61 terms

Nonverbal communications: Exam 1

All the exam question review and chapter information!

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Who is Clever Hans? What is the "moral" of this story?
An amazing horse that had the ability to respond to almost imperceptible and unconscious movements by those surrounding him instead of having the ability to verbalize or understand verbal commands.
why is it difficult to provide an exact definition of nonverbal communication?
nonverbal communication refers to communication effected by means other than words, assuming words are the verbal element. However, separating verbal and nonverbal behavior into two separate is impossible. Also, it is difficult to know if we we signal is what is being said or being understand (p.5) In a way, a distinction between verbal content and non verbal behavior is artifical
What are the 6 ways nonverbal behaviors are related to verbal language? What are examples of each?
repeating: Pointing to the direction you said
conflicting:happy couple in a fight
complementing: to eloborate
substituting: frowning face to sub your bad day
accenting/moderating: father scolding son with firm grip and frown
regulating: coordinating with message and partner
Your text outlines 3 primary units of nonverbal behavior-what are these 3? What specific channels or nonverbal features could be classified under each?
the environmental structure and conditions within which communication takes place.
the physical characteristics of the communicators themselves, and
the various behaviors manifested by the communicators.

Extra questions on page 7
What are the different functions of nonverbal behaviors?
What was the importance of Darwin's perspective for the study of nonverbal behaviors?
That man has similar expression of emotion with animals. That increasing use of the face, voice, and body for emotional and communicative purposes demonstrated the process of evolutionary advancement.
what was the importance of Darwin's perspective for the study of nonverbal communication?
a) Darwin (1872) "the expression of emotion in man and animal"
(i) Example: infant crying and animals
(ii) Darwin is the first to discover the purpose of expression and how they were universal.
• The main six
What did Kretschmer and Sheldon link with personality?
that if we measure and analyze a person's body, we can learn much about their intelligence, temperament, moral worth, and achievement.
What did Efron conclude regarding his study of gestures and culture?
it documented the important role of culture in shaping our gesture and body movements.He found a innovating idea and method of studying gestures and body langauges.
What was Birdwhistell's contribution to the study of nonverbal communication?
(i) "introduction to kinesics"
(ii) Nonverbal behaviors were socially learn
(iii) That nonverbal behavior is like language
(iv) Making a chart of nonverbal behavior similar to a grammar chart
(v) Showed connection between verbal and nonverbal: D

What was Hall's focus of study?
(i) "Silent Language"
(ii) Interested in cultural space and territory. Proxemics
(iii) Also the cultural reference of time

What did Rosenthal conclude based on his "Pygmalion in the Classroom" study?
(i) "Pygmalion in the classroom"
(ii) Demand characteristic or experimental bias
• In an experiment between two things and you are finding the cause and effect
• When you expect this certain behavior to people then people will accomplish them

attention the potential impact of nonverbal subtleties when he showed how experimenters can affect the outcome of experiments and teachers can affect the intelectual growth of their students through nonverbal behavior
What was Ekman & Friesen's focus of study? What were their conclusions?
(i) "origins, uses, and coding of nonverbal behavior"
(ii) Facial expression
(iii) Across culture we share the same emotions
(iv) Wanted to make an atlas of the face
(v) Facial affect coding system (FACS)
(vi) Every culture have rules to shown certain emotions are certain times

distingished five areas of nonverbal study that served as a guide for their own research. They are emblems, illustrators, affect display, regulator, and adaptor
How did the emphasis in the study of nonverbal communication change in the 1980s?
We started to focus on identifying the ways in which a variety of nonverbal signals work together to accomplish common communication goals. It went from non interactive situations to interactive ones, from one person to both people, to studying over time,
What were the new trends of research in the 1990s and beyond?
a) Perception
(i) We drew conclusions from the observer and the subject
b) Biology
(i) Nature vs. nurture
c) Technology
What can you conclude based on the evidence from sensory deprivation? What evidence helps you make this conclusion?
that spontaneous expressions of sadness, crying, laughing, smiling, pouting, anger, surprise, and fear are not significantly different in blind/deaf children.

There main difference was the subtle gradation in the onset and passing of expressions were not there and that the absence of facial blends among the blind/deaf suggesst that this is a trait that needs learning.

Most of this information was gathered through observation.
What can you conclude based on the evidence from infants? What evidence helps you make this conclusion?
newborn babies seem to have the facial muscle actions necessary to express virtually all the basic affect display of adults. They may express the same facial structures; however, not feeling. Babies feel joy and interest, but not fear, disgust, or anything else.

Young babies can intimate tongue protrusion , mouth opening, lip protrusion, and finger movement.

Also, the can imitate behavior from memory after a 24 hour delay.

