30th president (1923-1929).
After Harding, before Hoover.
Assumed office following Harding's death.
Immigration Act, 1924 This law excluded the immigration of Japanese citizens to the U.S. and favored the immigration of northern Europeans over other nationalities.
Commercial Aviation The Air Commerce Act placed civil aviation under the commerce department and approved the first two commercial air routes---Transcontinental Airway and Southwestern Airway.
Kellogg-Briand Pact Under this act, fifteen different countries agreed to renounce war as a means of settling international dispute. Eventually, forty-seven additional nations agreed to the pact,which is also known as the Pact of Paris, or the Pact of Peace.
During his term, Charles Lindbergh made his famous flight.
While he was in office, the Ku Klux Klan exceeded 4 million members.
Very quiet: "You lose." -- Calvin Coolidge, responding to a woman who claimed that she could make him say more than two words.
A strong supporter of business, he encouraged speculation that led to a stock market boom in the 1920s, followed by economic collapse.
25th president (1897-1901).
After Cleveland, before T. Roosevelt.
Annexation of Hawaii Under this act, Hawaii was annexed, in July of 1898, to the United States of America.
Spanish-American War, 1898 A combination of factors---Cuba struggling for its independence from Spain, reports of Spanish atrocities and exaggerated accounts from the "yellow press"--- led to this two-year war.
Open Door Policy and the Boxer Rebellion, 1899-1900 This policy expressed President McKinley's intention that all nations share the same trade policy with China and sought to removediscriminatory tariffs and other provisions. Chinese nationalists, known as Boxers, rebelled, attempted to seize Peking and killed many western missionaries. The rebellion was quelled through the intervention of international forces.
He was the first president to run a "front porch" campaign-- a campaign limited in travel.
After the Spanish-American War, the United States received the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico from Spain. Cuba became free but was not a United States territory.
He was the third president to be assassinated (shot by Leon Czolgosz). As he was dying, he asked his attendants to be careful of the way they told his wife.
19th president (1877-1881).
After Grant, before Garfield.
Reconstruction Ends, 1877---Hayes ended reconstruction with the withdrawal of the last federal troops from the South. This was as a result of the compromise resulting from the deadlocked presidential of 1876.
Resumption of the Specie Act---First enacted under Grant, this act enforced the redemption of United States dollars tendered after January 1, 1879, with gold.
Civil Service Reform, 1877—Hayes issued an executive order barring all federal employees from taking part in political activities. He pressed for further reforms but they were rejected by Congress.
He was nicknamed "His Fraudulency," because of the alleged "stolen" election of 1876.
His honesty was a source of anger for his political allies.
His wife, Lucy Webb, was the first First Lady to graduate from a college (Wesleyan). She did not allow drinking in the White House and was known as "Lemonade Lucy." Her good humor, intelligence and cheerful spirit made her a popular First Lady.
Truman 33rd president (1945-1953).
After FDR, before Eisenhower.
He assumed office when FDR died.
Fair Deal: Building upon the New Deal legacy of reform, Truman advocated full employment legislation, an increase in the minimum wage, economic assistance for farmers, extension of Social Security, enactment of antidiscrimination employment practices based upon the wartime Fair Employment Practices Committee, and more.
He made the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August 1946), which led to the end of World War II.
G.I. Bill (Servicemen's Readjustment Act)- meant to get rid of women in the workplace and give men back their jobs.
By the late 40s, the economy began doing very well (through the 60s).
Suburbs begin to be very popular ("white flight" and Levittown).
Baby Boom (9 months after war ends).
Truman was the last president without a college education.
He was very stubborn and took the job seriously.
The UN was formed in 1945.
The Cold War began- Berlin airlift (1949) (brinksmanship).
Truman followed Containment Policy (George Kennan).
Truman Doctrine (1947)- any country under threat of Communism (Greece and Turkey) would be aided by U.S.
Marshall Plan (Truman and Marshall)- We would give money to European countries to help them rebuild.
The Dept. of Defense, Secretary of Defense, CIA, and NSA were formed.
