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How many chromosomes are in a human karyotype?
46 (2 sex, 44 autosomal)
How would Down Syndrome be detected on a karyotype?
An extra chromosome on the 21st .
Occurs in the Nucleus. DNA is copied into mRNA.
Occurs in the Ribosome. tRNA and mRNA meet to create an Amino Acid. The code is read from the mRNA!
3 types of RNA
tRNA, rRNA, mRNA
Base pair rule of DNA
Adenine pairs with Thymine
Guanine pairs with Cytosine
Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil
Letters of various alleles
Physical appearance of alleles
a mutation involving one nucleotide.
Where most sex-linked genes are located.
mostly common in males due to the gene being located on the X chromosome and males only receive one X.
No two people, except identical twins, have exactly the same DNA.
Cell Membrane in a solution
allows water to enter and leave the cell freely.
Phosphate, guanine, cytosine
found in both DNA and RNA
break apart DNA into smaller fragments.
Red Flower + White Flower with Pink Offspring
is an incomplete type of inheritance.
Mendelian Genetics: Genotypes of TT and Tt would produce offspring with
the same Phenotype as the parent plants.
produced by the interaction of several genes (Skin color)
produces desired traits in offspring.
A Hypothesis can only be useful if
it can be tested.
Can determine inheritance of a trait, show how a trait is passed on, and determine if its dominant or recessive.
A polygenic trait can have
many possible genotypes, producing many possible phenotypes
NOT how scientists work!
allows scientists to isolate and test a single variable.
occurs because molecules constantly move and collide with each other.
Monomer of a Carbohydrate
Monomer of a Protein
Monomer of a Nucleic Acid
glucose, body's main source of energy, short term energy
Long term energy
Cellular Respiration: 6 molecules of O2 will give off
6 molecules of Carbon Dioxide.
6H2O + 6CO2 + Sunlight = 6O2 +C6H12O6
Cellular Respiration Formula
6O2+ C6H12O6 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + Thermal Energy
causes muscle soreness and gives you the "muscle burn"
first scientist to identify and see cork cells.
How many ATP are produced in Cellular Respiration?
36 ATP moleucles
organelles in plants that contain photosynthetic pigments.
a pigment that allows plants to utilize the sun's photons to create food. Found in chloroplast.
Somatic Cell division
# of cells from Meiosis
4 genetically different daughter cells
# of cells from Mitosis
2 genetically identical daughter cells
refers to cells having different tasks (functions) in an organism.
Produce their own food. (tree)
requires ENERGY to pass the cell membrane.
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