113 terms

Cardiovascular system

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Thoracic cavity
The upper central area if the body, which is subdivided into 2 cavities, the left pleural cavity and the right pleural cavity.
Pleura
Serous membrane protecting the lungs and lining the internal surface of the thoracic cavity.
True ribs
The first 7 pairs of ribs, which connect directly to the sternum.
False ribs
The 5 pairs of lower ribs that connect to the 7th rib rather than to the sternum, or make no anterior connection.
Nasal septum
The partition between the 2 nasal cavities.
Cilia
Tiny lashlike processes of protoplasm
Olfactory nerves
Nerve that supplies the nasal mucosa and provides a sense of smell.
Sinus
A recessed cavity if hollow space, filled with air, around the nasal cavity
Cavities of the body
pharynx
The throat
Epiglottis
Elastic cartilage that prevents food from entering the trachea.
Larynx
The voice box
Glottis
The space within the vocal cords of the larynx.
Trachea
The windpipe.
Bronchus
1 of the 2 primary branches of the trachea.
Bronchiole
1 of the small subdivisions of a bronchus.
Alveolar sacs (Alveoli)
Air sacs found in the lung.
Pleurisy
Inflammation of the lining of the lungs.
Mediastinum
The intrapleural space separating the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind.
Respiration
The physical and chemical process by which the body supplies the cells and tissues with oxygen and rids them of carbon dioxide.
External respiration
Breathing; the act of inspiration and expiration.
Internal respiration
The exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between cells and the lymph surrounding them; the oxidative process of energy in cells.
Cellular respiration (Oxidation)
The use of oxygen to release energy from the cell.
Inspiration
Inhalation; the process of breathing air in.
Expiration
Exhalation; the process of breathing air out.
Spirometer
A device that measures the volume and flow of air during inspiration and expiration.
Tidal volume
The amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs with each breath.
Asthma
Airway obstruction caused by an inflammatory reaction to a stimulus
Exercise induced asthma
Airway narrowing as a result of increased physical activity.
Asthma
S&S Treatment
S&S coughing, wheezing, dyspnea (difficulty breathing), chest tightness.
TREATMENT inhaler
Bronchoconstriction
Narrowing of the bronchioles
Rib contusion
bruising of the intercostal muscles by a direct blow to the ribs.
S&S point tenderness, pain with palpation, sharp pain with breathing
TREATMENT removal from activity, ice, evaluate for more serious injury.
Rib fracture
A break in the bony structure of the thorax.
S&S pain in breathing, point tenderness, crepitus, rapid shallow breaths
TREATMENT immediate medical attention, treat for shock
Flail chest
A fracture of 3 or more consecutive ribs on the same side of the chest.
Paradoxical
The opposite of what is expected.
Crepitus
A grating feeling produced by fractured bone ends rubbing together.
Chest contusion
Bruising over the central area of the chest as a result of a direct blow
S&S tenderness, swelling, restricted motion
TREATMENT ice, compression
Myocardial contusion
Bruising of the heart muscle
S&S severe pain, rapid onset of shock, cardiac tamponade
TREATMENT activation of EMS, be ready to administer CPR
Cardiac tamponade
A buildup of fluid in the pericardium.
Sudden death syndrom
The rapid collapse and death of an otherwise healthy person; usually the result of an unknown congenital disorder
S&S chest pain, discomfort when exercising, SOB, profuse sweating,
TREATMENT provide CPR until EMS arrives
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Thickening of the cardiac muscle
Pneumothorax
Condition in which air enters the pleural space between the chest wall and ling
S&S chest pain, difficulty breathing, cyanosis (blush color), unequal expansion
TREATMENT activate EMS, apply dressing over wounds,
Sucking chest wound
An open wound in the chest that allows air to enter and become trapped in the pleural space
Pleural space
The space between the lung and the chest wall
Spontaneous pneumothorax
The rupture of a weakened area of the lung, which allows air to escape into the pleural space
Tension pneumothorax
Condition in which the air entrapped in the pleural space puts pressure on the heart and lung
hemopneumothorax
An accumulation of blood in the pleural space
Edema
Swelling
Hemoptysis
Coughing up blood
Ralses
A crackling sound heard when breathing .