Differential emotion theory or DET proposes a strong genetic basis for facial expressions, and thus emotions would produce the same distinctive facial pattern in both infant and adults.
What can you conclude based on the evidence from twins studies? What evidence helps you make this conclusion?
That through genes may account for half of the variance associated with a particular behavior, this is almost never a highly deterministic, single gene influence. The genetic influence on behavior can be substantial, but nongenetic factors like family environment are responsible for at least half of the variance in most complex behavior.

They cannot track body language, but this seems to be one of the twin's main personality trait.
What can you conclude based on the evidence from nonhuman primates? What evidence helps you make this conclusion?
That the behavior similarities are linked to common biological and social problems that confront human and nonhuman primates. We also form political alliances to gain power, show empathy, do favors, and fight. We also very similar facial expressions and eye behavior during conversations

This ultimately ended with the possibilities that our behavior may be rooted in our biological makeup.
What can you conclude based on the evidence from multicultural studies? What evidence helps you make this conclusion?
Because human beings around the world share certain biological and social functions, it should not be surprising to find areas of similarity.

But remember, the role of culture and how surely it will contribute significantly to differences in nonverbal behavior. ore specifically, how the behavior will vary and the cultural norms and rules that govern the management of behavior will differ.
What is the eyebrow flash? What is its general function
Eibl-Eibesfeldt is the rapid raising of the eyebrows maintained for one sixth of a second before lowering among. It is common Europeans, balinese, Papuans, samoans, South American Indians, Bushmen, and other. IT is used as a friendly greeting behavior, approval, seeking confirmation, flirting, thanking, or emphasizing a statement. Japanese suppress them
What factors or characteristics are related to encoding skills?
power distance extent to which a culture maintains hierarchical, status, and power differences among its members
individualism-collectivism: degree to which a culture encourages individual needs, wishes, desires, and values versus group and collective one
What tests are used to assess encoding ability?
b) Affect communication test (ACT)
(i) I show that I like someone by hugging or touching that person
(ii) I dislke being watch by a large grouo of people
(iii) I sually have a neutral facial expression
(iv) I can easily epress meotion over the telephone
c) Movement -mirroring test (MMT)
(i) Come to lab with researcher
(ii) Research makes a facial expression
(iii) You mimick
(iv) To test if you are accurate at mimicking
(v) Downside
• Have to good decoding skills
What factors are related to decoding skill?
3) Decoding skills
a) Personality characteristics
(i) Empathy at how others are feeling
(ii) High self-monitors are good at decoding skills
b) Need for social inclusion
(i) Some people are good with one friends (me) others need many
c) Similarity
(i) Express things similar to you
(ii) Makes it easier for us to decode
d) Sex
(i) Female score a little bit higher than males
(ii) Males and females are equal bad at deception
What tests are used to assess decoding ability?
4) Tests of decoding ability
a) Profile of nonverbal sensitivity (PONS)
(i) Standard test for the 70s
(ii) Widley use
(iii) You watch clips where you decipher the videos, they give you answers options
(iv) Only show you parts of the body
(v) Written by judy halls
b) Diagnostic analysis of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA)
(i) Only focus on emotions
(ii) Happiness, fear, sadness, and anger
(iii) Testing pure emotions :D
(iv) Only focus on facial or vocal
c) Japanese and Caucasian brief affect Recognition test (JACBART)
(i) It was initially for cauciasian and then expanded to different cultures such as Japanese
(ii) Micro moment expreessions
d) Interpersonal perception task (IPT)
(i) Video taped people interacting and you had to detect the expression
(ii) Example: who won the match and who is the boss?
e) Test of nonverbal cue knowledge (TONCK)
(i) Final exam :D T/F
What are the characteristics associated with good observation skills are discussed in class?
a) Understand human perceptual limitations
(i) Example: the eye-witness account
b) Having a flexibility between focusing on details and the larger picture
(i) Did you see that?!
(ii) Speed dating
(iii) The plane trip
What are the two different approaches to research?
the first difference deals with the starting point of the research. In the descriptive approach using research questions, the researcher literally works from the ground up by starting with descriptions

the hypothesis test approach decides beforehand in very specific terms what to look for and examines only the hypothesis

the second difference between the descriptive and the hypothesis approaches occur after the research has been conducted. The researcher often wants too explain the finding. Explanation focuses on the "how" and why" questions that people ask. Researcher generally rely on their own interpretations and the interpretations of the people they observe to explain their data and to generate new theory and ideas.
Research using their hypothesis test approach explain their findings using the theory
What is the difference between a research question and a hypothesis?
a research question is used when people wish to describe nonverbal communication. Most research questions are finding descriptive categories; finding relationships between things; finding differences in one thing based on another. They are used when researchers don't want limited information or when there is not enough information to make a specific predication.

hypothesis is an educated guess that predict relationships or look for differences. Hypothesizes are used to predict a specific relationship between a nonverbal behavior and another nonverbal behavior or between a nonverbal behavior and a perception or outcome. Also, they are used to predict specific differences between people, groups, relationships, or situations
What are the four major methods used in nonverbal research? What are the disadvantages and advantages of each?
laboratory experiments, controlled observations, field experiments, and naturalistic observations.
Laboratory: researcher brings people to a research site, arranges for events to occur, and measures the effects. It occurs in controlled setting with a manipulation. It is used when nonverbal behavior cannot be achieved in the natural setting.