In 1948, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was formed and we joined- meant to fight Communism. (USSR formed the Warsaw Pact in response).
Red Scares increase (McCarthy and HUAC).
After his election in 1948, formed Point Four- calling for support of poor, saying it will keep them from becoming Communist.
Korean War: 1950-1953 (MacArthur).
32nd president (1933-1945) (elected 4 times).
After Hoover, before Truman.
During his term, social security tax was passed.
Prohibition was repealed during his administration.
WWII began (1939) during his term, we joined in 1941, and he died two weeks before Germany finally surrendered in World War II.
Lend-Lease was implemented by FDR.
At age 39, he was stricken with infantile paralysis.
He appointed the first woman to a cabinet position---Frances Perkins. She became the Secretary of Labor.
First 100 days in office- did more than many presidents during their entire terms.
His plan was the New Deal and philosophy was based on the 3 Rs (Relief, Recovery, and Reform).
He established many federal programs, etc. to aid in ending the Depression and preventing future ones(FDIC, Bank Holidays, Civilian Conservation Corps, Federal Emergency Relief Act, The Homeowners' Loan Corporation, the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the Civil Works Association, the Works Progress Adinistration, the National Recovery Administration, Federal Securities Act, Security and Exchange Commission, the Public Utility Holding Company Act, the Federal Housing Administration, and Social Security).
He was known as the "Great Communicator"- "Fireside Chats."
He put the country into a lot of debt but succeeded in alleviating the Depression.
Many of his programs were unconstitutional and Congress wouldn't pass them, so FDR tried "court packing" to make the courts more liberal, but he failed.
With his election, the modern liberal Democratic Party was born.
35th president (1961-1963).
After Eisenhower, before Johnson.
He was a decorated naval officer in World War II.
He served exactly 1,000 days in office.
He was the first president born in the 20th century and the youngest president ever elected.
During his term, the Soviets built the Berlin Wall (1961).
During his term, the Cuban missile crisis errupted.
"And so, my fellow Americans: Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country. . ."
He promised we'd be on the moon by the end of the decade- it was the last frontier for us to beat Russia.
Military policy: Flexible Response (Robert McNamara)- don't have a set policy or let Russia know anything, this way they can't figure out how to go around it.
JFK started sending troops to South Vietnam to teach the Vietnamese how to fight, but more and more Americans were sent as they were killed off.
JFK supported civil rights (SNCC, James Meredith at U. of Mississippi) but didn't support the Freedom Riders since he couldn't protect them.
Spring, 1963- MLK started his demonstrations at Birmingham (JFK supported him- said it's a moral issue).
JFK was killed in November, 1963, allegedly by Lee Harvey Oswald (a lot of controversy)- Jack Ruby shot him during his perp walk, then shot himself (seemed to be a conspiracy).
36th president (1963-1969).
After JFK (assumed office following his assassination), before Nixon.
While he was in the White House, the Civil Rights Act, the Voting Rights Act and Medicare were signed into law.
His idol was FDR.
His administration was known as "The Great Society," despite nation-wide anti-war protests.
The Great Society: he couldn't do as much as he wanted since a lot of its money had to be used for Vietnam; however, the Dems. won a lot in 1964 and he got a lot passed- HUD, Department of Transportation, Medicare and Medicaid (biggest successes), Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, Project Headstart, 24th Ammendment (banned poll taxes and discriminating at polls).
In 1965, violent black protest began ("black power")- LBJ felt offended since he had tried hard for civil rights but blacks didn't seem to care- he didn't understand that they had been waiting for 100 years.
During his term, Martin Luther King and Robert F. Kennedy were assassinated.
He nominated Thurgood Marshall to the Supreme Court.
The Vietnam War escalated during his administration (draft began, lots of protest- Senator William Fullbright). For war: war hawks, against: doves.
LBJ had the FBI and CIA begin making files on demonstrators.
LBJ didn't like that so many Americans were dying, but didn't want to lose- 1968, he announced no more troops would be sent in and he wouldn't be running again that year.
27th president (1901-1909).
After McKinley, before Taft.
