275 terms

US History Set 2

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Missouri Compromise
Congress orchestrated a two-part compromise, granting Missouri's request but also admitting Maine as a free state. It also passed an amendment that drew an imaginary line across the former Louisiana Territory, establishing a boundary between free and slave regions that remained the law of the land until it was negated by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.
Fugitive Slave Act
A law passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, which provided southern slaveholders with legal weapons to capture slaves who had escaped to the free states. The law was highly unpopular in the North and helped to convert many previously indifferent northerners to antislavery.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
The Act of Congress in 1854 annulling the Missouri Compromise, providing for the organization of the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and permitting these territories self-determination on the question of slavery.
Republican Party
They were founded by anti-slavery activists in 1854. Originally, it was composed mainly of northerners from both major parties of the time, the Democrats and the Whigs, with some former Know-Nothings as well.
Dred Scott Decision
(1857) *5th Amendment Property Rights
Court rules that a slave is property, and are not citizens, and therefore don't have standing in court. Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional.
Shortly before the outbreak of the Civil War. Scott, a slave, sought to be declared a free man on the basis that he had lived for a time in a "free" territory with his master. The Court decided that, under the Constitution, He was his master's property and was not a citizen of the United States.
Abraham Lincoln
Republicans chose him to run against Senator Douglas (a Democrat) in the senatorial elections of 1858. Although he loss victory to senatorship that year, Lincoln came to be one of the most prominent northern politicians and emerged as a Republican nominee for president. Although he won the presidential elections of 1860, he was a minority and sectional president (he was not allowed on the ballot in ten southern states). 16th President of the United States; saved the Union during the American Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth.
Jefferson Davis
Former US senator who in 1861, was chosen president of the Confederate States of America; had wide military and administrative experience
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln's statement affirming the abolition of slavery as a war aim (1862). 4 million slaves were automatically freed.
Gettysburg
a battle of the American Civil War (1863); the defeat of Robert E. Lee's invading Confederate Army was a major victory for the Union.
Vicksburg
a decisive battle in the American Civil War (1863); after being besieged for nearly seven weeks the Confederates surrendered
Appomattox
Site Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union general Ulysses S. Grant at the nearby hamlet of Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, effectively ending the Civil War..
Reconstruction
The plan to rebuild the South after the Civil War and extend the ideas of liberty and equality to the slaves that had been freed during the war. There are three brands: Presidential (Lincoln and Johnson), Radical (Radical Republicans), and Johnsonian (Johnson).
13th Amendment
This abolished slavery in the United States and provides that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States
Freedman
An emancipated slave.
Freedman's Bureau
Established by Congress to help former slaves adjust to freedom. It was Created to aid newly emancipated slaves by providing food, clothing, medical care, education, and legal support. Its achievements were uneven and depended largely on the quality of local administrators.
Civil Rights Act
This granted citizenship and the same rights enjoyed by white citizens to all male persons in the United States "without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude."
14th Amendment
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
Due Process
According this no citizen may be denied his or her legal rights and all laws must conform to fundamental, accepted legal principles, as the right of the accused to confront his or her accusers.
Equal Protection
Requires states to guarantee the same rights, privileges, and protection to all citizens
15th Amendment
The amendment that stated that no one could be rejected voting rights based on race, color, or ex-slave.
Impeachment
Is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.
Carpetbagger
Northerner who moved to the South after the American Civil War, especially during Reconstruction, in order to profit from the instability and power vacuum that existed at this time.
Scalawag
They were Southern whites who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party, after the American Civil War.
New South
Means the modernization of society and attitudes, to integrate more fully with the United States, and reject the economy and traditions of the Old South and the slavery-based plantation system of the antebellum period.
Sharecropping
Is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant (freed slave) to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on the land.
Ku Klux Klan
This was a secret organization. Extremely racist Whites who hated the Blacks and founded the "Invisible Empire of the South," in Tennessee 1866—an organization that scared Blacks into not voting or not seeking jobs, etc... they encouraged violence against the Blacks in addition to terror. This radical group threatened a lot of what abolitionists wanted to do.
Literacy Tests
This refers to state government practices of administering tests to prospective voters purportedly to test their literacy in order to vote. In practice, these tests were intended to disenfranchise African-Americans.
Grandfather Clauses
This was a statute enacted by many American southern states in the wake of Reconstruction that allowed potential white voters to circumvent literacy tests, poll taxes, and other tactics designed to disfranchise southern blacks
Poll Taxes
This was enacted in Southern states had the effect of disenfranchising many blacks as well as poor whites, because payment of the tax was a prerequisite for voting.
Jim Crow Laws
These were racial segregation state and local laws enacted after the Reconstruction period in Southern United States that continued in force until 1965 mandating de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern U.S. states, starting in 1890 with a "separate but equal" status for African Americans.
Segregation
Is the enforced separation of different racial groups in a country, community, or establishment.
Plessy v Ferguson
(1896) * "Seperate but equal" An 1896 Supreme Court case that upheld the constitutionality of segregation laws, saying that as long as blacks were provided with "separate but equal" facilities, these laws did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment. This decision provided legal justification for the Jim Crow system until the 1950s.
Frontier
The line separating areas of denser settlement from "unsettlement" territory
Great Plains
A vast grassland region of central North America extending from the North Dakota to Texas. Much of the area is used for cattle ranching and wheat farming. This frontier was settled by thousands during the Homestead Act of 1862
Push-and-Pull Factors
A negative aspect or condition that motivates one to leave, esp. in one's country, region, organization, religion, etc.
Transcontinental Railroad
A train route across the United States. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah. The Central Pacific laborers were predominantly Chinese, and the Union Pacific laborers predominantly Irish. Both groups often worked under harsh conditions.
Reservation
The system that allotted land with designated boundaries to Native American tribes in the west, beginning in the 1850s and ending with the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. Within these reservations, most land was used communally, rather than owned individually. The U.S. government encouraged and sometimes violently coerced Native Americans to stay on the reservations at all times.
