J2500 Exam 2


Terms in this set (...)

What is audience?
No unified theory of what it is
What are the audience's various conceptualizations?
- Mass
- Agent
- Outcome
Influences of individual audience differences on persuasion
- Audience needs: sensation seeking
- Audience orientation: empathy disposition, authoritarianism
Importance of Individual Differences
- message selection or avoidance
- attention and interpretation
- retention
What is consumer behavior?
The process and activities people engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services.
5 Steps in Consumer Decision Making & Parallel Psychological Process
1. Problem & Motivation
2. Information search & Perception
3. Alternative evaluation & Attitude formation
4. Purchase decision & Integration
5. Post-purchase evolution & Learning
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
1. Self-actualization needs (self-development, realization)
2. Esteem (self-esteem, recognition, status)
3. Social (sense of belonging, love)
4. Safety (security, protection)
5. Physiological (hunger, thirst)
Freudian Psychoanalytic Approach
- Breaking the Code
- deep rooted motivations that underlie behavior and often lie in the subconscious
The Perception Process
1. Receive
2. Select
3. Organize
4. Interpret
Cognitive Dissonance
- when we experience conflict between belief and behavior
- discomfort
- seek to resolve inconsistency
Memory-Based (Multi-Attribute) Attitude Model
- Attitude toward an object (brand) is a product of the...
a. the accessibility/saliency of available considerations
b. weight or applicability of each accessible consideration
External Influences on Consumer Behavior
1. Culture
2. Subculture
3. Social class
4. Reference Group
5. Situational determinants
What is communication?
The dynamic process of creating, transmitting and interpreting messages that elicit a response
Steps of Communication Process
1. Source/Sender
2. Encoding
3. Channel Message
4. Decoding
5. Receiver
AIDA model
Personal selling process
Hierarchy of effects model
Advertising process
Innovation adoption model
New product adoption
Information processing model
How ad info is processes
- Awareness is basic to all response models and first step
- Move beyond awareness to understand attitudes and behavior
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
Central Route and Peripheral Route
Central Route
- When elaboration likelihood is relatively high
- Cognitive responses (CR): our cognitive reactions to the message: Can be positive or negative
- Emphasis on strong message arguments:
a. Strong argument = Positive CRs
b. Weak Arguments = Negative CRs
c. Persuasion is a function of valence and number of CRs
- "Information-rich ads"
Peripheral Route
- When elaboration likelihood is relatively low we look for factors peripheral to the message's content
- Emphasis on simple decision rules (mental shortcuts) called "heuristic cues"
Central vs. Peripheral
- High ability and high motivation = central processing
- Any other combination = peripheral processing
- The distinction between central and peripheral processing is NOT how much information you process, RATHER, it is what you process
o Central route: arguments
o Peripheral: cues
Persuasion Matrix
Relies on independent and dependent variable
Source factors
- Person involved in communicating a marketing message
- Attributes that may have an influence are:
a. Source credibility
b. Source attractiveness
Source credibility
- Credibility: perception of believe ability
- Two dimensions:
a. Expertise
b. Trustworthiness
Limitations of Credibly Sources
- Sleeper Effect: persuasiveness increases overtime for low credibility sources
- Discounting Model: explains sleeper effect
Source Attractiveness
- Similarity
a. Resemblance between the source and recipient of the message
- Familiarity
a. Knowledge of the source through repeated or prolonged exposure
- Likability
a. Affection for the source resulting from physical appearance, behavior, or personal traits
Celebrities in Messages: Risks
- Overshadowing
- Behavior
- Receptiveness
a. Unfamiliarity
b. Apathy
Message Factors
Anything dealing with the content of the message itself
- Structure
- Arguments
- Evidence
- Language
Argument placement
- Optimal location depends on audience orientation and interest
- Primary Effect (Beginning) vs. Recency Effect (End)
Arguments - Conclusion Drawing
- Firm vs. Open conclusion
- Choice may depend on:
1. Target audience
2. Issue/topic
3. Context
Evidence - Message Sidedness
- One-sided and two-sided
- Effectiveness depends upon prior attitude, less prior knowledge and prior education
One-sided message
- Favorable arguments only
- Most effective with those who already have favorable attitude
- Less prior knowledge/education
Two-sided message
- Favorable and opposing arguments, refutational two-sided messages
- Effective with those with unfavorable attitude
- Higher prior knowledge/education
Advantages of two-sided Messages
- Credibility
- Inoculation
- Creates a doubt
Statistical Evidence
information expressed in numbers, can be used in persuasive messages
Narrative Evidence
case stories or example, can be used in persuasive messages
Message Content
Logical Appeals (Logos) vs. Emotional Appears (Pathos)
Emotional Appeals: Humor
- Attention
- Retention
- Likability
- Positivity
- Peripheral cues

- Not always effective
- May influence recall
- Credibility
Emotional Appeals: Fear
Message that communicates, personally relevant threat; in order to work: efficacy perceptions > threat perceptions. Too much fear = less persuasive
- Attention
- May motivate for resolution
- Defensive motivation
- Avoidance
Emotional Appeals: Guilt
Guilt: When you feel your behavior does not meet your own standards
- Level of guilt influences persuasion
- Related: door-in-the-face technique
Channel factors:
Message delivery (medium) considers:
- Oral vs. written
- Face to face vs. mediated
- Traditional media (print, radio, TV) vs. new technology (computer, mobile phones, social medias)
Channel Factors: Technology
- Computer-mediated communication: E-mail, instant messages, mobile technology, social media
- Combine many aspects of old-media
- Credibility assessment important because gatekeepers are absent.
- Personalization