The Square Deal: Three Cs: control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources.
He wasn't completely opposed to big business, just wanted what was best for the country- dissolved many "bad" trusts (thought there were some good and bad ones).
Assumed office following the assassination of McKinley.
Panama Canal In 1901, the United States received the right to construct, operate and police the canal.
Russo-Japanese WarPresident Roosevelt was helped mediate peace between Russia and Japan over their dispute of possession of Manchuria and Korea. Roosevelt received the Noble Peace Prize for his efforts.
Panic of 1907Several banks and railroads collapsed with the failure of the Knickerbocker Trust Company of New York. To halt further financial decline, President Roosevelt assured U.S. Steelthat the government would not direct antitrust action against its acquisition of the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company.
Oklahoma was admitted to the Union in 1907.
He was the first president to win the Nobel Peace Prize; he was awarded it for the Russo-Japanese Treaty.
In 1903 a stuffed toy bear was given to him which led to the naming of "teddy" bears.
He led the Rough Riders (in Cuba in the Spanish-American War), which were comprised of football players, eastern polo players and cowboys.
Named many state parks (Forest Reserve Act-1891).
Bear story- wouldn't shoot the old bear, but really he just had someone else do it for him since it was beneath him.
37th president (1969-1974).
After Johnson, before Ford.
Barely won the election (mostly because ppl were against LBJ an Vietnam; George Wallace (super-racist and pro-war) got enough votes so that Nixon didn't even have a majority of the vote).
Vietnamization (Nixon Doctrine)- Nixon's plan to slowly withdraw troops from Vietnam and train South Vietnamese to defend themselves.
The American economy went down during the 70s, mainly due to the influx of unskilled workers (women), the mechanics of other countries (Japan) exceeding our own, a shortage of oil in the U.S., the cost of Vietnam, and that the backing by gold ended forever.
1970- Nixon bombed Cambodia then sent troops there when North Vietnamese crossed its border- this upset many Americans (shooting at Kent State).
1971- Senate repealed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution.
Pentagon Papers (Daniel Ellsberg)- exposed lies that JFK and LBJ had told about Vietnam and lessened the country's trust in the government.
1972-Nixon first went to China and strengthened our relationship with it, then went to Russia and pushed that Russia and China weren't as linked as they thought; we set up a trade agreement with Russia and (this paved the way for the SALT Act (1972)- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks- we both started reducing our numbers of missiles for the first time).
He is the first president to have visited all fifty states.
Nixon was liberal for a Republican (expanded Medicare and Medicaid, raised Social Security, sponsored the Philadelphia Plan- unions much have a timetable for becomin integrated in order to get federal contracts; changed affirmative action to representing a group rather than individuals- created the EPA (a result of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring), created OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration- good working conditions), Clean Air Act of 1970, Endangered Species Act of 1973.
Nixon began carpetbombing Vietnam since Russia and China had agreed not to get involved.
January, 1973, there was a ceasefire and we left, the Vietcong took over the entire country (we lost).
Watergate: 5 men working for Republican committee broke into the Democratic committee at the Watergate Hotel and bugged it- Woodward and Bernstein (Washington Post) revealed the scandal.
It was found that Nixon always recorded his conversations, but he denied it and wouldn't hand over the tapes.
Saturday Night Massacre- Nixon went through two people before finding one who will fire his investigator, Archibard Cox- this looked horrible.
July, 1974- House approves article for impeachment for obstructing inestigation- Nixon handed over the tapes, it was found he had a horrible mouth.
Within 3 days, he resigned, Gerald Ford took over and pardoned him.
34th president (1953-1961).
After Truman, before JFK.
VP: Nixon (almost lost his spot and credibility during election b/c it was found that he was receiving a lot of money, he fixed it with the Checkers speech).
He was responsible for the creation of NASA.
To enforce integration, he ordered the National Guard to escort students into the Little Rock High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
"The United States never lost a soldier or a foot of ground in my administration. We kept the peace. People ask how it happened - by God, it didn't just happen, I'll tell you that."
(however, he had been very involved in the army for many years.)
