Study Guide Note Cards for Exam 1
Terms in this set (46)
the study and comparison of domestic politics across countries
an argument explaining what ought to occur rather than what does occur; contrast with empirical theory
An argument explaining what actually occurs; empirical theorists first notice and describe a pattern and then attempt to explain what causes it
Differing approaches to the manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies.
most similar systems design
a common approach of the comparative method that selects cases that are alike in a number of ways but differ on a key question under examination
most different systems design
a common approach of the comparative method that looks at countries that differ in many ways but that are similar in terms of the particular political process or outcome in which the research is interested
Clash of Civilizations
political scientist Samuel Huntington's controversial thesis than in the 21st century the globe's major civilizations will conflict with one another, leading to anarchy and warfare similar to that resulting from conflicts between states over the past 500 years; as many as 11 civilizations in the world; globalization changes the context under which ethnic and cultural conflict arises
End of History
Francis Fukuyama - End of History Thesis. At the end of the Cold War the last two remaining ideologies, Communism and Fascism, had been defeated. This proved that the best form of government is a liberal democracy.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
the organization that is the governing authority of a political unit
an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation
an individual that inhabits a political community that places him or her in a direct relationship with the state. Usually this individual is given the ability to communicate and shape the state that he or she is a part of/under.
Individuals with relatively little relationship with their relative state. Their side of the relationship consisted primarily of duty and obedience to a sovereign body. Usually there are no preventative measures to injustices done to this body of individuals.
right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress including the right to legal and social and economic equ
the right to participate in the management of government and to influence public policy
Rights of social and welfare provision held by all citizens in a national community, including, for example, the right to claim unemployment benefits and sickness payments provided by the state.
a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
claim to provide development under the leadership of and educated elite
the belief in government by divine guidance
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
is the Marxian theory of change, built on the Hegelian Dialectic of conflict, in which the forces of production are the base determining the relations of production, a.k.a. the economy, and these in turn lead to the superstructure.
modes of production
a way of organizing production-"a set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, organization, and knowledge. In the capitalist mode, money buys labor power and there is a social gap. In nonindustrial mode, labor is usually not bought but given as a social obligation. Kin based is based on social relationships.
a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism)
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Even though one part ysi bascially always going to win there will still be a "competition" of sorts -- ie. Mexico - one party always won but there was always competition to enforce the appearance of democratic process.
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
a politically organized body of people under a single government
Political unit within which citizens identify with the state and see the state as legitimate. This state has a monopoly over the use of force and is able to provide citizens with key services.
A state that has difficulty fulfilling basic tasks, such as defending territory, making and enforcing rules, collecting taxes, and managing the economy.
a state within which the government has lost the ability to provide the most basic of public services
- a state which fails to satisfy the collective good, due to a decayed central governing authority. when a state completely ceases to function and carry out its duties over its regions, author here is Reno-author who writes about collapsed states and shadow states, makes argument that state weakness and collapse gives rise to rival authorities that exist within state borders, who fund themselves by gaining monopoly over certain cash generating portions of economy, gives Zaire under mobutu and "Taylorland" in Liberia, which was a region of under his authority. Significant because like brown areas, can lead to greater instability if unchecked.
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
sovereignty relative to outside powers that is legally recognized in international law
popular acceptance of the right and power of a government or other entity to exercise authority.
System of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
the new middle ages
John Rapley's idea that when state control declines, the outcome may be quite different from the chaos depicted by the political Scientist Rotberg -- in megacities there are shantytowns, and some individuals are taking the law into their own hands, therefore reverting us back to a middle age situation or new medievalism
The shared identity of a group of people, especially because of a common language and culture
defines membership in the nation by living in the territory of the nation; but others could become members of a culture
A process of protecting, either formally (with laws) or informally (with social values), the primacy of a certain cultural system against influences (real or imagined) from another culture.
The law of blood, which determines citizenship based on one's parents' citizenship.
the principle that a person's nationality at birth is determined by the place of birth
people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture
the view that ethnic identity, like race, is a naturally occurring and immutable feature of human life
an elite theory of identity politics: rational and self-interested elites manipulate symbols and feelings of identity to mobilize a political following
examines how changing international norms and actors' identities help shape the content of state interests
an institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system "invented" or constructed by participants in a particular culture or society that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists, concur on following certain conventional rules, or behave as if such an agreement or rules exist.