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Pharm- Hallucinogens, Anesthetics, NM blockers, *** hormones, Preg drugs, Cancer, Toxicology
Terms in this set (50)
Lysergic and diethylamide
Indole. Hallucinogen. Can cause pupillary dilation, HTN, tachycardia, piloerection, hyperflexia, tremors, increase in body temp. Can cause anxiety. Can cause Panic reaction (or bad trip)
Indole. Hallucinogen found in hallucinogenic mushrooms. Can cause pupillary dilation, HTN, tachycardia, piloerection, hyperflexia, tremors, increase in body temp. Can cause anxiety. Can cause Panic reaction (or bad trip)
Indole. Hallucinogen found in some mushrooms, and obtained by licking a amphibians. Can cause pupillary dilation, HTN, tachycardia, piloerection, hyperflexia, tremors, increase in body temp. Can cause anxiety. Can cause Panic reaction (or bad trip)
Indole. Hallucinogen alkaloid found in the roots of an african shrub. Powerful hallucinogen, can suppress the craving for heroin, cocaine and other drugs in addicted individuals.
Phenylethylamine. Found in the buttons of the peyote cactus. Can cause pupillary dilation, HTN, tachycardia, piloerection, hyperflexia, tremors, increase in body temp. Can cause anxiety. Can cause Panic reaction (or bad trip). The somatic autonomic changes are more pronounced.
Phenylethylamine. Has both hallucinogen and stimulant properties. May cause mild physical dependance.
Phencyclidine (PCP) (Ketamine)
Hallucinogenic/anesthetic. Blockade of NDMA receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Can be taken orally, snorted, injected or smoked. Increased muscle strength, and feel no pain. Drunkenness, hyperreflexia, increased muscle tine, HTN, vertical nystagmus. Lowers respiratory and cardiac function. Coma and cardiovascular collapse. ACIDIFY URINE TO DETOX! Has minor withdrawal syndrome.
Dissociative anesthetic that is used in humans/animals. Similar to PCP. Club drug. Water soluble, can be give IV, PO, rectal or IM. Produces profound analgesia. Used in the battlefield or vets. Competitive NMDA antagonist. Inhibition of voltage sensitive Na, K channels. Metabolized in liver (Metabolite has CNS effect), rapid clearance. No pain of injection (unique). Emergence delirium. Only modest decrease in ventilation rate and is potent bronchodilator. HTN, increased CO, increased HR. Useful for pts at risk of hypotension.
Active agent is salvinorin A which is an agonist at kappa opioid and D2 dopamine receptors. Has hallucinogenic activities that are qualitatively different from classic hallucinogens such as LSD.
Stimulant and pain reliever in Thailand. Has an opioid like effect. Contains several active agents which are chemically different from morphine but act at mu-opioid receptors.
Inhaled General Anesthetic. Rapid onset, rapid recovery. Only one thats a gas. Has low water (or blood) and low lipid solubility. Cannot induce anesthesia by itself.
Inhaled General Anesthetic. Pungent odor. 1.4 blood gas partition. Mostly eliminated unchanged via the lungs. Hypotension, vasodilation, CO maintained. Mild tachycardia (diff than enflurane). Decrease ventilation response to hypoxia/hypercapnia. Modest vasodilation. Preferred GA for neurosurg. Decreased renal blood flow.
Inhaled General Anesthetic. Sweet odor. 1.8 Blood gas partition. Decrease in BP, negative inotropic, peripheral vasodilation, no change in HR. Produces electrical sz activity, but can still use in epileptics. Decreased ventilation rate. Eliminated in the liver.
Inhaled General Anesthetic. Irritating gas- coughing, secretions. Blood gas partition = .45, 99% eliminated thru lungs. Hypotension, decreased ventilation. CO maintained.
Inhaled General Anesthetic. Blood Gas partition - 0.65. 99% eliminated thru lungs. Preferred for patients prone to MI. Has renal effects. Can combine with soda lime to produce "Compound A" which may cause short term renal damage.
IV General Anesthetic. Killed Michael Jackson. Not water soluble, most common induction agent of anesthesia in US> LAck of hang over effects. Enhance GABA at GABA (A) receptors. Hypotension, vasodilation, negative inotropic. Decreased ventilation. Anti-emetic. Safe for pregnant women.
