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represents the covalent bonds by dashes and shows the arrangement of covalently bonded atoms
a tightly bound group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and behaves as a unit
the structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion
a bond formed when two atomic orbitals form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting two atomic nuclei
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in sausage-shaped regions above and below the bond axis of the bonded atoms
a bond angle of 109.5 that results when a central atom forms four bonds directed toward the center of a regular tetrahedron
because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that valence electron pairs are as far apart as possible
the mixing of several atomic orbitals to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals
van der waals force
the two weakest intermolecular attractions-dispersion interactions and dipole forces
intermolecular forces resulting from the attraction of oppositely charged regions of polar molecules
attractions between molecules caused by the electron motion on one molecule affecting the electron motion on the other through electrical forces; these are the weakest interactions between molecules
attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently boned to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared pair of another electronegative atom
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