

...hepatoportal circulation.
...microcirculation.
...systemic circulation.
...pulmonary circulation.
The flow of blood from an arteriole to a venule is called the:

...hepatoportal circulation.
...microcirculation.
...systemic circulation.
...pulmonary circulation.
A metarteriole is a vessel that:

...thoroughfare channel.
...drains the capillary bed.
...intermediate between the arteriole and the capillary bed.
...is intermediate between a capillary and a venule.
A metarteriole is a vessel that:

...thoroughfare channel.
...drains the capillary bed.
...intermediate between the arteriole and the capillary bed.
...is intermediate between a capillary and a venule.
Which of the following conditions would NOT increase the chances of developing varicose veins?

...Standing to attention for long periods of time
...Pregnancy
...Running in place
...A potbelly in an obese person
Which of the following conditions would NOT increase the chances of developing varicose veins?

...Standing to attention for long periods of time
...Pregnancy
...Running in place
...A potbelly in an obese person
Up to 65% of the body's blood supply is found in:

...arterioles.
...veins.
...arteries.
...capillaries.
Up to 65% of the body's blood supply is found in:

...arterioles.
...veins.
...arteries.
...capillaries.
All of the following are examples of sinuses, except:

...venous sinuses.
...dural sinuses.
...capillary sinuses.
...coronary sinuses.
All of the following are examples of sinuses, except:

...venous sinuses.
...dural sinuses.
...capillary sinuses.
...coronary sinuses.
Most neural controls of blood pressure involve input from baroreceptors, which are sensitive to:

...the level of carbon dioxide in the blood.
...the level of oxygen in the blood.
...constriction of capillary beds.
...to changes in blood pressure.
Most neural controls of blood pressure involve input from baroreceptors, which are sensitive to:

...the level of carbon dioxide in the blood.
...the level of oxygen in the blood.
...constriction of capillary beds.
...to changes in blood pressure.
An elastic lamina on both sides of the tunica media is a characteristic of:

...all arteries.
...elastic arteries.
...conducting arteries.
...muscular arteries.
An elastic lamina on both sides of the tunica media is a characteristic of:

...all arteries.
...elastic arteries.
...conducting arteries.
...muscular arteries.
Which of the following blood vessels is the most susceptible to atherosclerosis?

...The pulmonary arteries
...The femoral artery
...The cerebral arteries
...The aorta
Which of the following blood vessels is the most susceptible to atherosclerosis?

...The pulmonary arteries
...The femoral artery
...The cerebral arteries
...The aorta
Which of the following is the major force generating blood flow?

...Pumping action of the heart
...Total blood vessel length
...Blood viscosity
...Peripheral resistance
...Blood vessel diameter
Which of the following is the major force generating blood flow?

...Pumping action of the heart
...Total blood vessel length
...Blood viscosity
...Peripheral resistance
...Blood vessel diameter
Blood enters the myocardium of the heart by coronary vessels that originate from the:

...pulmonary veins.
...aorta.
...superior vena cava.
...pulmonary artery.
...inside of the ventricles.
Blood enters the myocardium of the heart by coronary vessels that originate from the:

...pulmonary veins.
...aorta.
...superior vena cava.
...pulmonary artery.
...inside of the ventricles.
The superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and the coronary sinus empty into the left atrium.

True
False
The superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and the coronary sinus empty into the left atrium.

True
False
Blood pressure in capillaries is lower than in arterioles.

True
False
Blood pressure in capillaries is lower than in arterioles.

True
False
Hypotension is commonly called high blood pressure.

True
False
Hypotension is commonly called high blood pressure.

True
False
The heart produces a hormone called atrial natriuretic peptide that causes blood volume and blood pressure to decline.

True
False
The heart produces a hormone called atrial natriuretic peptide that causes blood volume and blood pressure to decline.

True
False
Orthostatic hypotension causes blood pressure to rise by increasing effects of ADH.

True
False
Orthostatic hypotension causes blood pressure to rise by increasing effects of ADH.

True
False
Atherosclerosis begins in youth but seldom causes noticeable problems until middle to old age.

True
False
Atherosclerosis begins in youth but seldom causes noticeable problems until middle to old age.

True
False
The most important factor in regulation of blood pressure is peripheral resistance.

True
False
The most important factor in regulation of blood pressure is peripheral resistance.

True
False
The vertebral artery supplies the brain with blood.

True
False
The vertebral artery supplies the brain with blood.

True
False