Barbed Wire
A wire or strand of wires having small pieces of sharply pointed wire twisted around it at short intervals, used chiefly for fencing in livestock, keeping out trespassers, etc. in the Open Range
Market Economy
Is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system.
Capitalism
An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state
Innovation
Is a new idea, more effective device or process.Innovation can be viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, in articulated needs, or existing market needs.
Second Industrial Revolution
The rapid rate of path breaking inventions. Is usually dated between 1870 and 1914, although a number of its characteristic events can be dated to the 1850s.
Bessemer Process
A steel-making process, now largely superseded, in which carbon, silicon, and other impurities are removed from molten pig iron by oxidation in a blast of air in a special tilting retort
Telegraph
A system for transmitting messages from a distance along a wire, especially one creating signals by making and breaking an electrical connection.
Alexander Graham Bell
Was an eminent Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.
Transatlantic Cable
Is an undersea cable running under the Atlantic Ocean used for telegraph communications. The first was laid across the floor of the Atlantic.
Wilbur and Orville Wright
Were two American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight
Corporation
A company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
Stock
The goods or merchandise kept on the premises of a business or warehouse and available for sale or distribution.
Entrepreneur
A person who organizes and operates a business or businesses, taking on greater than normal financial risks in order to do so.
Monopoly
Is being the only one in a given selling a specific product, or having exclusive control over a certain thing, or the trade mark of a board game where the aim is to buy properties on the board and then build hotels on those properties.
Labor Union
An organization of workers formed for the purpose of advancing its members' interests in respect to wages, benefits, and working conditions.
Strike
A work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
Ideology
A system of ideas and ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy.
Capitalism
An economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
Communism
A social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production, absence of social classes, money, and the state.
A political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life in a country
Socialism
Political belief in promoting social and economic equality through the ownership and control of the major means of production by the whole community rather than by individuals or corporation
Anarchism
Political belief that all organized, coercive government is wrong in principle, and that society should be organized solely on the basis of free cooperation. Total absence of rule or government; confusion; disorder
Urbanization
The process of people moving to cities.
Tenement
Originally referred simply to a multiple-family rental building; in late 1800s, used to describe slum dwellings only. Had many windowless rooms, little or no plumbing or central heating, & perhaps a row of privies in the basement
Old Immigrants
Immigrants who had come from North Western areas of Europe. Germans and Scandinavians from Western Europe who came before the 1880's. They discriminated against the "new immigration" and considered themselves "natives." The mixing of the other Europeans would tarnish their true Anglo-Saxon heritage
New Immigrants
Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe who formed a recognizable wave of immigration from the 1880s until 1924, in contrast to the wave of immigrants from western Europe who had come before them. These new immigrants congregated in ethnic urban neighborhoods, where they worried many native-born Americans, some of whom responded with nativist anti-immigrant campaigns and others of whom introduced urban reforms to help immigrants assimilate.
Ellis Island
The gateway for millions of immigrants to the U.S. as the nation's busiest immigration inspection station from 1892 until 1954.
Angel Island
An island in San Francisco Bay that has served a variety of purposes, including military forts, a US Public Health Service Quarantine Station, and a US Bureau of Immigration inspection and detention facility.
Ghetto
A part of a city, especially a slum area, occupied by a minority group or groups.
Americanization
The influence of the U.S. on the culture of other countries. Also refers to the process of acculturation by immigrants or annexed populations to American customs and values.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882, Federal legislation that prohibited most further Chinese immigration to the United States. This was the first major legal restriction on immigration in U.S. history.
Progressives
Favoring or advocating progress, change, improvement, or reform, as opposed to wishing to maintain things as they are, especially in political matters.
Consumers
A person who purchases goods and services for personal use.
17th Amendment
Established that senators were to be elected directly. This law was intended to create a more democratic, fair society.
Women's Suffrage
The right of women to vote and to stand for electoral office.
Child Labor
Refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is deemed harmful.
16th Amendment
Allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the U.S. Census.
Woodrow Wilson
28th U.S. president, served in office from 1913 to 1921 and led America through World War I. An advocate for democracy and world peace, He is often ranked by historians as one of the nation's greatest presidents. Once in office, he pursued an ambitious agenda of progressive reform that included the establishment of the Federal Reserve and Federal Trade Commission. He tried to keep the United States neutral during World War I but ultimately called on Congress to declare war on Germany in 1917. After the war, he helped negotiate a peace treaty that included a plan for the League of Nations. Although the Senate rejected U.S. membership in the League.
Federal Reserve Act
An act establishing twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks and a Federal Reserve Board, appointed by the president, to regulate banking and create stability on a national scale in the volatile banking secto
Spanish-American War
A war between Spain and the United States fought in 1898. The war began as an intervention by the United States on behalf of Cuba.
Cuba
An Island south of the US that is brutally crushed by Spanish troops. US was concerned, having LOTS of investment in Cuba. Cubans are forced into prison/concentration camps, published in US newspapers and pitied.
Humanitarian
Concerned with or seeking to promote human welfare.
Imperialism
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico is a Caribbean island given to the US by Spain as a payment for the cost of the Spanish American War.
Hawaii
Is an isolated volcanic archipelago in the Central Pacific. U.S. wanted Hawaii for business and so Hawaiian sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free, Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893, William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii in 1898
Spheres of Influence
A country or area in which another country has power to affect developments although it has no formal authority.
"Open Door" Policy
Is a term in foreign affairs initially used to refer to the United States policy established in the late 19th century and the early 20th century, as enunciated in Secretary of State John Hay's Open Door Note, dated September 6, 1899 Message delivered by John to the nations of the world, begging them to respect Chinese rights and influence in the spirit of fair competition.
Panama Canal
a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
Monroe Doctrine
A principle of US policy, originated by President James Monroe in 1823, that any intervention by external powers in the politics of the Americas is a potentially hostile act against the US.
Alliance System
A formal agreement or treaty between two or more nations to cooperate for specific purposes. A merging of efforts or interests by persons, families, states, or organizations: an alliance between church and state.
Militarism
The belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.
