L 14 & 15.1-3 Study Guide ****
Terms in this set (58)
Analogy / Analogous Structures
ANALOGY: Similarity due to convergent evolution. Natural selection produces similar
- Structures of different species having similar or corresponding function but not from the same evolutionary origin.
(Look at Slide 9 of Taxonomy Powerpoint for pic)!
A group of related organisms representing a complete branch of a biological tree.
- A branching diagram showing points of species divergence from a common ancestor without indication as to how far removed species are from each other.
A group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
The evolution of similar traits in different species.
Derived Trait (derived character)
Are those characteristics shared by all members of a branch but not present before the branch (in cladograms).
- Unicellular organisms living in extreme environments
- Lack peptidoglycan cell wall
Prokaryotes, cell wall, autotrophs or heterotrophs.
- Includes ALL pathogenic bacteria as well as non-pathogens in soil & water
Prokaryotes, cell wall made of peptidoglycan, unicellular, autotrophs or heterotrophs.
4 Different types of Eukarya:
A. Protista: Eukaryotes, unicellular or multicellular,
autotrophs or heterotrophs, some have
cell wall, many are microscopic. Ex: Algae
B. Fungi: Eukaryotes, most are multicellular, cell
wall made of chitin, absorb nutrients
through cell wall, immobile. Ex: Molds / Mushrooms
C. Plantae: Eukaryotes, most are multicellular, cell
walls composed of cellulose, photosynthetic, autotrophs. Ex: Ferns.
D. Animalia: Eukaryotes, multicellular, heterotrophs,
most are motile Ex: Mammals, Birds, insects, etc.
Homology / Homologous Structure
- Shared ancestry.
- Used to determine the relative age of appearance of derived character in cladistic analysis.
- Can use nucleotide mutations or mutations in amino acid sequences of proteins.
Includes the most recent common ancestor of the group and all of its descendants.
Includes the most recent common ancestor of the group but not all of its descendants.
Does not include the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group.
A group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
The ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences.
- Universal Classification System helps scientists.
A group of single-celled microorganisms with no nucleus that can live in almost any environment
• Single-celled prokaryotic organisms
• Most smaller than 10 micrometers
• Contain cell walls of a protein and carbohydrate matrix called peptidoglycan
• Structurally different from Archaea or plants
• Do not contain a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
- A virus that infects bacteria.
A form of asexual reproduction in bacteria that results in cell division
- DNA is replicated
- Cell increases in size, splits in two
- Plasma membrane pinches together and a new cell plate forms
- Control of the bacterial cell cycle: growth rates, biochemical signals, and environmental conditions
The protein coat encasing the genetic material of a virus.
• Helical --> Ex) Tobacco mosaic
• Polyhedral --> Ex) Adenovirus
• Enveloped --> Lipid layer from host cell
Energy from oxidation of organic substances.
- Purple Sulfur bacteria
Energy AND carbon from organic molecules
- Include "Decomposers" and "Saprobes" or "Saprotrophs"
Photosynthesis (an organism obtaining energy from sunlight as its source of energy to convert inorganic materials into organic materials)
- Chlorophyll a or Bacteriochlorophyll
- CO2 in; O2 out
- Some use H2S as e- donor with elemental S produced
Use light as energy source.
- Carbon from organic molecules -->Carbohydrates Alcohol
Ex. Purple non-sulfur bacteria
- A DNA exchange in bacteria involving pili and direct cell contact
- Similar to eukaryotic genetic recombination
- Donor bacterium connects to another bacterium using pilus
- DNA is transferred to the recipient cell through pilus
- Aided by proteins
- DNA donated can be a plasmid
- Donated DNA may contain beneficial genes
The process by which genetic material is injected into a cell by a virus.
The genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material (exogenous DNA) from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
Look at slide 14 in chap 15 bacteria powerpoint
A non-reproductive structure that becomes dormant in response to adverse conditions. Can survive for many years. Can regenerate into colonies of active bacteria. One endospore per cell. Contain chromosome and small amount cytoplasm.
A variety of bacterium that requires oxygen for metabolism
A variety of bacterium that does not require oxygen for metabolism
A group of bacteria that are able to use fermentation if oxygen is not available or cellular respiration if oxygen is available.
- Can live with or without oxygen
A group of bacteria that cannot grow in or tolerate the presence of oxygen.
