39 terms

The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography - Chapter 10 Key Terms

The key terms of chapter 10 from the eighth edition of "An Introduction to Human Geography" by James M. Rubenstein.
STUDY
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Agribusiness
Commecial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in food processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Agriculture
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Cereal grain
A grass yielding grain for food.
Chaff
Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing.
Combine
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field.
Commercial agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Crop
Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
Crop rotation
Practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Desertification
Degradation of land especially in semiarid area, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and free cutting.
Double cropping
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Grain
Seed of a cereal grass.
Green revolution
rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Horticulture
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
Hull
The outer covering of a seed.
Intensive subsistence agriculture
Farmers must expend a relative large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Milkshed
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Paddy
Malay word for wet rice.
Pastoral nomadism
Form of agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Pasture
Grass grown for feeding grazing animals.
Plantation
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale.
Prime agricultural land
The most productive farmland.
Ranching
A form of agriculture in which livestock graze over an intensive area.
Reaper
A machine that cuts grain in a field.
Ridge tillage
A system of planting crops on ridge tops to reduce farm production costs, promotes soil conservation.
Sawah
A flooded field of growing rice.
Seed agriculture
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds.
Slash and burn agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, fields are cleared by slashing vegetables and burning debris.
Shifting cultivation
People shift actively from one field to another.
Spring wheat
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
Subsistence agriculture
Designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.
Sustainable agriculture
Farming method that preserves long-term productivity of land and minimizes pollution.
Swidden
A patch of land cleared for planting through slash and burn.
Thresh
To beat out grain from stalks by tramping it.
Transhumance
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountain and lowland pastures.
Truck farming
Commercial gardening and fruit farming named because truck meaning bartering.
Vegetative planting
Reproduction of plants by direct downing from existing plants.
Wet rice
Rice planted on dry land in a nursery then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
Winnow
To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind.
Winter wheat
Wheat planted in the fall then harvested in the early summer.