Nationalism
Is a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
He was heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. On June 28, 1914 while paying a state visit to Sarajevo and was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. His assassination is what the catalyst that initiated World War I.
Serbia
Is a country on southeast Europe's Balkan peninsula. After Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated there. Austria-Hungary declared war on them. War was fought from late July 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded the Kingdom of Serbia at the outset of World War I, until the war's conclusion in November 1918.
Austria- Hungary
A former monarchy (1867-1918) in central Europe that included what is now Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and parts of Romania, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Italy. The empire was broken up after World War I
Allied Powers
The victorious allied nations of World War I and World War II. In World War I, the Allies included Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and the United States. In World War II, the Allies included Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States.
Central Powers
Germany and its allies (Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire) in World War I.
Trench Warfare
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield. , Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Airplanes
A powered flying vehicle with fixed wings and a weight greater than that of the air it displaces. Was used in WWI for resonances.
Chemical Warfare
The first full-scale deployment of deadly chemical warfare agents during World War I was at the Second Battle of Ypres, on April 22, 1915, when the Germans attacked French, Canadian and Algerian troops with chlorine gas. Deaths were light, though casualties relatively heavy.
Naval blockade
The interdiction of a nation's lines of communication at sea by the use of naval power.
Convoys
A group of ships traveling together, typically accompanied by armed troops and warships for protection.
Lusitania
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war. Also caused Germany to say they would stop submarine warfare.
Zimmerman telegraph
German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman had secretly proposed a German-Mexican alliance against the United States. When the note was intercepted and published in March 1917, it caused an uproar that made some Americans more willing to enter the war.
Unrestricted submarine warfare
Type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules").
Mobilization
The act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war.
Conscription
Compulsory enlistment or draft for state service, typically into the armed forces.
Selective Service Act
Enacted May 18, 1917 authorized the federal government to raise a national army for the American entry into World War I through the compulsory enlistment of people; commonly called the draft.
Herbert Hoover
Was the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933). Hoover, born to a Quaker family, was a professional mining engineer. He achieved American and international prominence in humanitarian relief efforts in war-time Belgium and served as head of the U.S. Food Administration during World War I.
War Bonds
Debt securities issued by a government for the purpose of financing military operations during times of war. It is an emotional appeal to patriotic citizens to lend the government their money because these bonds offer a rate of return below the market rate.
Espionage Act
A law prohibiting interference with the draft and other acts of national "disloyalty." Together with the Sedition Act of 1918, which added penalties for abusing the government in writing, it created a climate that was unfriendly to civil liberties
Great Migration
Was the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970.
Fourteen points
Woodrow Wilson's proposal to ensure peace after World War I, calling for an end to secret treaties, widespread arms reduction, national self-determination, and a new league of nations.
Treaty of Versailles
World War I concluded with this vengeful document, which secured peace but imposed sharp terms on Germany and created a territorial mandate system to manage former colonies of the world powers. To Woodrow Wilson's chagrin, it incorporated very few of his original Fourteen Points, although it did include the League of Nations that Wilson had long sought. Isolationists in the United States, deeply opposed to the League, led the opposition to the Treaty, which was never ratified by the Senate.
War Guilt Clause
Was the opening article of the reparations section of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended the First World War between the German Empire and the Allied and Associated Powers.
Roaring Twenties
Was a time when many people defied Prohibition, indulged in new styles of dancing and dressing, and rejected many traditional moral standards.
Demobilization
Is the process of standing down a nation's armed forces from combat-ready status. This may be as a result of victory in war, or because a crisis has been peacefully resolved and military force will not be necessary.
Disarmament
The reduction or withdrawal of military forces and weapons. The reduction of armed forces and weapons
Red scare
A fear of Russia that ran high in the US even after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. This resulted in a nationwide crusade against those whose Americanism was suspect.
Sacco and Vanzetti
Were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree; Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence; many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. Despite criticism from liberals and radicals all over the world, the men were electrocuted in 1927.
Nativism
The policy of protecting of the interest of native born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
Quota system
Limiting by nationality the number of immigrants who may enter the US each year.
National Origins Act
Reduced immigration until 1927 to 2 percent of each nationality's representation in the 1890 census; After 1927 (later postponed to 1929) the law set a cap of 150,000 immigrants per year and continued to tie admission into the U.S. to the quota system
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
Assembly line
Manufacturing allowed workers to remain in one place and master one repetitive action, maximizing output. It became the production method of choice by the 1930s.
Consumerism
Concentration on producing and distributing goods for a market which must constantly be enlarged
Installment Buying
A commodity over a period of time. The buyer gains the use of commodity immediately and then pays for it in periodic payments called installments.
Fundamentalist Movement
A movement in American Protestantism that arose in the early part of the 20th century in reaction to modernism and that stresses the infallibility of the Bible not only in matters of faith and morals but also as a literal historical record, holding as essential to Christian faith belief in such doctrines as the creation of the world, the virgin birth, physical resurrection, atonement by the sacrificial death of Christ, and the Second Coming.
18th Amendment
Prohibited the non-medical sale of alcohol This amendment is the midpoint of a growing drive towards women's rights as well as showing the moral attitude of the era.
Prohibition
a total ban on the manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor throughout the United States. 1919-1933.
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Flappers
Carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. They symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, the flapper image reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom.
Great Migration
The movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural southern US to the urban northeast, Midwest, and west.
Harlem Renaissance
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s when New York City's Harlem became an intellectual and cultural capital for African Americans; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.
Jazz Age
Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime
Economic Boom
Was a period in American History often referred to as the Roaring Twenties. This period of economic boom was marked by rapid industrial growth and advances in technology. The Economic Boom in the 1920's saw increases in productivity, sales and wages accompanied by a rising demand for consumer products leading to massive profits for businesses and corporations.
Bull Market
This term describes a situation in which the value of stocks is rising quickly. This occurred in 1929 when the New York Stock Exchange had reached an all-time high, with stocks selling for more than 16 times their actual worth. Unfortunately, at this time, it was not a true rising market and it eventually crashed.