- Can only live in the ABSENCE of O2
In a prokaryote flagella, the flagellum spins, whereas in the eukaryote flagella, the flagellum waves.
A type of viral reproduction where the virus lyses, or breaks open the host cell membrane in order to release the newly replicated viruses
- New viruses leave host cell to infect other nearby cells
- Lysis - viruses burst the cell membrane as they leave
- Results in death of host cell
A type of viral reproduction involving the incorporation of the viral genes into the host cell chromosomes
- Host cell passively becomes genetic viral factory
- Viral genes copied each time cell replicates via mitosis
Anaerobic archaea that uses carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas from the environment to produce methane.
- Removal of carbon dioxide from atmosphere is essential to carbon cycle
• Methane is considered a greenhouse gas
• Increases the greenhouse effect
• Break down organic waste where oxygen is absent
• Naturally occurs in intestinal tract of humans and cows
• Also used in sewage treatment to break down waste
Archaebacteria living in extremely salty enviornments such as the ocean and even in solid salt crystals
A group of archaea that can withstand extreme heat
- Live in boiling water, geysers, deep hydrothermal vents
- Other archaea can survive under conditions of extreme cold, acidity, and salinity
A nuclear region in bacteria where DNA is concentrated
• Plasmids are small circular segments of bacterial DNA
A biological agent that cause disease or illness.
- Droplets in the air
• Direct contact with the bacterium
• On surfaces
• In fluids
• Through contaminated food
All bacteria contain cell walls composed of a protein-and-carbohydrate matrix called peptidoglycan.
A circular segment of bacterial dna.
lack characteristics of living things; expect ability to replicate
Any of a group of RNA viruses that insert a DNA copy of their genome into the host cell in order to replicate
An enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template
infectious particles that are formed when proteins misfold and clump; feeds on crustaceans; affects plants and animals
"Naked" molecules of RNA. Several hundred nucleotides May catalyze destruction of chromosome
infectious particles that affect plants; consists of only nucleic acid without a protein coat
A small infectious agent of genetic material encased in protein
• Not made of cells
• Cannot reproduce on their own
• Cannot metabolize their own energy
• Uses the host cell's energy and machinery to copy itself
• Non-living, not considered biotic
• Not considered microorganisms
• Different structure than cells
• Smaller than cells
• Contain few specialized structures
• Genetic material can be DNA or RNA
• Capsid - the protein coat encasing
Be familiar with binomial nomenclature, the Three Domain system, the Five Kingdom system, levels of classification in order.
Binomial Nomenclature: a method for naming species using two parts, genus and species
• First name is capitalized "genus"
• Second name is lowercase "specific name"
Three Domain System: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya. Introduced by Charles Woose.
Five Kingdom System: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia, Monera.
Picture = Levels of Classification
Know the types of evidence used to arrange/trace phylogeny and the principle of parsimony.
• Fossils and biogeography
• Changes over long periods of time
• Living with extinct species
• Radioactive dating
• Comparing anatomy can indicate common ancestry, Homologous structures suggest similar evolutionary origin
• Biochemistry comparisons, Amino acid sequences of proteins, Nucleotide sequences of DNA and RNA
Know the classification systems associated with Aristotle, Haeckel, Whittaker and Woese.
Aristotle: Greek philosopher who first classified organisms more than 2000 years ago. He categorized living things as plants or animals. Since everything was in Latin, the groups were...Regnum Animalia (Animals) and Regnum Vegetable(plants).
Haeckel: (1800's) Kingdom "Protista" --> Included Atypical Protists, Protozoa, Protophyta. "Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny"
Whittaker: Five Kingdom System
MONERA (Includes Prokaryotes)
Woese: Six Kingdoms
Classified according to Ribosomes
Compare/contrast viruses, viroids & prions.
Look at each definition.
Compare/contrast lytic vs. lysogenic cycles
Look at each definition.
Know the basic structure of a virus, prokaryote
Look at Virus definition.
Prokaryote pic attached. search virus pic on internet.
Reproduction of a retrovirus
Bacterial shapes: spirillum, bacillus, coccus, vibrio
Spirillum: a bacterium with a rigid spiral structure, found in stagnant water and sometimes causing disease.
Bacillus: a disease-causing bacterium, a rod-shaped bacterium.
Coccus: any spherical or roughly spherical bacterium.
Vibrio: A waterborne bacterium of a group that includes some pathogenic kinds that cause cholera, gastroenteritis, and septicemia.