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AP Euro Unit 9
Terms in this set (64)
Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria took Macedonia from the Ottomans in 1912. Serbia then fought Bulgaria in the second Balkan War in 1913 Austria intervened to stop the war. These wars were mostly territorial and were a precursor to World War I.
Berlin Conference (1885)
Laid down the rules for the conquest of Africa: 1) European countries holding a coast inland. 2) Occupation must be with real troops 3) Must give notice of which countries were occupied. 4) Started the scramble for Africa.
Ultra Nationalist, Serbian Society founded in 1911. Secretly supported by members of the Serbian government.
Forced recruitment of civilians into the army to meet the needs of war.
Charles I (1887-1922)
Last Austrian Emperor abdicated Nov. 1918. The next day Austria was declared a Republic as was Hungary
Entente Cordiale (1904)
Britain gained control of Egypt. France gained control of Morocco. But not a written alliance only and agreement. Basically against Germany.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.
Not becoming involved in global or regional events.
French general led the French at the Battle of the Marne in 1914.
Kaiser William II
Germany. Dismissed Bismarck in 1890. Did not renew Bismarck's treaty with Russia and "Forced" Russia to look for another ally, France.
1896, William II sent Kruger of the Transvaal a congratulatory telegram upon hearing of the failure of the Jamison Raid. Alerted Britain of the dangers from Germany.
V. I. Lenin
Believed in Marxist Socialism: 1) Believed capitalism must be destroyed. 2) A social revolution was possible in backward Russia. 3) The need for highly trained workers partly controlled by revolutionaries like himself.
League of Nations
Allies worked out terms for peace with Germany, 1919, precursor to the United Nations.
Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.
Battle of the Marne
A major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI. In reality lost Germany the war.
Morocco Crisis (1911)
After the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference- German bullying forced England and France closer. Germany gained nothing.
the last tsar. Wanted supreme rule of army and government. Led the armies to defeat. Forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Duma.
The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty between Bolsheviks and Germans to get Russia out of the war. 1) Russia lost 1/3 of her population. 2) height of German success in WWI. Signed by Lenin.
Treaty of Versailles
Negotiated by the Big Three Germany was stripped of colonies Alsace and Loraine given back to France. Poland was reconstituted as a state. Polish corridor would split Prussia from Germany. The Saar region would be French for 15 years. Heavy repercussions (not specified until later.)
Battle of Verdun
1916 German assault on the French fortress- turned into a battle of attrition France won.
Triple Entente (1914)
Great Britain, France, and Russia.
Wilson's Fourteen Points
President Wilson's Peace proposal in 1918 stressed national self-determination and the rights of the small countries. Freedom of the seas and free trade. Clemenceau said, "God only had ten."
U.S. President, who led USA into WWI. He proposed the 14 points. He attended the peace conference at Versailles.
German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico City telling him to promise the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the U.S. the telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British, shocked the American public.
Army Order #1
Issued by the Petrograd Soviet shipped offices of their authority and placed the power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers.
In Russia 1905 Russian soldiers inadvertently opened fire on demonstrators, turning them against the tsar. Possibly the start of the Revolution.
Secret police set up by Lenin-arrested "enemies of the revolution".
Uprising in Russia mainly soldiers soon suppressed-first manifestation of the modern revolutionary movement inspired by ideology.
Issued by the Russian Government in 1906. The tsar retained great power. The Duma was elected by universal male suffrage. The Upper House could pass laws but the Tsar had veto power.
Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.
Wanted to be the savior of Russia. Tried to stage a coup-demanded the resignation of all ministers Kerensky ordered him to turn over command. But soldiers refused to follow him.
Rebellion of previously loyal sailors at the naval base. Suppressed by the military. After the revolt Lenin introduced the N.E.P.
Bolsheviks become the leaders of Russia.
Peasant village assembly responsible to the government.
Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma.
"Peace, Bread, and Land"
Lenin's slogan in the Revolution. Peace from the war; Land for the peasants; Food for all.
The annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938.
Between Hitler and Japan; offered security against Russia.
August 1941; called for peace without territorial expansion or secret agreements, and for free elections, and self - determination for all liberated nations.
Called by the Allies in 1943 to discuss strategy against Germany. Resolved to accept nothing less than unconditional surrender of Axis powers. Also called for an invasion of Italy and Sicily by British and American troops to ease the pressure on Russia.
gullible British Prime Minister; at the Munich Conference he declared he had secured "peace for our time" He declared that Britain and France would fight if Hitler attacked Poland. Forced to resign in 1940 after the German invasion of France.
1874-1965; greatest wartime leader; rallied the British with his speeches, infectious confidence, and bulldog determination; known for his "iron curtain" speech in 1946; led the British during World War II; agreed Hitler should be conquered; was thrown out in the election of 1945.
June 6, 1944; Americans and British forces under General Dwight Eisenhower landed on the beaches of Normandy; this was history's greatest naval invasion.
Battle of Stalingrad
Turning point for Germany in the war. From July 1942 to January 1943 after initial success the Russians recaptured the city.
French leader of the radical socialists; accepted Hitler's terms for peace and reluctant to declare war in 1939.
Spanish nationalist General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.
Room to move. Phrase used by Hitler to justify invasion of other countries. First espoused in Mein Kampf.
In 1941, the US lent money and resources to the European states to help reconstruction.
Line of defense built by France to protect against German invasion. Stretched from Belgium to Switzerland.
Munich Conference (1938)
Chamberlain, France and other countries (not the USSR); they agreed that Sudentenland should be ceded to Germany; Chamberlain secured peace with Germany.
Anabaptists laid great stress on this; they would not run for office or serve in the armed forces; not being involved in many wars.
1936; close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined; resulted from Hitler; who had supported Ethiopia and Italy, he overcame Mussolini's lingering doubts about the Nazis.
"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.
Russo-German Nonaggression Pact
Hitler and Stalin promised to remain neutral if either country were to become involved in war; August 1939. Was supposed to last 10 years, but Hitler invaded Russia in 1941.
Communist statesman; leader of Bolshevik Party; became ruler of USSR after Lenin; assumed full military and political leadership.
- Meeting in 1943; Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill; confirmed their defense to crush Hitler.
On the Black Sea; the Big Three met in February 1945 in southern Russia; it was agreed that Germany would be divided into zones of occupation and would pay heavy reparations to the soviet Union in the form of agricultural and industrial goods; when the Big Three met in 1945 at Yalta in southern Russia they agreed that east European governments were to be freely elected but pro-soviet.
Chancellor of Germany in 1949; the former mayor of Cologne and a long-time anti-Nazi, who began his long highly successful democratic rule; West Germany had a majority of Christian Democrats; helped regain respect for Germany
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