IV General Anesthetic. Not water soluble. Used for patients at risk for hypotension. Used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Enhance GABA at GABA (A) receptors, and can activate on its own. Metabolized in liver. Myoclonic movements, a/w NV. Inhibition of adrenal gland synthetic enzymes. No decrease in BP or CO.
General Anesthetic Adjunct. Benzodiazepine. Decreased brian metabolic rate- hypotension, decrease ventilation. Water soluble. No pain on injection. Rapid onset.
General Anesthetic Adjunct. Opioid. Minimize vascular reflex to noxious, painful stimuli. Mu opioid receptor agonist. Used in hostage/terrorist action to incapacitate individuals. Lasts 30 mins. Decreased ventilation, HT, BP.
General Anesthetic Adjunct. Alpha 2 agonist. Decreases catecholamine release. FDA approved for sedation in chronically ill pts. IV only, no amnesia (not a true anesthetic). Causes hypotension, bradycardia. No change in ventilation rate (useful in non-intubated pts).
Ryanodine receptor inhibitor used to treat malignant hyperthermia which is induced by general anesthetics. Muscle contractions = heat production, and death of myocytes releases potassium which causes cardiac problems.
Non-Depolarizing NMN blocker. Benzylisquinonlines. Effect histamine release, few vagal/ganglionic blocking effects. Time to onset of action = 2-4 minutes. Not metabolized by enzymes (Useful for people with liver, renal failure.
Non-Depolarizing NMN blocker. Benzylisquinonlines. Effect histamine release, few vagal/ganglionic blocking effects. Short acting. Metabolized by plasma cholinesterase.
Non-Depolarizing NMN blocker. Steroidal compounds. Block ganglionic muscarinic receptors. Can result in tachycardia. 2nd drug used in lethal injection. Excreted in urine and bile. Not really used anymore.
Non-Depolarizing NMN blocker. Steroidal compounds. Block ganglionic muscarinic receptors. Can result in tachycardia. Liver metabolism. Intermediate duration of action. Used to rapidly relax laryngeal and jaw muscles for tracheal intubation.
Depolarizing NMN blocker. Duration of action 5-8 min. Very fast onset. Used for short procedures (intubation). Twitching at onset, no antidote. Alters electro-chemical driving forces. Excessive opening of nicotinic Ach receptors by Sch results in decreased electro-chemical driving forces and therefore less positive ion entry in presence of ACh resulting in less muscle response to motor neuron activity. Has two phases- 1. fast onset 2. prolonged infusion. Can have desensitization of receptors.
Local anesthetics (Amide)
Local anesthetics (Amide). Take up by fat, brain, kidney, liver then muscle and gut. Highly bound to plasma proteins. Metablozied by liver. Longer acting. Most widely used. Excellent diffusion and penetration
Local anesthetics (Amide). Pure enantiomer, longer acting. Useful for px where motor block is undesirable. Take up by fat, brain, kidney, liver then muscle and gut. Highly bound to plasma proteins. Metabolized by liver.
Local anesthetics (Amide). Take up by fat, brain, kidney, liver then muscle and gut. Highly bound to plasma proteins. Only 5-10% metablozied by liver even tho its an amide. Quickly becoming local anesthetic of choice for dentists. Rapidly metabolized. Duration 1 hr.
Local anesthetics (Ester). Metabolized in blood, short acting. Used topically. Toxicity due to methemoglobin production (rare). Poorly water soluble, low toxicity in general. Brand name: chloraseptic.
Local anesthetics (Ester). Metabolized in blood, short acting. (why IV cocaine doesn't work, broken down by plasma esterases too quickly) Only local anesthetic which has inherent vasoconstrictive properties. Toxicity is low when applied topically but include : nervousness, convulsions and cardiac failure.
Nitrogen Mustard. Alkylating Agent. Cell Cycle Nonspecific. SE: NV, Bone marrow depression. Used to treat Hodgkin's disease, lymphosarcoma, CLL.
Nitrogen Mustard. Alkylating Agent. Cell cycle nonspecific. Activation in liver. SE: NV, Bone marrow depression. Used to treat Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, leukemia, adenocarcinoma of ovary/breast/lung. Immunosuppressive agent.
