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36 terms

pharmacology basics

fundamental concepts in pharmacology for nurses
what is pharmacokinetics
absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion of drugs by the body
what is pharmacodynamics
biochemical and physical effects of drugs, and mechanisms of drug actions
what is pharmacotherapeutics
use of drugs to prevent and treat diseases
what are the different types of names a drug can have
long chemical, generic, or proprietary/trade/brand
what different types of grouping are used to classify drugs
pharmacological class or therapeutic class
what is the pharmacological class
sharing similar characteristics, eg beta-andrenergic
what is the therapeutic class
grouped by what they're used for eg anti-hypertensives
what use are buccal/subllingual and lingual administration
prevent alteration in the stomach/ small intestine
what use is gastric administration
when oral route can't be used
what use is intradermal administration
allergy, TB tests
what use is intramuscular adminstration
rapid action, large doses
what use are IV adminstrations
go into the bloodstream
which vessels are used for IV
what use is oral adminstration
cheap, convenient, safe. has to be conscious and able to swallow
what use are suppositories
local effect, or can be absorbed systemically through mucosa
what good is the respiratory route
rapid, self administerd metered dose inhaler
what good is subcut adminstration
more rapid into bloodstream than mouth
what factors affect absorption rate
route, intestinal factors, liver 1st pass, blood flow to admin site, pain, stress, contents of stomach, drug form, other drugs or food interactions
what is drug absorption
from adminstration until it becomes available for body use
what is the distribution phase
process by which the drug is delivered to the tissues and fluids of the body
what factors are associated with distribution
blood flow, solubility, protein binding
what part does blood flow play in distribution
highest blood flow (heart, liver, kidneys) get served first
what part does solubility play in distribution
can drugs cross cell membranes or blood brain barrier
what role does protein binding play in distribution
binding to protein makes drugs inactive. 80% = highly protein bound
what is drug metabolism
biotransformation or body's ability to change a drug from its dosage form to water soluble that can be excreted
what ways are there for drug metabolisis
into inactive metabolites, from one active into a different active metabolite, or from inactive drugs to active
what are pro drugs
inactive drugs which become active after being metabolised
where are most drugs metabolised
mostly liver, also kidneys, plasma, intestines
what can affect metabolism
liver disease, liver circulation, genes, environment, stress, smoke, developmental age
what is drug excretion
elimination from the body
where are drugs excreted
mostly kidneys, also lungs, sweat, mammary, intestines, skin
what is the half life of a drug
time for half of the drug to be eliminated from the body
what affects the half life
absorption, metabolism and excretion rates
what is the steady state
rate of drug administration equals rate of excretion
how long does it take for a drug given once to be completely elimintated
about 4 or half lives
how long does it take for a regularly administered drug to reach steady state
about 4 or 5 half lives