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AP World History Unit 6 Review
Terms in this set (149)
Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Female Citizen
Written by Olympe de Gouges it was basically a rewriting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man to include women.
Belief that people should have the right to rule themselves
Period when 13 colonies gained independence from England. Based on disapproval by colonists of several taxes and other unpopular laws. Protests lead to fighting in 1775, and after two main British armies were captured in 1777 and 1781 and an alliance of the colonists with the French, the Treaty of Paris was signed.
No taxation with out representation
ideas of James Otis and Samuel Adams summed up into a slogan ; this slogan spred through out the colonies ; led by Samuel Adams
The Declaration of Independence
an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were "Free and Independent States" and that "all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved."
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
A document drafted in August 1789 by the National Constituent Assembly. This declaration uphled that all men were "born and remain free and equal in rights" of "liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression." It called for equality of law, education, employment, innocent until proven guilty, and freedom of religion.
Liberty, Fraternity and Equality
The National Motto of France
Central American Federation
split into independant states
A Vindication of the Rights of Women
Mary Wollstonecraft - 1792
radical revolutionary who demanded that women be regarded as citizens, be allowed to own property, equality of the sexes and access to education
Greatest of enlightened philosophers; He was educated by Jesuits, and came to challenge Catholic Church. He believed in distant deistic God - a clockmaker who built an orderly world and let in run under laws of science. He hated religious intolerance and felt that religion suppressed human spirit. He wrote Candide against evils of organized religion. He argued for religious toleration in Treatise on Toleration. His deism was intended to construct a more natural religion based on reason and natural law. He was imprisoned in the Bastille for 11 months in 1717. Then he was exiled in England for 3 years, when he came to admire their system of government and advocated freedom of thought and respect for all. Lived on the court of Frederick the Great of Prussia from 1743, where he supporter Enlightened Despotism.
1st President of the United States
__________ L'Ouverture began the revolt that eventually led to Haitian independence. Haiti becomes the first successful assault on colonial gov't.
Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule
Freed Chile in 1817, Peru in 1821
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
rooted national identity in German folk culture.
Austrian journalist and founder of the Zionist movement urging the creation of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. (p. 760)
Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmonteste king.
Otto Von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)
Acts passed by England to protect its textile industry; prohibited imports of printed cotton cloth and restricted the sale of calicoes at home
a loom operated mechanically, run by water putting the loom side by side wit hthe spinning machines in factories, changed workers job from running it to watching it, Invented in 1787, invented by Edward Cartwright , it speeded up the production of textiles
the first effective locomotive that was developed in 1816 and finished in 1825 which went down the Liverpool and Manchester Railway at 16mph
Putting Out system
system of merchant-capitalists "putting out" raw materials to cottage workers for processing and payment that was fully developed in England
mechanical system in a factory whereby an article is conveyed through sites at which successive operations are performed on it
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age. (p. 606)
Woman in her social and domestic character
Elizabeth Poole Sandford, 1850
Manifesto of the Communist party
Karl Marx and Frederick Engels
Dictatorship of the Proletariat
Marx's theory of a proletariat controlled world following the taking from the wealthy; eventually it will wither away into a classless society.
mule (combination of water frame and spinning jenny), created concept of factory system
English clergyman who invented the power loom (1743-1823)
English railway pioneer who built the first passenger railway in 1825 (1781-1848)
a type of pottery made by Josiah Wedgwood and his successors
the highest peak in the Sierra Nevada range in California (14,494 feet high)
"To be useful, a woman must have feeling." (1840s)
English comparative anatomist and paleontologist who was an opponent of Darwinism (1804-1892)
socialist who wrote the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx in 1848 (1820-1895)
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
The Social Contract
Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modeled after the Greek polis.
the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
Peace of Paris 1783
American Delegates: Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay; Instructed to follow lead of France; John Jay makes side treaty with England; Independence of the US; land area Atlantic of Miss. River, Great Lakes to Florida; End of loyalist Persecution, pay debt to England.
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat, Located in Belgium, the place where the british army and the prussian army forces attacked the french. Napoleon's final defeat against the British and Prussians
a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I. (p. 594)
Blood and Iron
policy of German unification put forth by Bismarck; belief that industry & war would unify Germany
Wrote Two Treatises of Government. Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. He said government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was the duty of the people to rebel.
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
started as young general. Joined french leaders in a coup d' etat. Made every citizen pay taxes, made education free, and applied dictatorship before becoming Emperor of France
This Spanish priest led the rebellion against Spain and was executed for it. The rebellion was ultimately successful and Mexico won its independence in 1821.
Anti-slavery reform; 1807 end of slave trade; 1833 end of slavery.
United States suffragist and feminist
Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872)
a German-Austrian politician and statesman, and one of the most important diplomats of his era. He was a major figure on the negotiations leading to and at the Congress of Vienna and is considered both a paradigm of foreign policy management and a major figure on the development of diplomacy.