Nitrosourea. Alkylating agent which is cell cycle nonspecific, Lipid soluble. SE: NV, Leukopenia, Thrombocytopenia. Used to treat brain tumors, hodgkins and non-hodgkins lymphoma and multiple myloma.
Platinum complex. Alkylating Agent which is cell cycle non-specific. SE: NV, Bone marrow depression, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Used to treat metastatic testicular and ovarian tumors, advanced bladder and lung cancer.
Folic Acid Analogue. Antimetabolite/Cell cycle Specific. SE: NV, Bone marrow depression. Leukemia, lymphoma, breast/head/neck carcinoma, osteosarcoma, bladder/gastric cancer. Immunosupressant.
Purine Analogue. Antimetabolite, cell cycle specific. SE: NV, bone marrow depression. Tx: Acute lypmhatic, acute myelogenous and CNS leukemia. Immunosuppressant.
Pyrimidine Analogue. Antimetabolite, cell cycle specific but on proliterating cells. SE: NV, bone marrow depression. Tx: Carcinoa breast, colon, rectum, stomach and pancreas, head. Immunosupressant
Pyrimidine analog. Antimetabolite, cell cycle specific. SE: NV, Bone marrow depression. Indications: Acute non-lymphocytic and lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelocytic leukemia, meningeal leukemia. Immunosupressant.
Anthracycline Antibiotic. Intercalates and binds DNA, cell cycle non-specific. SE: NV, bone marrow depression, cardiotoxic. Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (adult) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (children and adults).
Anthracycline Antibiotic. Intercalates and binds DNA, cell cycle non-specific. SE: NV, bone marrow depression, cardiotoxic. Acute lymphoma, leukemia, Hodgkin's disease carcinomas (breast, ovary, testicle, thyroid, lung, gastic)
Vinca alkaloid. Disrupt mitotic spindle, cell cycle specific (M). SE: NV, bone marrow depression, neurologic toxicity. Indications: Hodgkin's lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma, testicular, bladder, lung carcinoma, brian tumors.
Vinca Alkaloid. Disrupt mitotic spindle, cell cycle specific (M). SE: Local irritant, bone marrow depression, neurological toxicity. Indications: Acute leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-hodgkin's lymphoma, breast carcinoma, bladder.
Podophyllotoxin. Topoisomeras inhibitor, DNA chain breaks. SE: NV, Leukopenia, alopecia. Indications: Testicular, gastric, lung carcinoma and leukemias
Diterpene isolated from Taxus Brevifolia. Antimicrobial agent: promotes microtubule assembly. Cell cycle specific. SE: NV, alopecia, bone marrow depression. Indications: metstatic ovarian and breast carcinoma; NSCLC
Synthetic Glucocorticoid (anti-cancer). Binds cytosolic receptors (comples) and affect DNA and RNA and protein synthesis. Suppresses lymphocytes and macrophages. Long term toxicity: cushings, osteoporosis, infections, ulcers. Indications: breast CA, leukemia, lymphoma, acute leukemia (child), immunosuppressant.
Synthetic nonsteroidal antiestrogen. Competes with estradiol for binding to cytoplasmic estrogen receptors. (ERB). DNA, RNA and protein synthesis reduced. Short term SE : hot flashes, NV. Long term: Visual disturbances, hypercalcemia, vaginal bleeding. TX: breast CA.
Small molecular weight compound. Bcr-abl protein tyrosine kinase inhibition. Cell proliferation inhibition and induction of apoptosis. Short term toxicity: abd p, NVD. Long term toxicity: fatigue, joint pain, fluid retention, cramps, edema and rash. Indication: philadelphia chromosome positive CML and c-Kit (CD117) receptor positive GI stromal tumor.
Humanize IgG1 monoclonal Ab. Binding to extracellular domain of HEGFR HER-2. Downregulation of EGF receptor tyrosine kinase signaling activity. G1 cell cycle arrest. Short term toxicity: NVD. Long term toxicity: anemia, neutropenia, infx, fatigue, infusion rxn, rash. Tx: adjuvant breast cancer in EGF 2 receptor positive tumors, and metastatic cancer.
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