Facilitated peace in Korea by threatening use of nuclear weapons.
He was a great commander and wanted to make everyone happy, but wasn't much of a leader (Macarthy got out of hand).
Unlike Truman, he did little to support black equality in the army, etc.
Used dynamic conservatism: liberal with what people can do, conservative with money- he decreased government spending by decreasing military spending, gave over control of certain businesses to states, curbed certain programs and handed them over to private companies.
Kept many New Deal programs- famous for improving the Interstate Highway Act (he basically built the nation's highways).
Foreign policy: containment isn't enough, should push back Communism and liberate those under it (Sec. of State John Foster Dulles).
Ike refused to get involved in Hungary, Vietnam, or Iran.
1957- Russians launched Sputnik 1.
Space Race begins- Paris Conference, 1959, Ike and Krushev meet, Krushev leaves because of spy U-2 crash.
40th president (1981-1989).
After Carter, before George Bush.
He made a deal with Iran before his election to get back the hostages by selling them weapons, but doesn't have them released until right when he's inaugurated.
He was the oldest man elected president.
He was the first Hollywood actor to be elected president.
He appointed the first woman to the supreme court, Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor.
He sent United States soldiers into Grenada and commanded soldiers into (for peacekeeping between it and Israel) and out of Lebanon (after some of our marines were killed by a suicide bomber- Reagan was popular and noone was blamed).
Iran Contra Scandal- Reagan couldn't keep the money from selling weapons to Iran so gave it to Freedom Riders going to Latin America, he was found out and Oliver North took the blame but noone believed him and Reagan had to go on the stand and said he wasn't sure if he'd ever read the documents from the transactions.
He dedicated the Vietnam Memorial.
He used to be a Democrat but became a conservative Republican.
His plan: the New Right.
He brought the Republican Party back to power, though not in the way he wanted.
His power base: conservative Christians.
Race and affirmative action were big issues- he was against affirmative action.
He believed the federal government should be somewhat uninvolved and was neoconservative- if the wealthy are wealthy, everyone benefits.
He assembled a very good cabinet- except Secretary of the Interior, James Watt, (in charge of the parks, environment, EPA but tried to get around it for a profit), who made a horribly offensive joke in front of the press and had to resign.
He wanted to decrease the size and budget of the government by cutting programs, mostly social programs, but spent a lot on military (developed Star Wars- STI- developing satellites to shoot Russia from- he broke Russia's power with this by getting it to spend more and more money to keep up).
Supplied Side Economics: reduced taxes to make upper and middle classes spend more to boost the economy- he was wrong and accumulated $2 trillion of debt.
He didn't send troops unless it was necessary.
39th president (1977-1981).
After Ford, before Reagan.
He had some trouble winning his election, even though Nixon was very unpopular.
He was very nice and compassionate- dedicated himself to Habitat for Humanity following presidency.
He was the first president to expose the violence in Africa and try to help.
His big success: Camp David Accords, 1978- got Israel to agree to withdraw form territory from war with Egypt, Egypt agreed to respect Israel's land.
He made many mistakes/many bad things happened during his presidency: Many countries were falling to Communism, he signed the Panama Canal treaties (agreed to give up control of the Panamal Canal by 2000- this happened), he believed in UFOs and wanted to be taken to Area 51 to see them- everyone thought he was crazy, his brother was a drunk and got in trouble with the law, he sometimes let things slip- accidentally mentioned a secret agreement with Russia to not touch Cuba, our economy was going down because of our dependence on foreign oil, there was almost a nuclear meldown at 3 Mile Island, by 1979, the Shah in Iran was overthrown by the Ayatollah and Iran cut us off from its oil- Carter responds badly and yelled at Americans on TV for being wasteful and fired 4 cabinet members, he failed to rescue the 50 Americans taken hostage in Iran in 1979 by militants who wanted us to send the Shah back to thay could put him on trial and execute him (our plane crashed in the desert)- the story of the prisoners was on American TV every night from 444 days.
He presided over the creation of the Department of Energy.
He was the first president since 1932 to lose re-election.