Buying on margin
Buying on margin was the act of buying stock for just 10% of the price promising to later pay the rest of it. On top of that, investors often times borrowed money to pay this small percentage. This was a leading contributor to the Great Depression.
Speculation Boom
One who buys property, goods, or financial instruments not primarily for use but in anticipation of profitable resale after a general rise in value.
Black Tuesday
On October 29th, 1929, the stock market boom came to an end as millions of panicked investors frantically traded shares with one another. As a result, stock prices rapidly collapsed, leading to the Great Depression
Herbert Hoover
He was a republican who believed in Laissez-Faire economics. Was elected to office in 1928. Hoover aimed to eliminate poverty during his presidency, however, was unable to prevent the Great Depression. He did not think it was the government's job to interfere in the economy and he feared that the federal aid would weaken individual character.
"Hoovervilles"
Grim shantytowns where impoverished victims of the Great Depression slept under newspapers and in makeshift tents. Their visibility (and sarcastic name) tarnished the reputation of the Hoover administration.
Great Depression
The economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s. One of the darkest moments in World History.
Gross National Product (GNP)
Is the total value of all the goods and services produced by a nation in a single year.
Dust Bowl
Severe drought ruined crops in the Great Plains. This region became known as the dust bowl, named after the dust that constantly flew around and smothered everything. As the horrid conditions in the Dust Bowl coupled with poor farming practice, 350,000 farmers whose crops had been ruined migrated to California. These ex-farmers became known as Okies.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
The 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.
Fireside chats
Roosevelt utilized the radio to reach out to the nation as whole. By talking to the nation over the radio Roosevelt was establishing a more "personal" connection. Fireside chats were Roosevelt's various radio addresses that people could listen to in the comfort of their own homes.
New Deal
The 1st was to a collection of programs created in the early 1930s that aimed to improve the economic situation in America. The 2nd was a set of new programs put into place from 1934 to 1936. These included additional banking reforms, new tax laws, and new relief programs. The primary goal of the Second New Deal was to take a crack at "money classes" and use the tax dollars of the rich to help the country.
Relief, Recovery, Reform
Three components of the New Deal. The first "R" was the effort to help the one-third of the population that was hardest hit by the depression, & included social security and unemployment insurance. The second "R" was the effort in numerous programs to restore the economy to normal health, achieved by 1937. Finally, the third "R" let government intervention stabilize the economy by balancing the interests of farmers, business and labor. There was no major anti-trust program.
Bank Holiday
All banks were to close while Congress met to discuss the bank situation. After four days, Congress passed the Emergency Banking Act which allowed banks to reopen only if the Treasury Department inspected and testified that the bank had sufficient tax reserves.
National Recovery Act (NRA)
Plan devised by the emergency congress designed to combine immediate relief and long-range recovery. It was designed to help the unemployed, labor, and industry.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
A New Deal program designed to raise agricultural prices by paying farmers not to farm. It was based on the assumption that higher prices would increase farmers' purchasing power and thereby help alleviate the Great Depression.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
A government program created by Congress to hire young unemployed men to improve the rural, out-of-doors environment with such work as planting trees, fighting fires, draining swamps, and maintaining National Parks. The CCC proved to be an important foundation for the post-World War II environmental movement.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Works Progress Administration worked with the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, or FERA, to build dikes that reduced the threat of flooding in the Everglades. May 6, 1935 It was established under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was established by Roosevelt in the Glass-Steagall Act. This Act insured deposits up to $2500 and reduced the number of bank closings in 1934.
Social security
This Act provided old-age pensions for most privately employed workers. This act did not include farm workers and domestic servants due to wide opposition from southern Democrats. The act was not funded by general taxes but by mandatory contributions paid by workers and their employers.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Created to deal with one of the poorest regions of the country, the Tennessee Valley. This idea of regional planning had been suggested by Sen. George Norris of Nebraska but rejected--late 1920s. Built hydroelectric power plants and dams to increase electric power and decrease flood control. Provided numerous jobs, soil conservation and reforestation. Many criticized as socialistic--government entered into private enterprise, provided electric power.
National Labor Relations Act
This law also known as the Wagner Act. Established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
Sit-down strike
The 1936-1937 Flint Sit-Down Strike changed the United Automobile Workers (UAW) from a collection of isolated locals on the fringes of the industry into a major labor union and led to the unionization of the domestic United States automobile industry.
Fascism
A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.
Nazism
The body of political and economic doctrines held and put into effect by the Nazis in Germany from 1933 to 1945 including the totalitarian principle of government, predominance of especially Germanic groups assumed to be racially superior, and supremacy of the führer
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia, joined Germany in the Axis pact, and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy., right-wing movement, socialist, influenced by Nietzsche; after WWI broke out, he wanted Italy to participate with France. There was many problems going on in Italy, thus he promised improvement and got into power.
Adolf Hitler
This dictator (1889-1945) was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces. German Nazi dictator during World War II.
Appeasement
In a political context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an enemy power in order to avoid conflict.
In WWII it was the term for the British-French policy of attempting to prevent war by granting German demands.
Blitzkrieg
A German term for "lightning war," This is a military tactic designed to create disorganization among enemy forces through the use of mobile forces and locally concentrated firepower. Its successful execution results in short military campaigns, which preserves human lives and limits the expenditure of artillery.
Neutrality Acts
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations. They were four laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents.
Lend-Lease Act
Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."
"Four Freedoms"
These were goals articulated by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941. In an address known as the Four Freedoms speech, he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy:
Freedom of speech
Freedom of worship
Freedom from want
Freedom from fear
Pearl Harbor
(December 7, 1941) The US thought the Japanses would attack British Malaya or the Philipines. But instead they attacked here, at several naval bases wiping out many ships and killing 3000 men. The next day the US declares war on Japan. The Day after that the Germans and Italy declare war on the US. The US decided this was the only way to keep the US safe from anarchy.The attack led to the United States' entry into World War II
D-Day
Code named Operation Overlord, the battle began on June 6, 1944, also known as D-Day, when some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France's Normandy region. The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults in history and required extensive planning. Prior this invation, the Allies conducted a large-scale deception campaign designed to mislead the Germans about the intended invasion target. By late August 1944, all of northern France had been liberated, and by the following spring the Allies had defeated the Germans. The Normandy landings have been called the beginning of the end of war in Europe.