Celiac plexus
A cluster of nerves located in the upper middle region of the abdomen; also known as the solar plexus
Hyperventilation
Breathing faster than required for proper exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
S&S chest pain, dizziness
TREATMENT Calm and reassuring, if loss of consciousness and not regained quickly activate EMS
Side stitches
Pain that occurs just under the rib cage during vigorous exercise
S&S pain under ribs
TREATMENT stretching, relaxing, walk briskly
Abdominopelvic cavity
The area from below the diaphragm to the pelvic floor; there is no separation between the abdomen and pelvis
Abdominal cavity
The area of the body that contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, small intestine, appendix, and part of the large intestine
Pelvic cavity
The area of the body containing the urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum, and the remainder of the large intestine
Stomach
A major organ of digestion located in the upper left quadrant of the abdominal cavity
Cardiac sphincter
Circular muscle fibers around the cardiac end of the esophagus
Pyloric sphincter
A valve that regulates the movement of food from the stomach to the duodenum
duodenum
The first part of the small intestine
jejunum
The section of small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum
ileum
The lower part of the small intestine, extending from the jejunum to the large intestine.
absorption
The passage of a substance into the body fluids and tissues.
Villi
Hairlike projections
Bilirubin
one of two pigments that determines the color of bile; reddish in color
Hepatic duct
The structure that carries bile from the liver to the common bile duct,
Cystic duct
The duct from the gallbladder to the common bile duct
Common bile duct
The passage that brings bile to the duodenum
Jaundice
A buildup of bilirubin and bile in the bloodstream, which tints skin and eyes a yellowish color
Glycogen
A polysaccharide formed and stored in the liver
Gallbaldder
A small pearshaped organ that stores and concentrates bile
Colon
The large intestine
Cecum
A pouch at the proximal end of the large intestine
Vermiform appendix
A fingerlike projection, of unknown function, that protrudes into the abdominal cavity to the lower left cecum
Ascending colon
The portion of the colon that travels up the right side of the abdominal cavity
Tranverse colon
The portion of the colon that veers left across the abdomen to the spleen
Descending colon
The portion of the colon that travels down to the left side of the abdominopelvic cavity
Sigmoid colon
The S-shaped portion of the colon
Rectum
The portion of the colon that opens into the anus
Retroperitoneal
Located behind the peritoneum
Renal fascia
The tough fibrous tissue covering the kidney
Hilum
The indentation along the medial boarder of the kidney
Renal pelvis
The funnel shaped structure at the beginning of the ureter
Cortex
The outer portion of an organ
Medulla
The inner portion of an organ
Nephron
The functional unit of the kidney
Afferent Arteriole
Structure that takes blood from the renal artery to the Bowmans capsule
Bowmans capsule
The double walled capsule around the glomerulus of a nephron
Glomerulus
Capillaries inside the Bowmans capsule
Proximal convoluted tubule
The twisted tubular branch off the bowmans capsule
Loop of henle
The proximal convoluted that decends into the medulla
Distal convoluted tubule
The tubular structure that ascends to the cortex from the loop of henle
Collecting tubule
The structure in the nephron that collects urine from the distal convoluted tubule
Efferent arteriole
The structure that carries blood from the glomerulus
Ureters
The long, narrow tube that conveys urine from the kidneys to the badder
Urinary bladder
A muscular, membrane lined sac that holds urine
Urethra
The tube that takes urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
Urinary meatus
The outside opening of the urethra
Epigastric region
The upper region of the abdomen
Umbilical area
The area located around the naval
The nine regions of the abdomen
Hypogastric region
The lower region of the abdomen
Kidney contusion
Bruising of the kidney
S&S pain in high posterior abdomen radiating to lower abdominal region
TREATMENT must be taken to hospital immediatly
Hematuria
Blood in the urine
Liver contusion
S&S bleeding, shock, refered pain below right scapula, right shoulder
Spleen
A large lymphatic organ that filters blood and helps activate the immune system
Kehrs sign
Pain that radiates to the left shoulder and down the left arm; results from a spleen injury or rupture
Spleen injury
S&S pain, low BP
TREATMENT Activation of EMS , treatment for shock
Hernia
A protrusion of abdominal tissue through a portion of the abdominal wall
S&S bulge, pain
TREATMENT surgery
Right upper quadrant
liver, pancreas, right kidney
Left upper quadrant
Spleen, stomach, left kidney, pancreas (Part)
Right lower quadrant
Appendix, right ovary, bladder (Midline)
Left lower quadrant
Colon, left ovary