Controlled: researchers want to bring subjects into a controlled environment even though they do not need to manipulate anything. It is a controlled setting without a manipulation. It is useful when researchers need to collect specific information that is not readily available or is hard to record in naturalistic environment. By using this method, the researcher could keep some things about the interactions consistent across all the participants.

field: naturalistic setting with a manipulation.These types of experiments provide a sense of realism that is not present in the first two. Get a variety of people and the behavior looks more natural.

naturalistic: a study conducted in a naturalistic setting without a manipulation. when a researcher wants to be able to describe nonverbal communication in great detail but without clearly specifying what causes what. It is used when a researcher wants to be able to describe nonverbal communication in great detail but without clearly specifying what causes what. The behavior looks more natural then lab observation. Get a variety of people. Difficult to find specific behavior.
What are the different ways to gather data? What's the difference between rating scales and coding system in observation measures?
surveys, coding system, field notes, diaries, and measures of physiological response.

coding system: allow the researcher to observe nonverbal communication directly. There are two types of coding systems: the first list various types of nonverbal behavior, and the recorder just checks off the behavior when it is observed or rate how often or well it is performed. The second one provides symbols to record specific nonverbal behaviors.
When a researcher discusses a relationship between two variables, what does this mean? What does a positive relationship mean? Negative relationship?
H) Relationships and differences
1) Relationships
a) Examining how one variable is related to another
(i) a.k.a:
• Correlations
• Associations
(ii) Direction of relationships
• Positive
o One variable increases, so does the other
o Example: relationship of amount of smiling and number of sales
• Negative (or inverse)
o Decrease Number of sales as interpersonal distance increase
When a researcher discusses differences, what does this means?
K) Relationships and differences
1) Relationship
a) Examining how one variable is related to another
2) Differences
a) Examining if two or more groups differ from each other on a particular variable
where is the zones of participation in classrooms? Which group of people does the zone of participation not increase participation from?
That students participate can be facilitated by visual contact with the instructor, and that students who participate in it tend to position themselves in seats that are close to the instructor or within the instructor's likely field of gaze. It can also be in the middle of the class. Low participators remained low even when they are put in the participation area. Moderate increase slightly.
What were Mehrabian's original 2 dimensions to describe the environment?
(i) Novel-familiar
• Picture of Japanese woman with traditional clothing
• Do you know what is going on
(ii) Complex -simple
• Picture of empty sixth street
• Friday night on sixth street
• Senses overload
What are the 6 dimensions Knapp and Hall used to describe the environment?
Perception of formality, warmth, privacy, familiarity, constraint, and distance
What were Mehrabian's 3 dimensions to describe our reaction to the environment?
how aroused the environment makes us feel
how pleasurable we fell
how dominant we feel

Mehrabian commented that all environments could profitably be examined by looking at emotional reactions to them.
What are features of the environment that might influence our communication?
our perception of time and our natural environment
Should re-read pages 104-110
How do other people in the environment affect communication?
They can become nonpersons such as cab drivers, janitors, and children where they are ignored by the active participants in a conversations.
What are social facilitation and social loafing?
social facilitation is when certain tasks are enhanced due to the mere presence of others.
Social loafing is when people feel their own contributions cannot be tallied or evaluated and they slack.
What are features of architectural design and moveable objects that affect communication?
color, sound, lighting, and moveable objects, and structure and design
What are the 4 perceptions of time as discussed by Knapp and Hall?
time as location, duration, intervals, and patterns of intervals

page 105-106
What are the differences between monochromic time and polychromic time?
Monochromic time: to do one thing at a time.You do one thin at atime, concerntrate on the job, take time commitment serious, are low-context and need information, and are commited to the job. It is in the U.S., European cultures, and other western cultures such as Switzerland, Germany, and Scandinavia.