Normandy
The invasion by and establishment of Western Allied forces in Normandy, during Operation Overlord in 1944 during World War II; the largest amphibious invasion to ever take place.
V-E Day
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day was the public holiday celebrated on 8 May 1945 (7 May in Commonwealth realms) to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces. It thus marked the end of World War II in Europe.
Hiroshima
Japanese city which the first atomic bomb was dropped (August 6, 1945).
(The US had warned Japan that it had weapons of mass destruction. The Japanese were warned to surrender or suffer the consequences.)
Nagasaki
Japanese city which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
V-J Day
This is a name chosen for the day on which Japan surrendered, in effect ending World War II, and subsequent anniversaries of that event. The term has been applied to both of the days on which the initial announcement of Japan's surrender was made - to the afternoon of August 15, 1945, in Japan, and, because of time zone differences, to August 14, 1945 (when it was announced in the United States and the rest of the Americas and Eastern Pacific Islands) - as well as to September 2, 1945, when the signing of the surrender document occurred, officially ending World War II.
Homefront
The civilian population and activities of a nation whose armed forces are engaged in war abroad.
Japanese-American Internment
Similar to the Red Scare in WWI, many Americans feared Japanese Americans were a threat to American safety. 110,000 Japanese-Americans were forced into these camps because the US feared that they might act as saboteurs for Japan in case of invasion. The camps deprived the Japanese-Americans of basic rights, and the internees lost hundreds of millions of dollars in property. In the Supreme Court ruling in Korematsu v. U.S. (1944), the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the concentration camps.
Holocaust
Was the genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime and its collaborators. Some historians use a definition of the Holocaust that includes the additional five million non-Jewish victims of Nazi mass murders, bringing the total to approximately eleven million. Killings took place throughout Nazi Germany and German-occupied territories.
Final Solution
This was Nazi Germany's plan during World War II to systematically exterminate the Jewish population in Nazi-occupied Europe through genocide. This policy was formulated in procedural terms at the Wannsee Conference in January 1942, and culminated in the Holocaust which saw the killing of two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.
Ghetto
A part of a city, especially a slum area, occupied by a minority group or groups.

In WWII it was an area in Poland that was used to "quarantine" the Jews before they were shipped of to concentration camps. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe, located in the territory of General Government in occupied Poland during World War II. Established in November 1940, it was surrounded by wall and contained nearly 500,000 Jews. About 45,000 Jews died there in 1941 alone, as a result of overcrowding, hard labor, lack of sanitation, insufficient food, starvation, and disease.
Auschwitz
This was the largest of the Nazi concentration and death camps opened in 1940. Located in southern Poland initially served as a detention center for political prisoners. However, it evolved into a network of camps where Jewish people and other perceived enemies of the Nazi state were exterminated, often in gas chambers, or used as slave labor. Some prisoners were also subjected to barbaric medical experiments led by Josef Mengele (1911-79). During World War II (1939-45), more than 1 million people, by some accounts, lost their lives at Auschwitz. In January 1945, with the Soviet army approaching, Nazi officials ordered the camp abandoned and sent an estimated 60,000 prisoners on a forced march to other locations. When the Soviets entered Auschwitz, they found thousands of emaciated detainees and piles of corpses left behind.
United Nations
UN is international body formed to bring nations into dialogue in hopes of preventing further world wars; much like the former League of Nations in ambition, it was more realistic in recognizing the authority of the Big Five Powers in keeping peace in the world, thus guaranting veto power to all permant members of its Security Council (Britian, China, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States)
General Assembly
This is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. Its powers are to oversee the budget of the United Nations, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, receive reports from other parts of the United Nations and make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions.
Superpower
An extremely powerful nation, especially one capable of influencing international events and the acts and policies of less powerful nations. After World War II - the United States and the Soviet Union.
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition.
Yalta Conference
Meeting of FDR, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin, in February 1945 at an old Tsarist resort on the Black Sea, where the Big Three leaders laid the foundations for the postwar division of power in Europe, including a divided Germany an territorial concessions to the Soviet Union.
Cold War
The 45 year diplomatic tension between the US and the Soviet Union that divided much of the world into polarized camps, capitalist against communist.
Iron Curtain
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.
Containment
America's strategy against the Soviet Union based on ideas of George Kennan, and declared that the Soviet Union and communism were inherently expansionist and had to be stopped from spreading through both military and political pressure.
Berlin Airlift
Year-long mission of flying food and supplies to blockaded West Berliners, whom the Soviet Union cut off from access to the West in the first major crisis of the Cold War.
Berlin Wall
Fortified and guarded barrier between East and West Berlin erected on orders from Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in 1961 to stop the flow of people to the West. Until its destruction in 1989, the wall was a vivid symbol of the divide between the communist and capitalist worlds.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Standoff between John F. Kennedy and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in October 1962 over Soviet plans to install nuclear weapons in Cuba. Although the crisis was ultimately settled in America's favour and represented a foreign policy triumph for Kennedy, it brought the world's superpowers perilously close the brink of nuclear confrontation.
Fidel Castro
Cuban revolutionary who overthrew Batista dictatorship in 1958 and assumed control of the island country. His connections with the Soviet Union led to a cessation of diplomatic relations with the United States in such internationl affairs as the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Oversaw his country through the end of the Cold War and through nearly a half-century of trade embargo with the US.
John F. Kennedy
President of the United States who narrowly defeated the incumbent vice-president Nixon in 1960 to become the youngest person ever elected president. Launched New Frontier programs and urged legislation to improve civil rights; assumed the blame for the Bay of Pigs ivasion and was credited as well for the superb handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis. He was assasinated in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963, by Lee Harvey Oswald
Korean War
First "hot war" or the Cold War. Began in 1950 when the Soviet-backed North Koreans invaded South Korea before meeting a counter-offensive by UN Forces, dominated by the US, and the war ended in stalemate in 1953.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Military alliance of Western European powers and the US and Canada established in 1949 to defend against the common threat from the Soviet Union, marking a giant stride forward for European unity and American internationalism.
