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Enlightened Despots and 18th Century Wars
Terms in this set (35)
Frederick II (The Great)
he followed his father, Frederick William's military policies when he came to power. However, he also softened some of his father's laws. With regard to domestic affairs, he encouraged religious toleration and legal reform. According to his theory of government, he believed that a ruler should be like a father to his people.
Reforms Made By Frederick The Great
Invited Voltaire to his court.
Abolished torture (Except treason/mass murder)
Granted limited free speech and press
Religious Toleration (Catholics, Jews, and Turks!)
1770 Prussian Civil Service Commission
Efficient legal system
Abolished serfdom, but no way to enforce it!
Drained swamps, new crops
BUT: taxation is still repressive to peasants
Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst
The original name of Catherine the Great, who was not originally from Russia.
The son of Maria Teresa and a enlightened despot who ruled over the Austrian Empire.
Religious Reforms of Joseph II
"Enlightened Toleration" : Jews, Lutherans, Calvinists have freedom of worship, schools, academic appts., etc but Jews were barred from service and paid special taxes for right to worship
Tighter control over Catholic Church in his realm
Who had his/her reforms revoked after his/her death?
Husband of Catherine the Great, was mentally unstable, and was (most likely) murdered by a group of Russian army officers. Whether or not Catherine was involved in the murder is unknown, but she did benefit by it as she then had the throne to herself., Withdrew from the Seven Year's War because he liked Frederick II of Prussia. This essentially stopped the war.
Catherine the Great
An enlightened despot who ruled over Russia. She is responsible for many positive changes in Russia, as well as securing the country a warm water port.
King of France 1715 - 1774. Became king at age 5
so his regent was the Duke of Orleans. Louis XV was not a good leader, and deferred to his advisers to make decisions. Many mistresses.
John Law's economic folly in France. He tried to restore the economy by giving the debt to the Mississippi company. Then over-speculation of their bonds occurred. The stock rose, and people sold the bonds for paper money. When they tried to exchange the paper money with gold, there was not enough gold to support this, and the economy was destroyed.
South Seas Bubble
Slave trading company of England that led to a state of national debt in the 18th century - similar to the Mississippi Bubble in France.
Lived 1671-1792, was a Scottish economist who was in charge of the financial management of France. Established the Mississippi Company Introduced a paper money supply to France, but when investors tried to trade their stock for gold, France ran out of gold and Law fled the country.
Political/Economic Reforms of Joseph II
Eliminated Death Penalty
Abolished Torture except for Treason
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Queen Anne of England
issued the Act of the Union 1707, which united England and Scotland into the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
King George I
German - did not speak English, very unpopular. Had Robert Walpole as an unofficial "Prime Minister" - the position was not official - in order to handle affairs of state. He was chosen because he was protestant.
Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister (1676-1745). His position was unofficial.
King George II
King of England during the War of Austrian Succession and a few others. Victories for the English. Also continued to have a "Prime Minister" - solidifying the position.
King George III
King of England during the Seven Years War, American Revolution, the Irish Rebellion, and wars against France during the French Revolution and Napoleon's era. The Slave Trade was abolished while he was King. The last several years of his life he was out of the public eye because he was very ill, and perhaps mentally unstable.
"a ruler with absolute power and authority" or "a person exercising power tyrannically"
Absolute ruler who used his or her power to bring about political and social change.
The Soldier King
This is the name for King Frederick William I, distinguished from the Great Elector as now being King of Prussia. He became titled king after helping the Habsburg Emperor in 1701 to defeat King Louis XIV.
Cause of the War of Austrian Succession
(1740-48) Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him. When he died, Frederick II invaded Silesia to take that land, and war ensued.
Allowed lands of HABSBURG EMPIRE to pass to Empress MARIA THERESA, who was not a male heir, changing Hapsburg History.
Sides in the War of Austrian Succession
Prussia and France
Austria and Great Britain
Act of Union
1701 act of Parliament uniting England and Scotland into one kingdom: Great Britain. Intended to strengthen England against France. Abolished the Scottish Parliament.
Sides in the Seven Years War
France and Austria
Great Britain and Prussia
Winners of the Seven Years War
Great Britain and Prussia
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain. France is the big loser.
Troops that served the British East India Company; recruited from various warlike peoples of India. (IN INDIA, not the US)
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
This was the treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession by giving the Prussians land, taking land away from Maria Theresa, but still allowing her to rule.
The time of changing alliances between the war of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War, France allied with Austria and Russia, while Prussia is allied with Great Britain. France and Austria cemented their alliance with a marriage between the future King Louis XVI (16th) and Marie Antoinette.
Who takes control of India after the Seven Years War?
Russian Tsarina who took power in a coup and instituted Enlightenment reforms to continue the work of her father, Tsar Peter I (the Great), like education programs for girls, taxation reforms, sponsoring artistic movements, etc. Found and brought Catherine the Great to Russia before her death.
Partitions of Poland
1772; 1793; 1795, Austria, Russia and Prussia (Poland's neighbors) decided to divide Poland so they wouldn't go to war.
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