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)
was developed by John Kay, its invention was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution, enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand
A small, motorized platform often used for transporting supplies and personnel.
a refractory-lined furnace used to convert pig iron into steel by the Bessemer process
These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines
machine that produced a more efficient way to get the seeds out of cotton, and expanded southern development
Philosophy introduced by the Frenchman Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century. Utopian socialists hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively (616
Mines act of 1842
prohibited underground work for women, considered a scandal for women to work in the pits, prevented the fraternizing of sexes
Factory act of 1833
limited the factory workday for children between 9 and 13 to 8 hours and that of adolescents between 14 and 18 to 12 hours-made no effort to regulate hours of work for children at home or in small businesses-children under 9 were to be enrolled by schools to be established by factory owners-broke pattern of whole families working together in the factory because efficiency required standardized shifts for all workers
The large family-controlled banking and industrial groups that owned many companies in Japan before World War II.
invented the flying shuttle
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
British inventor and metallurgist who developed the Bessemer process (1813-1898)
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)
United States industrialist who made a fortune in the oil business and gave half of it away (1839-1937)
French sociologist and reformer who hoped to achieve universal harmony by reorganizing society (1772-1837)
founder of modern communism
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
Little Big Horn
General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
Mexican American War
after Mexican refusal to sell California-New Mexico region, Polk sent troops and it ended w/ Treat of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Military dictator; gained control after independence movements
The Mexican Revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist and agrarianist movements, and culminated in the Mexican Constitution of 1917 Led by Fransico Madero
Tierra y Libertad
land and liberty
Helped unite the union. Each community operated on its own time. 1870, Professor C.F. Dowd proposed that the Earth's surface be divided into 24 time zones, one for each hour of the day. U.S. contained 4 zones. Eastern, Central, Mountain, Pacific.
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
british prime minister who wanted to slash the budget, reduce government salaries and cut unemployment benefit.
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923)
the basic unit of money in Cambodia
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire. (p. 687)
'Restructuring' reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient. (p. 678)
Russian national legislature
Treaty of Nanjing
1842, ended Opium war, said the western nations would determine who would trade with china, not china, so it set up the unequal treaty system which allowed western nations to own a part of chinese territory and conduct trading business in china under their own laws. This treaty set up 5 treaty ports where westerners could live, work, and be treated under their own laws. One of these were Hong Kong.
a city in Egypt that used to be called Rosetta
who was nicholas II's first 'prime minister'?
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
a battle (1898) in which an English and Egyptian army under Kitchener defeated the Sudanese
Indian troops who serve in the British army who started a war for independence that lead India to its independence.
Treaty of Waitangi
The treaty signed by the British and Maori in 1840 giving Britain control over New Zealand.
Maji Maji Rebellion
(1905-1906) against Germans; 75,000 killed
labor under contract to an employer for a fixed period of time, typically three to seven years, in exchange for their transportation, food, clothing, lodging and other necessities
English author of novels and poetry who was born in India (1865-1936)
British colonial administrator who founded Singapore (1781-1826)
Welsh journalist and explorer who led an expedition to Africa in search of David Livingstone and found him in Tanzania in 1871
English explorer who with Sir Richard Burton was the first European to explore Lake Tanganyika
English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779)
26th President of the United States
California Gold Rush
1849 (San Francisco 49ers) Gold discovered in California attracted a rush of people all over the country to San Francisco.
The National Policy
program of economic development in Canada, purpose to attract migrants, protect nascent industries through tariffs, and build national transportation systems
one of several historically variable terms (michif, bois brûlé, chicot, halfbreed, country-born, mixed blood) used in Canada and some parts of the northern US to describe people of mixed North American Indian-European descent.
In 1885 Louis Riel organized a military force of metis and native peoples in the Saskatchewan river country and led an insurrection known as the _________ ___________. Canadian forces quickly subdued the makeshift army, and government authorities executed Riel for treason.
long-wooled mutton sheep originally from Lincolnshire
a city in northern Mexico on the Rio Grande opposite El Paso
Mexican revolutionary who led a revolt for agrarian reforms (1879-1919)
United States frontier missionary who established a post in Oregon where Christianity and schooling and medicine were available to Native Americans (1802=1847)
Argentine president who despised the rule of caudillos that emerged after independencea nd worked for the development of the best society based on European values. Facundo: Civilizatio and Barbarism: necessary for Buenos Aires to being discipline to disorderly Argentine countryside
Agreements with European powers that gave European bankers and merchants unfair advantages in the Empire
Local assemblies in Russia.
a war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia
Revolution of 1905
Nicholas II failed to fix the politcal, economic and social problems in Russia
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries
1867; The policy of Japan to reverse its isolation and replace the feudal rulers of the shogun and increase the power of the emperor
the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)
the last czar of Russia who was forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Russian Revolution
The last emperor of China
emperor of Japan who encouraged the modernization of Japan (1852-1912)
colonies, such as those in South Africa, New Zealand, Algeria, Kenya, and Hawaii, where minority European populations lived among majority indigenous peoples
Nomads who lived in the Indian subcontinent and established a powerful empire there
Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium. (See also Bismarck, Otto von.) (p. 732)
theory of eveolution of human society for "natural slection" to explain how some prosper and others dont capitalism "survival of the fittest"
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Sino Japanese War
(1894-95) War fought between China and Japan. After Korea was opened to Japanese trade in 1876, it rapidly became an arena for rivalry between the expanding Japanese state and neighbouring China,
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa
queen of Great Britain and Ireland and empress of India from 1837 to 1901 (1819-1901)
Scottish missionary and explorer who discovered the Zambezi River and Victoria Falls (1813-1873)
English explorer who with John Speke was the first European to explore Lake Tanganyika (1821-1890)
queen of the Hawaiian islands (1838-1917)
said that the aryan race is lost and that the most pure race is degenerating but can be prolonged by proper mating
policy of strong nations controlling weaker ones
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
groups that share a culture
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