In a __________ people are engaged in a common activity, but have minimal interaction outside it
In a ___________ people 1) have direct interaction over time 2) have joint membership in a category 3) have a shared fate, identity, and/or goal
The presence of conspecific causes _________ ________ according to social facilitation
mere presence theory evaluation apprehension theory
Social facilitation occurs because of Zajonc's _______ ________ __________ and __________ ___________ _______.
mere presence theory
Zajonc's ________ _________ ________ states that the presence of a conspecific is enough to trigger arousal
evaluation apprehension theory
___________ ___________ _______ states that someone must be in a position to evaluate one's performance to trigger arousal
distraction conflict theory
________ __________ _____ states that social facilitation occurs because there is attentional conflict b/t focusing on the task and focusing on the other person/thing
_____ _______ is when people don't put in as much effort because they think others will carry their weight (the more people the more ____ ________).
arousal anonymity reduced feelings of individual responsibility
_______, _________, and _________ lead to deindividuation
social identity theory
________ _______ ______ says that people strive to enhance their self esteem through personal identity and group identity (in group favoritism/outgroup derogation)
realistic conflict theory (RCT)
hostility between groups as a result of competition for limited resources (actual or perceived) creates ______ ________ _______ .
superordinate identity goals
Finding a common ground, ______ _______ or _____ , can lesson the effects of realistic conflict theory
forming storming norming performing adjourning
The stages of group development are _____, _____,______, _______, ________
The ______ stage of group development is full of polite behavior (usually reasonably happy behavior--"Hey! We're in a group. Let's do this!")
The ______ stage of group development decides group _____ (do we eat at the meetings? When do we meet? How long do we meet for?)
In the ______ stage of group development people are usually sad unless it was a bad experience
Any change to the _____ or ______ sends people back to square one of group development
emotional support helps maintain moral
The expressive role in groups provides ________ ________ and _______ _______ _________
________ _______ occurs when differences are magnified. When two desirable options are presented we loose the middle ground.
__________ occurs when agreement with the group is more important than anything else (people shut down ideas outside their own)
functions of group norms
Group/organization survival, clarification of behavioral expectations, avoidance of embarrassment, and clarification of the central values/unique identity are the ________ __ ______ ______.
_______ _____ is the exaggeration through group discussion of initial tendencies in the thinking of group members
_______ emerges when the need for concurrence and agreement within a group takes priority over the motivation to obtain accurate info and make appropriate decisions
overestimation of the group closed-mindedness and increased pressures toward uniformity
__________, __________, and _________ are the symptoms of groupthink
_______ _________ occurs as the cost of speaking goes up. No one speaks up and everyone thinks everyone else is in agreement so they don't speak either.
proximity mere exposure similarity reciprocal liking anxiety physical attractiveness
The factors that lead to attraction are _______ ______, _____ _______, _____, ______ _____, ________, and ____ _______.
mere exposure effect
__________ ________ _______ states that the more often we are exposed to a stimulus the more we come to like it
reciprocal liking reciprocity
Heider's ________ ______/_______ says that people prefer relationships that are psychologically balanced.
reciprocal liking reciprocity
_____ ________/_______ is when a state of balance exists in a relationship
________ ______ states that people are most content with a relationship when the ratio between the benefits and contribution is similar for both partners.
In _______ relationships people expect and desire strict reciprocity for their interactions (a clerk and a customer)
mutual responsiveness to each others needs
In communal relationships people expect and desire __________________________.
eros (erotic love) ludas (game-playing, uncommitted love) storge (friendship love)
The types of primary love are ________ , ________, and ________
The types of ______ love are eros (erotic love), ludas (game-playing, uncommitted love), and storge (friendship love)
The types of _______ love are mania (demanding and possessive love), pragma (pragmatic love), and agape (other-oriented, altruistic love)
mania (demanding and possessive love) pragma (pragmatic love) agape (other-oriented, altruistic love)
The types of secondary love are ________, ________, and ___________
high arousal intense attraction fear of rejection
Passionate love (romantic) is characterized by ______ _______, ______ _______, and ______ __ _____
________ love is characterized by high arousal, intense attraction, and fear of rejection
When someone misattributes their physiological arousal to passionate love it is ______ ________
attraction build-up continuation deterioration ending
The stages of a relationship are _____, ______, _________, _______, and _______
The idea that we give preferential helping to genetic relatives so that our common genes will survive is ______ ________ (strongest when stakes are high).
When people try to convince themselves and others that they are driven to help by moral principles it is ______ _______
When one is motivated to help be the desire to increase another person's welfare it is _____
When one is motivated to help by the desire to increase one's own welfare it is ___________
a negatively toned emotion, which can range from mild annoyance to fury and outrage in response to a real or perceived injury, injustice, or threat
Anger is ___________
narrows attentional focus energizes to facilitate a response
Anger is functional because it ________ and ________
behavior aimed at causing harm, damage, or pain, either physical or mental against a target. The target can be either living or symbolic. Intention to harm is also characteristic of aggressive behavior.
Aggression is ___________________
active passive direct indirect physical verbal
The dimensions of aggression are _____ or _____, ______ or ______, and ______ or _____
The internal drive toward self-destruction that when turned outward constitutes aggression is ________
ensure survival of the individual
Aggression is the instinct to _______ __________ __ __ ________(territory and resources)
frustration aggression hypothesis
The belief that frustration causes aggression and all aggression is the result of frustration is ________ _________ _________.
_________________ subsumes frustration-common denominator is elevated motor activity (physiological arouses) that improves probability of survival. Gets linked to less urgent annoyances.
________ __ are situational stimuli that are infused with meaning by their associations with aggression
alcohol anarchy dehumanization justification arousal
Aggression is disinhibited by _______, ______ ,____ ,________ , and ________.
voluntary coerced-compliant coerced-internalized
The types of false confessions are _______ ,________, and ____________
fit to stand trial mental state now
competency asks: Is the defendant ___________? What is their _________ (at the time of the trail?
The ________ ______ states that the defendant must prove that a "disease of the mind" excuses conduct because they 1) didn't know what they were doing 2) and didn't know what they were doing was wrong
The _______ ______ states that the defendant is not guilty if mental disease or defect causes them to lack substantial capacity to 1) appr3eciate the criminality of their conduct 2) conform conduct to the law