Midterm Review

STUDY
PLAY
How many chromosomes are in a human karyotype?
46 (2 sex, 44 autosomal)
How would Down Syndrome be detected on a karyotype?
An extra chromosome on the 21st .
Transcription
Occurs in the Nucleus. DNA is copied into mRNA.
Translation
Occurs in the Ribosome. tRNA and mRNA meet to create an Amino Acid. The code is read from the mRNA!
3 types of RNA
tRNA, rRNA, mRNA
XY chromosome
BOY
XX chromosome
GIRL
Base pair rule of DNA
Adenine pairs with Thymine
Guanine pairs with Cytosine
Purines
Adenine, Guanine
Pyridimines
Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil
Genotype
Letters of various alleles
Phenotype
Physical appearance of alleles
Point Mutation
a mutation involving one nucleotide.
X chromosome
Where most sex-linked genes are located.
Colorblindness
mostly common in males due to the gene being located on the X chromosome and males only receive one X.
Fingerprints
No two people, except identical twins, have exactly the same DNA.
Cell Membrane in a solution
allows water to enter and leave the cell freely.
Phosphate, guanine, cytosine
found in both DNA and RNA
Restriction Enzymes
break apart DNA into smaller fragments.
Erminette-color Chickens
are Codominant
Red Flower + White Flower with Pink Offspring
is an incomplete type of inheritance.
Mendelian Genetics: Genotypes of TT and Tt would produce offspring with
the same Phenotype as the parent plants.
Polygenic Traits
produced by the interaction of several genes (Skin color)
Selective Breeding
produces desired traits in offspring.
A Hypothesis can only be useful if
it can be tested.
Pedigree
Can determine inheritance of a trait, show how a trait is passed on, and determine if its dominant or recessive.
A polygenic trait can have
many possible genotypes, producing many possible phenotypes
Guessing
NOT how scientists work!
Controlled Experiment
allows scientists to isolate and test a single variable.
Diffusion
occurs because molecules constantly move and collide with each other.
Monomer of a Carbohydrate
monosaccharide
Monomer of a Protein
amino acid
Monomer of a Nucleic Acid
Nucleotide
Carbohydrate
glucose, body's main source of energy, short term energy
Lipid
Long term energy
Cellular Respiration: 6 molecules of O2 will give off
6 molecules of Carbon Dioxide.
Photosynthesis Formula
6H2O + 6CO2 + Sunlight = 6O2 +C6H12O6
Cellular Respiration Formula
6O2+ C6H12O6 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + Thermal Energy
Lactic Acid
causes muscle soreness and gives you the "muscle burn"
Robert Hooke
first scientist to identify and see cork cells.
How many ATP are produced in Cellular Respiration?
36 ATP moleucles
Cholorplasts
organelles in plants that contain photosynthetic pigments.
Cholorphyll
a pigment that allows plants to utilize the sun's photons to create food. Found in chloroplast.
Meiosis
Sexual Reproduction.
Mitosis
Somatic Cell division
# of cells from Meiosis
4 genetically different daughter cells
# of cells from Mitosis
2 genetically identical daughter cells
Cell Specialization
refers to cells having different tasks (functions) in an organism.
Autotrophs
Produce their own food. (tree)
Active Transport
requires ENERGY to pass the cell membrane.