Yadon Quarter 3 Literary Terms
Terms in this set (98)
the repetition of identical or similar consonant sounds, normally at the beginnings of words
a reference in a work of literature to something outside the work, especially to a well-known historical or literary event, person, or work
a figure of speech characterized by strongly contrasting words, clauses, sentences, or ideas, as in "Man proposes; God disposes." Antithesis is a balancing of one term against another for emphasis or stylistic effectiveness
a figure of speech in which someone (usually, but not always absent), some abstract quality, or a nonexistent personage is directly addressed as though present
the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds
a four-line stanza rhymed abcd with four feet in lines one and three feet in lines two and four
unrhymed iambic pentameter (commonly used meter in Shakespeare's plays, as well as Milton's Paradise Lost)
a harsh, unpleasant combination of sounds or tones. It may be an unconscious flaw in the poet's music, resulting in harshness of sound or difficulty of articulation, or it may be used consciously for effect
a pause, usually near the middle of a line of verse, usually indicated by the sense of the line, and often greater than the normal pause
an ingenious and fanciful notion or conception, usually expressed through an elaborate analogy, and pointing to a striking parallel between two seemingly dissimilar things. A conceit may be a brief metaphor, but it also may form the framework of an entire poem
the repetition of similar consonant sounds in a group of words. The term usually refers to words in which the ending consonants are the same but the vowels that precede them are different. Consonance is found in the following pairs of words: "add" and "read," "bill" and "ball," and "born" and "burn."
a two-line stanza, usually with end-rhymes the same
devices of sound
the techniques of deploying the sound of words, especially in poetry. Among devices of sound are rhyme, alliteration, assonance, consonance, and onomatopoeia. The device are used for many reasons, including to create a general effect of pleasant or of discordant sound, to imitate another sound, or to reflect a meaning
the use of words in a literary work; may be described as formal, informal, colloquial, or slang
a poem which is intended primarily to teach a lesson. The distinction between didactic poetry and non-didactic poetry is difficult to make and usually involves a subjective judgement of the author's purpose on the part of the critic or the reader
a poem which employs a dramatic form or some element or elements of dramatic techniques as a means of achieving poetic ends (e.g. dramatic monologue)
a sustained and formal poem setting forth the poet's meditations upon death or another solemn theme
a line with a pause at the end. Lines that end with a period, a comma, a colon, a semicolon, an exclamation point, or a question mark are end-stopped lines
the continuation of the sense and grammatical construction from one line of poetry to the next
an implied analogy, or comparison, which is carried throughout a stanza or an entire poem
a style in which combinations of words pleasant to the ear predominate. Its opposite is cacophony.
rhyme that appears correct from spelling, but is half-rhyme or slant-rhyme from the pronunciation (e.g. "watch" and "match," and "love" and "move")
a rhyme of two syllables, one stressed and one unstressed (e.g. "waken" and "forsaken," and "audition" and "rendition"). Sometimes called double rhyme.
writing that uses figures of speech such as metaphor, irony, and simile. Figurative language uses words to mean something other than their literal meaning.
poetry which is not written in a traditional meter but is still rhythmical (e.g. Walt Whitman's poetry)
two end-stopped iambic pentameter lines rhymed aa, bb, cc with the thought usually completed in the two-line unit
a deliberate, extravagant, and often outrageous exaggeration. It may be used for either serious or comic effect (e.g. Macbeth)
the images of a literary work; the sensory details of a work; the figurative language of a work. Has several definitions, but the two that are paramount are the visual auditory, or tactile images evoked by the words of a literary work or the images that figurative language evokes. Some diction is also imagery
the contrast between actual meaning and the suggestion of another meaning. Verbal irony is a figure of speech in which the actual intent is expressed in words which carry the opposite meaning. It is likely to be confused with sarcasm, but it differs from sarcasm in that it is usually lighter, less harsh in its wording though in effect probably more cutting because of its indirectness. Among the devices by which irony is achieved are hyperbole and understatement
rhyme that occurs within a line, rather than at the end
any short poem that presents a single speaker who expresses thoughts and feelings (e.g. love lyrics, religion and reading lyrics, sonnets and odes)
rhyme that falls on the stressed and concluding syllables of the rhyme-words (e.g. "keep" and "sleep," "glow" and "no," and "spell" and "impel")
a figurative use of language in which a comparison is expressed without the use of a comparative term like "as," "like," or "than"
the repetition of a regular rhythmic unit in a line of poetry. the meter of a poem emphasizes the musical quality of the language and often relates directly to the subject matter of the poem. Each unit of meter is known as a foot.
a figure of speech which is characterized by the substitution of a term naming an object closely associated with the word in mind for the word itself (e.g. "crown" associated with kingship/king)
the mingling of one metaphor with another immediately following with which the first is incongruous
a non-dramatic poem which tells a story or presents a narrative, whether simple or complex, long or short (e.g. epics and ballads)
an eight-line stanza, refers to the first division of an Italian sonnet
the use of words whose sound suggests their meaning (e.g. "buzz, hiss, honk, bang, boom, zoom, pow, wham")
a form of paradox that combines a pair of contrary terms into a single expression. This combination usually serves the purpose of shocking the reader into awareness (e.g. "wise fool")
a situation or action or feeling that appears to be contradictory but on inspection turns out to be true or at least to make sense
a similar grammatical structure within a line or lines of poetry. Characteristic of Asian poetry (e.g. Psalms, Walt Whitman)
a restatement of an idea in such a way as to retain the meaning while changing the diction and form. Often an amplification of the original for the purpose of clarity.