Warsaw Pact
A military alliance of communist nations in eastern Europe. Organized in 1955 in answer to NATO, the Warsaw Pact included Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
Organization of communist countries set up to counter NATO
Bay of Pigs Invasion
CIA plot in 1961 to overthrow Fidel Castro by training Cuban exiles to invade and supporting them with American air power. The mission failed and became a public relations disaster early in John F. Kennedy's presidency.
Truman Doctrine
1947; Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Harry S. Truman
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
Potsdam Conference
From July 17 to August 2, 1945, President Harry S Truman met with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and British leaders Winston Churchill and later Clement Attlee near Berlin to deliver an ultimatum to Japan: surrender of be destroyed.
West Berlin
The part of the capital city of Berlin that was under control of the Americans, Brits and French after World War II.
East Berlin
The part of the capital city of Berlin that was under control of the Soviet Union World War II.
Berlin Blockade
An attempt in 1948 by the Soviet Union to limit the ability of France, Great Britain and the United States to travel to their sectors of Berlin, which lay within Russian-occupied East Germany. Eventually, the western powers instituted an airlift that lasted nearly a year and delivered much-needed supplies and relief to West Berlin. Coming just three years after the end of World War II, the blockade was the first major clash of the Cold War and foreshadowed future conflict over the city of Berlin.
Arms Race
The buildup of arms was also a characteristic of the Cold War between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, though the development of nuclear weapons changed the stakes for the par.
G.I Bill of Rights
A law passed in 1944 that provided educational and other benefits for people who had served in the armed forces in World War II. Benefits are still available to persons honorably discharged from the armed forces. Suburbs Neighborhoods formed away from the city
Baby Boomers
A person who was born between 1946 and 1964. The Baby Boomer generation makes up a substantial portion of the North American population. Representing nearly 20% of the American public, baby boomers have a significant impact on the economy.
Interstate Highway System
A network of U.S. highways connecting the 48 contiguous states and most of the cities with populations above 50,000, begun in the 1950s and estimated to carry about a fifth of the nation's traffic. This was passed by President Eisenhower.
NAACP
An organization that promotes the rights and welfare of black people. The The National Association for the Advacement of Colored People is the oldest civil rights organization in the United States, founded in 1909. Among the it's achievements was a lawsuit that resulted in the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Brown versus Board of Education, in 1954, which declared the segregation of public schools unconstitutional.
Brown v Board of Education
1954) *Equal Protection
Whether black youths were being deprived of equal protection by the law. Court rejects 'separate but equal' and declares it unconstitutional. The Supreme Court reversed Plessy v. Ferguson in 1954 by ruling in favor of the desegregation of schools. The court held that "separate but equal" violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and was unconstitutional. Refusing to force the white south to accept the ruling, defiance toward the law sprang up. Many southerners saw it as "an abuse of judiciary power.".
Segregation
The act or policy of separating people of different races, religions or sexes and treating them in a different way
Thurgood Marshall
The first African American judge of the US Supreme Court. He is remembered especially for winning the 1954 case before the Supreme Court which ended segregation in public schools.
Integration
Mixing races in public places. It includes goals such as leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, and the development of a culture that draws on diverse traditions, rather than merely bringing a racial minority into the majority culture.
Busing
Desegregation busing in the United States (also known as forced busing or simply busing) is the practice of assigning and transporting students to schools in such a manner as to redress prior racial segregation of schools, or to overcome the effects of residential segregation on local school demographics.
Rosa Parks
Was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement". She got arrested for not giving up her seat to a white man that led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
A political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. The ensuing struggle lasted from December 5, 1955, to December 21, 1956, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses unconstitutional.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Civil-rights organization founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King, Jr., and headed by him until his assassination in 1968. Composed largely of African-American clergy from the South and an outgrowth of the Montgomery, Ala., bus boycott that King had led, it advocated nonviolent passive resistance as the means of securing equality for African Americans. It sponsored the massive march on Washington in 1963.
Social Activism
The attitude of taking an active part in events, especially in a social context.
Sit-Ins
A form of protest where people from an unwanted race sat in an area where their kind was not wanted. Famous one in North Carolina, Greensboro at Woolworth's store.
Freedom Riders
A group of northern idealists active in the civil rights movement. The Freedom Riders, who included both blacks and whites, rode buses into the South in the early 1960s in order to challenge racial segregation. Freedom Riders were regularly attacked by mobs of angry whites and received often belated protection from federal officers.
March on Washington (1963)
A large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony at the Lincoln Memorial during the march. widely credited as helping lead to the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the National Voting Rights Act (1965). 80% of the marchers were black. a. Philip Randolph.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed racial segregation in schools, public places, and employment. Conceived to help African Americans, the bill was amended prior to passage to protect women, and explicitly included white people for the first time. It also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the United States. Echoing the language of the 15th Amendment, the Act prohibited states from imposing any "voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure ... to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color." specifically no literacy tests. signed into law by LBJ.
Affirmative Action
An action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, especially in relation to employment or education; positive discrimination.
Black Power
This group emphasized racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture and promote black collective interests, advance black values, and secure black autonomy. a range of political goals, from defense against racial oppression, to the establishment of separate social institutions and a self-sufficient economy (separatism help usher in black radical thought, and action against white supremacy.
Black Panthers
An African-American organization established to promote Black Power and self-defense through acts of social agitation. It was active in the United States from the mid-1960s into the 1970s.They achieved national and international presence through their deep involvement in the local community. The Black Power movement was one of the most significant movements (with regards to social, political, and cultural aspects). " The movement had provocative rhetoric, militant posture, and cultural and political flourishes permanently altered the contours of American Identity. started in Oakland, CA.