Polychronic time: to do many things at once and by a great involvement with people. There is more emphasis on human transaction than schedules. It is less tangible. They are highly distractible and subject to interruption. Consider time commitment an objective to be achieved. Are high context and already have information. Are committed to people and human relationships.
o Such more fluid sense of time
o They may schedule it, when everyone gets their
o Put multiple things for a time period
o Punctuality is not a norm
o Person oriented: conversations naturally end
o Latino and Middle-Eastern cultures
o Less sense of boundary
What were the conclusions of festinger, schachter, and Back's study of proximity?
housing dysfunctional distance seem to be highly influential due to architectural design
development of married students.
functional distance led to data clearly demonstrating the artiect can have a tremendous influence on the social life of redirection in these housing projects.
functional distance is determined by the number of contact that position and design encourage
Friendship morel likely for people on the same floor or building
people near roadways have more interaction
what are the 3 types of territory?
Primary, Secondary, and Public.
What are the 3 territory encroachments?
violation, invasion, and contamination
What are 3 ways we defend our territory as discussed in class? How do Knapp and Hallclassify territory defenses? What are examples of each?
The three that we talked about in class are: markers (name plates), offensive/defensive displays (trying to avoid eye contact), and tenure (your seat from the start).
Knapp and Hall's territory defenses are prevention and reaction. Prevention: (means staking our territory so it is recognized by others) through tenure, markers....reaction?
How does the norm of politeness influence territory defenses?
is strong enough to inhibit direct verbal responses. It is off the record and can convey the message without provoking confrontation. We don't want our space violate and we don't want to violate their's. Page 141
What is the difference between density and crowding?
density refers to the number of people per unit of spaces
crowding is a feeling state that may developed in high or low density situations
What are factors that affect crowding?
environmental, personal, social, and goal-related factors
environmental: absence of territorial markers, unwanted noise,
personal: gender and personal characteristics like low self esteem
social factors: high frequency of unwanted social contact in close quarters
goal related: inability to accomplish what you desired
What were the general conclusions drawn about the effect of high density on human beings?
that increased denstiy does not automatically increased stress/antisocial behavior in humans (football games) and that we blame high density for undesirable effects, either because it is an obvious feature of the situation and has a reputation for causing problems, or becasue the real causes are things we do not wish to face.
How do we cope with high density?
spending less time with each input (shorter convo)
disregarding low-priority inputs (not talking to regulars)
shifting the responsibility for some transactions to others (not asking the bus driver for change)
blocking inputs (using attendants to guard apartment building)
what are the four levels of our "personal bubble" (conversational distance)?
personal space/ informal space/ interpersonal space:
intimate (0-18 in), casual-personal (1.5-4 feet), social-consultative (4-12 ft), and public (12 to infinity)
What are the factors that affect personal space preferences?
sex, age, cultural and ethnic background, topic or subject matter, setting for the interaction, physical characteristics, attitudinal and emotional orientation, characteristics of the interpersonal relationship, and personality characteristics
What factors affecting seating arrangements?
leadership, dominance, task, sex and acquaintance, introversion-extraversion
What is the major premise of Expectancy Violation Theory (EVT)? What are the key concepts?
This theory explains how you are likely to respond differently to your partner's increase or decrease in intimacy depending on whether you think your partner is rewarding or unrewarding.
Suggest that we can actually produce more positive outcomes by behavior in unexpected ways then by doing what others expect.
The key concepts are expectancy, expectancy violations, violation valence, and communicator reward.

Expectations: It can be either predictive (tell us hat to expect in a given situation based on what usually occurs in the situation) or prescriptive (what to expect in a given situation based on what is appropriate or desired. These are driven by physical characteristics, relationships, context,

expectancy violation: positive violations produce more favorable outcomes and negative violations produce more unfavorable ones.

Violations valence: when something unexpected can be consider positive or negative. We make judgments when our expectations are violated that help us to label the experience as positive or negative. This includes the nature of the behavior like getting punch or being taken on a cruse. Other times, they are vague.

communicator reward level: It is when we cannot decide on the valence of the violation by looking only at the behavior, we think about the characteristics of the person who caused the violation, and how rewarding we consider that person to be. This can result to positive or negative responses if the person is rich, attractive, powerful or the opposite.

Extra notes:
People develop expectation about the verbal and nonverbal communication of others.
violations of these expectations are arousing and distracting
communicator reward level influences how ambiguous communication behavior are interpreted and evaluated.
an example of Primary territories?
the exclusive domain of the owner which serves as the daily functioning of the owner and are guarded carefully against invaders. Such as, homes, our bubbles, possessional territories
an example of secondary territories?
are not exclusive to the owner or a central to our lives such as a bar, cafe, etc. Using a magazine or watching tv
an example of public territory?
temporary ownership such as parks, beaches, streets, telephone booths
what is an example of violation?
the unwarranted use of another's territory through eye contact, loud voices/noises, or body. Page 138

staring at somebody eating in a ublic restaurant
somebody talking loudly nearby on their cell phone
taking up two seats
what is an example of invasion?
more all-encompassing and permanent or an attempt to take over another's territory.
a wife turning her husband's den into a computer room
what is an example of contamination
defiling another's territory
somebodies dog pooing in your lawn