a kind of metaphor that gives inanimate objects or abstract ideas human characteristics
a group of syllables in verse usually consisting of one accented syllable and one or two unaccented syllables associated with it
a play on words that are identical or similar in sound but have sharply diverse meanings. Can have serious as well as humorous uses.
a four-line stanza with any combination of rhymes
a group of words forming a phrase or sentence and consisting of one or more lines repeated at intervals in a poem, usually at the end of a stanza
close similarity or identity of sound between accented syllables occupying corresponding positions in two or more lines of verse. Vowels in the accented syllables must be preceded by different consonants, such as "fan" and "ran"
a seven-line stanza of iambic pentameter rhymed ababbcc, used by Chaucer and other medieval poets
the recurrence of stressed and unstressed syllables. The presence of rhythmic patterns lends both pleasure and heightened emotional response to the listener or reader.
a type of irony in which a person appears to be praising something but is actually insulting it. Its purpose is to injure or to hurt.
writing that seeks to arouse a reader's disapproval of an object by ridicule. It is usually a comedy that expresses errors with an eye to correct vice and folly (e.g. poetry of Alexander Pope)
a system for describing the meter of a poem by identifying the number and the type(s) of feet per line (monometer, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa)
a six-line stanza, commonly refers to second division of an Italian sonnet
a directly expressed comparison; a figure of speech comparing two objects, usually with "like, as, than." Comparison is explicit.
normally a fourteen-line iambic pentameter poem. Conventional Italian/Petrarchan sonnet rhymed abba, abba, cde, cde; English/Shakespearean sonnet rhymed abab, cdcd, efef, gg.
usually a repeated grouping of three or more lines with the same meter and rhyme scheme
strategy (or rhetorical strategy)
the management of language for a specific effect; planned placement of elements to achieve an effect. In most love poems it is deployed to convince the loved one to return to the speaker's love.
the arrangement of materials within a work; the relationship of the parts of a work to the whole; the logical divisions of a work (e.g. line and stanza)
the mode of expression in language; the characteristic manner of expression of an author. Many elements contribute to style (e.g. diction, syntax, figurative language, etc.)
something that is simultaneously itself and a sign of something else (e.g. winter, darkness, and cold to represent death)
a form of metaphor which in mentioning a part signifies the whole (e.g. "foot soldiers" for infantry)
the ordering of words into patterns or sentences. If a poet shifts words from the usual word order, you know you are dealing with an older style of poetry or a poet who wants to shift emphasis onto a particular word.
a stanza of three lines in which each line ends with the same rhyme
a three-line stanza aba, bcb cdc, etc. (e.g. Dante's Divine Comedy)
the main thought expressed by a work. In poetry, it is the abstract concept which is made concrete through its representation in person, action, and image in the work.
is a process of analyzing poetry that gives you a formula to work from when you're trying to figure out what a poem means. An excellent way to "cover the bases" (i.e. title, paraphrase, connotation, attitude, shifts, title, theme)
the manner in which an author expresses his or her attitude; the intonation of the voice that expresses meaning. Described by adjectives, and the possibilities are nearly endless. Single adjective is enough. Tone may change from stanza to stanza or line to line
the opposite of hyperbole. A kind of irony that deliberately represents something as being much less than it really is.
a nineteen-line poem divided into five tercets and a final quatrain. Uses only two rhymes which are repeated: aba, aba, aba, aba, aba, abaa (e.g. Dylan Thomas's poem "Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night")
the place at which a distinct turn of thought occurs. Term most commonly used for the characteristic transition point in a sonnet, as between the octave and sestet of a Petrarchan sonnet.
Type of Syntax: very complex and involved sentence structures
Type of Syntax: this sentence places the main idea at the end of the sentence after all the introductory elements
Type of Syntax: this sentence begins with the main idea and then expands with a series of details or other particulars
Type of Syntax: this sentence varies the normal word order. The element that appears first is emphasized more than the subject.
Type of Syntax: arrangement of repeated thought in the pattern of X Y Y X; "shadow:"; opposite of parallelism
a poem, play, or story that emphasizes and celebrates the simple life of shepherds and rural life generally
correspondence between similar sounds at the end of lines of verse or prose or within the lines (internal); "near" or "off" rhymes can form a deliberately off-putting response in the reader
an extended narrative poem, usually in elevated language, and celebrating the feats of a hero, unless used ironically
a 3-line poem, usually about nature (5-7-5)
written in a shape that adds meaning to the poem
a meditation/celebration of a specific subject
use of rhyming words at the ends of lines
rhyming sounds that are similar but not identical
unstressed, stressed (ex: "endure")
stressed, unstressed (ex: "culture")
two short, one long (ex: "at the park")
one long, two short (ex: "difficult")
two unstressed (ex:"to a" or "in a")
two stressed (ex:"faithful")
images that create emotion
the image that carries the weight of the comparison; the object whose attributes are borrowed
the subject; what's getting reimagined by the other part of the metaphor (vehicle); the subject to which attributes are ascribed
abstract ideas/values are personified
the quality of being open to more than one interpretation; inexactness
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