Malcolm X
American activist. A member of the Nation of Islam(1952-1963), he advocated separatism and blackpride. After converting to orthodox Islam, he founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity (1964) and was assassinated in Harlem.
John F. Kennedy
President of the United States from 1960-1963 when he was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. He was perhaps one of the most well-loved presidents in history as he was youthful and seemed to represent America moving forward in a new direction. He was the first media president, swaying many voters by his performance in the first televised presidential debate. He won the election on an extremely small margin... promised to be more active in the fight against communism
Lyndon B Johnson
He came into power after Kennedy's assassination in Texas. He was a champion of civil rights legislation and the "war on poverty." He was bent on accruing a reputation like that of FDR for his Great Society, a dream of an American society of equality and opportunity, but instead was saddled with the Vietnam war. Known for his push for Medicare and Medicaid, as well as the Immigration Act of 1965 which did away with national-origins quotas and increased legal immigration.
Vietnam: When he was unable to turn the tide with Operation Rolling Thunder and bombing, he adopted the meatgrinder strategy of imposing unacceptable casualties, resulting in a massive increase in the number of troops
"War on Poverty"
Waged by Johnson's Great Society programs that presented a classic liberal platform.
• Civil and voting rights acts
• Public school funding—when the rich moved to the suburbs all the poverty and squalor remained in the cities, destroying the tax base which of course had negative effects on public education
• Medicare and Medicaid
• National endowment for arts and humanities (PBS)
• Clean air and water quality acts
• Endangered species preservation act (1966)
Medicare
Is the federal health insurance program for people who are 65 or older, certain younger people with disabilities, and people with End-Stage Renal Disease
Medicaid
A joint federal and state program that helps low-income individuals or families pay for the costs associated with long-term medical and custodial care, provided they qualify. Although largely funded by the federal government, Medicaid is run by the state where coverage may vary.
Vietnam War
Was a Cold War conflict. A protracted military conflict (1954-1975) between South Vietnam, supported by United States forces, and Communist North Vietnam. The war resulted in a North Vietnamese victory and unification of Vietnam under Communist rule.
Vietcong
Communist guerrilla movement in Vietnam that fought the South Vietnamese government forces 1954-75 with the support of the North Vietnamese army and opposed the South Vietnamese and US forces in the Vietnam War.
Domino Theory
A 20th Century Foreign Policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States that speculated if one land in a region came under the influence of Communists, then more would follow in a domino.
Guerrilla Warfare
Is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as armed civilians or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Tet offensive
Executed by the North Vietnam Army and the Viet Kong in '68, the Viet Kong almost succeeded in taking the capital of S.V. and took over the US Embassy. This was captured live on TV and after all that Johnson had been promising, it had a huge impact on the American public. There was much doubt directed at the Johnson administration and the spark of the belief that perhaps it was time to just pull out of the war. This was a turning point. It represented a loss of American morale and the flame of larger anti-war protests. Veterans marched against the war. In 1968 US counter culture spread globally and there were protests around the world
Richard M. Nixon
He was in 1956 Eisenhower's Vice-President., When he was elected there was high inflation and economic recession from high spending in the war. His greatest success was easing coldwar tensions and with forign countries. He was impeached because of the Watergate Scandal but resigned before he was removed from office., 37th President of the United States (1969-1974) and the only president to resign the office. He initially escalated the Vietnam War, overseeing secret bombing campaigns, but soon withdrew 540,000 American troops and successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam, effectively ending American involvement in the war. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine. He was also the first President to ever resign, due to the Watergate scandal.
Vietnamization
Nixon's policy that involved withdrawing 540,000 US troops from South Vietnam over an extended period of time. It also included a gradual take over of the South Vietnamese taking responsibility of fighting their own war by American-provided money, weapons, training, and advice.
Hawks vs. Doves
Popularly, "hawks" are those who advocate an aggressive foreign policy based on strong military power. "Doves" try to resolve international conflicts without the threat of force.
Media
The main means of mass communication (especially television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet) regarded collectively.
Vietnam-
* Network coverage of war damaged Johnson's popularity.
* Scenes of death and devastation undermined justification for war .
* Print media became more skeptical towards Johnson overtime.
Antiwar protests
was a student protest that started as the Free Speech movement in California and spread around the world. All members of the Anti-War Movement shared an opposition to war in Vietnam and condemned U.S. presence there. They claimed this was violating Vietnam's rights. This movement resulted in growing activism on campuses aimed at social reform etc. Primarily a middle-class movement. CULTURAL.
Watergate Scandal
Was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s as a result of the June 17, 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters. The members of an association working to have Nixon re-elected, CREEP, were involved in a burglary, and it was then linked to Nixon. The CREEP group had also gotten lots of money from unidentifiable places. Suspicion set in and Nixon was accused of getting illegal help in being re-elected. Nixon tried to use government to cover-up his involvement. Impeachment proceedings were started but Nixon resigned from his office in Aug. 9, 1974
Apartheid
South African's systematic separation of the white and black race that led Congress in 1986 to pass an economic sanctions bill over Reagan's veto; they limited trade and investment to pressure South Africa to abolish apartheid, including a ban on new investments in South Africa and prohibition of imports of South African products; many private companies and universities also refused to do business with South Africa
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Group of oil-exporting nations that worked together to regulate the price and supply of oil.
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
This organization formed in 1964 with the purpose of creating a homeland for Palestinians in Israel
Ronald Reagan
First elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reaganomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns., 1981-1989,"Great Communicator" Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with conservative Democrats or "boll weevils" , at reelection time, Jesse Jackson first black presidential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman), Was an Army Captain, Hollywood actor and Governor of California before becoming president; Berlin Wall separating Germany was torn down; appointed the first woman to the Supreme Court
Mikhail Gorbachev
Last leader of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev assumed control in 1985 and ushered in a period of reforms known as glasnost and perestroika. On four occasions, he met U.S. president Ronald Reagan to negotiate arms reduction treaties and other measures to thaw the Cold War. In 1991, after surviving a failed military coup against him, he dissolved the Soviet Union and disbanded the Communist Party.
