53 terms

The blood

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Blood
Transports everything that must be carried from one place to another within the body
Formed elements
Complex connective tissues in which living blood cells
Plasma
Nonliving fluid matrix
Buffy Coat
A thin whitish layer
Hematocrit
A percentage of the total blood volume
Albumin
Acts as a carrier to shuttle certain molecules through the circulation.
Erythrocytes (RBC)
Function primarily to ferry oxygen in blood to all cells of the body.
Hemoglobin (HB)
An iron bearing protein that transports the bulk of the oxygen that is carried in the blood.
Anemia
A decrease in the oxygen carrying ability of the blood
Sickle cell anemia
The abnormal hemoglobin formed becomes spiky and sharp
Sickle cell trait
Generally do not display the symptoms but can pass on the sickle cell gene to their offspring
Polycythemia
An excessive or abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes
Leukocytes (WBC)
Are crucial to body defense against disease.
Diapedesis
White blood cells, by contrast, are able to slip into and out of the blood vessels.
Positive chemotaxis
The body by responding to certain chemicals that diffuse from the damage cells.
Ameboid motion
Form flowing cytoplasmic extensions that help move them along
Leukocytosis
Indicates that a bacterial or viral infection is stewing in the body
Leukopenia
An abnormally low WBC count
Leukemia
The bone marrow becomes cerous, and huge numbers of WBC are turned out rapidly.
Granulocytes
Granule-containing WBc
Neutrophils
Have a multi-lobed nucleus and very fine granules that respond to both acidic and basic stains
Eosinophils
Have a blue red nucleus that resembles an old fashion telephone receiver and sport coarse, lysosomes like, brick red cytoplasmic granules
Basophils
Rarest of the WBC containing granules that stain dark blue.
Histamine
An inflammatory chemical that makes blood vessels leaky and attracts other WBC to the inflammatory site
Agranulocytes
Lack visible cytoplasmic granules
Lymphocytes
Large dark purple nucleus that occupies most of the cell volume
Monocytes
Have distinct U shaped nucleus, they resemble large lymphocytes
Platelets
Not cells in strict sense, fragments of megakaryocytes
Megakaryocytes
Fragments of bizarre multinucleate cells
Hematopoiesis
Blood cell formation
Hemocytoblast
Blood cell former
Erythropoietin
A hormone that controls the rate of erythrocyte prodcution
Hemostasis
Stoppage of bleeding
Vascular spasms
The immediate response to blood vessel injury
Platelet plug formation
Become sticky and cling to the damaged site
Tissue factor
A substance that plays an important role in clotting
PF3
A phospholipid that coats the surface of the platelets
Prothrombin activator
Converts prothrombin present in plasma to thrombin
Thrombin
An enzyme
Fibrogen
Thrombin then joins proteins into fibrin
Fibrin
Insoluble hairlike molecules
Thrombus
A clot that develops and persists is an unbroken blood vessel
Emblus
A thrombus that breaks away from the vessel wall and floats freely in the blood stream
Thromobocytopenia
Insufficient number of circulating platelets
Petechiae
Small purplish blotches on the skin
Hemophilia
Several different hereditary bleeding disorders that result from a lack of any of the factors needed for clotting
Antigen
A substance that the body recognizes as foreign
Antibodies
Present in the plasma that attaches to RBC bearing surface antigens different from those on the patients RBC
Agglutination
Binding of the antibodies causes foreign RBC to clump
ABO blood groups
Based on two antigens, type A, and type B, a person inherents
Rh blood groups
One of the eight Rh antigens was originally identified in Rhesus monkeys
Hemolysis
rupture of RBC
Blood typing
Blood group in both donors and recipients