George H.W. Bush
41st President of the United States. A former congressman, diplomat, businessman, Republican party chairman, and director the CIA, Bush served for eight years as Reagan's vice president before being elected President in 1988. As president, he oversaw the end of the Cold War and the revitalization of the American military in the Persian Gulf War. He faced a severe economic recession late in his term that severely damaged his popularity, and he lost his bid for reelection in 1992.
Persian Gulf War
After Iraq invaded Kuwait, the US invaded Iraq to liberate Kuwait; Iraq set Kuwait's oil fields on fire so the Americans couldn't gain the oil; this conflict caused the US to set military bases in Saudi Arabia; also called Operation: Desert Storm
Saddam Hussein
Iraqi dictator who led the Ba'ath party in a coup in 1968 and ruled Iraq until the U.S. invasion. He inaugurated hostilities with neighboring Iran in 1980, leading to the protracted and bloody Iran-Iraq War. Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990, prompting a broad-based military operation led by the United States to liberate the country. After that war, Hussein retained power under strict sanctions and no-fly demilitarized zones throughout the 1990s, but he stymied international atomic weapons inspectors. After his fall in 2003, he went into hiding but was ultimately captured, tried, and executed by the Iraqi government.
Bill Clinton
Elected President in 1992 as the first democratic president since Jimmy Carter and a self-proclaimed activist. He had a very domestic agenda. When in office he had a lot of controversial appointments. When a longtime friend, Vince Foster, committed suicide it sparked an escalating inquiry into some banking and real estate ventures involving the president and his wife in the early 1980s. This became known as the Whitewater affair.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
International trade organization that was promoted by Clinton, this organization was the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, taking a step toward a global free-trade system. This was highly protested within the United States.
North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA)
A free trade plan initiated in the Bush administration and enacted by a narrow vote in Congress in the early months of the Clinton administration. It established a common market without tariff barriers between the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
George W. Bush
The son of George H.W. Bush and elected president in 2000.
Terrorism
The use of violence and threats to intimidate or coerce, especially for political purposes.
September 11, 2001
Common shorthand for the terrorist attacks that which 19 militant Islamist men hijacked and crashed four commercial aircraft. Two planes hit the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, causing them to collapse. One plane crashed into the Pentagon in Washington, DC, and the fourth, overtaken by passengers, crashed into a field in rural Pennsylvania. Nearly 3000 people were killed in the worst case of domestic terrorism in American history.
Al Qaeda
Arabic for "The Base," an international alliance of anti-Western Islamic fundamentalist terrorist organizations founded in the late 1980s. Founded by veterans of the Afghan struggle against the Soviet Union, the group is headed by Osama Bin Laden and has taken responsibility for numerous terrorist attacks, especially after the late 1990s. Al Qaeda organized the attacks of September 11, 2001, in the United States, from its headquarters in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan. Since the U.S-led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and the launch of the "Global War on Terror," the group has been weakened, but still poses significant threats around the world.
Jihad
A "holy war" waged on behalf of Islam as a religious duty
Taliban
An Islamic Fundamentalist government ruling Afghanistan. Extreme conservative Muslims, protected Osama bin Laden by allowing him to hide in Afghanistan after he masterminded the September 11, 2001, attack on the United States, government of Afghanistan until 2001, harbored and encouraged Al-Qaeda
Osama Bin Laden
Founder of al-Qaeda, the Sunni militant Islamist organization that claimed responsibility for the September 11 attacks on the United States, along with numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets. He was killed by Navy Seals in 2011.
Iraq War
A protracted military conflict in Iraq that began in 2003 with an attack by a coalition of forces led by the United States and that resulted in the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's regime. US combat troops were withdrawn in 2010.
Barack Obama
The 44th president of the United States (took office in 2009). He previously served in the Senate, representing Illinois (2004-2008). Early in his presidency, he increased government spending to address a severe credit crisis and deep recession. In 2009, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in diplomacy
Globalization
The process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.
Increased imports and exports link the U.S. economy with the world. Brought more products at lower prices but took industrial jobs overseas.
Social Movements
Is a type of group action. They are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on specific political or social issues.
26th Amendment
This Amendment prohibits the states and the federal government from using age as a reason for denying citizens of the United States who are at least eighteen years old the right to vote.
Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971)
(1971) *School Desegregation
Whether forced busing was a good method to desegregate schools. Court ruled that a school district has broad powers to fashion a remedy that will assure a unitary school system.
Affirmative Action
An action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, especially in relation to employment or education; positive discrimination.
Miranda v Arizona (1966)
(1966) *Rights of the Accused
Police failed to inform Miranda of his rights when questioned by the police. Court ruled that the police were in error, and must inform suspects of their 'Miranda Rights'.
Immigration and Naturalization act of 1965
Also known as the Hart-Celler Act, abolished the National Origins Formula that had been in place in the United States since the Emergency Quota Act of 1921.
Illegal Alien
A person who enteres the United States illegally without the proper authorization and documents, or is an alien who once entered the United States legally and has since violated the terms of the status in which he entered the United States or has overstayed the time
Refugee
A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster.
Terrorism
The unlawful use of force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies to achieve political, religious, or idealoigal goals
Oklahoma City Bombing
A domestic terrorist attack. Truck-bomb explosion of the Murrah Federal Building. It killed 168 people on April 19, 1995. The attack was perpetrated by anti-government militant Timothy McVeigh.
September 11, 2001
A Terrorist attack. A total of 19 hijackers, 15 were from Saudi Arabia, the others were from Egypt and the United Arab Emirates, They hijacked 4 planes, one hit the Pentagon, two hit the Twin Towers, and the 4th one was hijacked and the passengers took the plane and crashed the plane in Pennsylvania to protect any other Americans from harm.
USA Patriot Act
After September 11, congress passed a security legislation in order to make the country safer. It gives the authorities enhanced powers, such as looking up library records, to protect the country. Act is an acronym for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism.
Climate Change
A change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.
Gun Control
These Laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of firearms.