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117 terms

Lucas The art of public speaking

Chapters 1-10 and some of 14
STUDY
PLAY
Message
Whatever the speaker communicates to another person
Channel
The means by which a message is communicated
Listener
The person who receives the message
feedback
The messages the listener sends back to the speaker
interference
Anything that impedes the communication of a message
Situation
The time and place the speech occurs
Ethnocentrism
The belief that our own culture is superior
Ethics
The branch of philosophy that deals with right and wrong
Guidelines for Ethical speaking
Make sure your goals are ethically sound
Guideline for ethical speaking
Be fully prepared for your speech
Guideline for ethical speaking
Be honest in what you say
Guideline for ethical speaking
Avoid name- calling
Global Plagiarism
Stealing your speech entirely from another source and passing it off as your own.
Example:copying and pasting an entire speech and using it as your own.
Patchwork Plagiarism
Copying from a few different sources and piecing them together using your own transitions
Example: Looking up a topic and copying a paragraph from each and then passing it off as your own
Incremental plagiarism
When a speaker fails to give credit for particular parts
Example: Using a quotation and not citing where you found it
Plagiarism and the internet
Copying information from the internet.
Example: Using google and the copying some information
Ethical listening guideline
Be courteous and Attentive
Ethical listening guideline
Avoid prejudging the speaker
Ethical listening guidelines
Maintain the free and open expression of ideas
Difference between hearing and listening
Listening is paying close attention
Appreciative listening
Listening for pleasure
Example: Listening for music
Empathetic listening
Listening to provide emotional support
Example: Listening to a friend in need
Comprehensive listening
Listening to understand the message of the speaker
Example: What we do in class
Critical listening
Listening to evaluate a message to accept or reject it
Example: The speech of a political speaker
Spare Brain Time
The difference between the rate at which people speak and the rate at which or brains can process language
Active Listening
Giving undivided attention to the speaker
Focus Listening
Focusing on the important parts of the speech
Suspended judgement
Hear people out before reaching a final judgement
Keyword outline
An outline that briefly notes a speaker's main points
Topic
The subject of a speech
Brainstorm
A method of generating ideas for speech topics
general purpose
The broad goal of a speech
specific purpose
a single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech
central idea
A one sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech
residual message
What the speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in the speech
Type of Brain Storming
Personal inventory Brain storming
Type of Brain Storming
Clustering Brain Storming
Type of Brain Storming
Reference Search
Type of Brain Storming
Internet Search
Specific Purpose statement tip
Write the Purpose statement as a full infinitive Phrase
Specific Purpose statement tip
Express your Purpose as a statement, Not a question
Specific Purpose Statement tip
Avoid Figurative Language in your Purpose Statement
Specific Purpose Statement tip
Limit your Purpose Statement to one distinct idea
Specific Purpose Statement tip
Make sure your specific Purpose is not too vague or general
Specific Purpose Question #1
Does my Purpose meet the assignment
Specific Purpose Question #2
Can i Accomplish my purpose in the time allotted
Specific Purpose Question #3
Is the Purpose relevant to my audience
Specific Purpose Question #4
Is the Purpose too Trivial for my audience
Specific Purpose Question #5
Is the Purpose too technical for my audience
Guidelines for the central idea
Should not be in the Form of a question
Guidelines for the central idea
should not be in a full sentance
Guidelines for the central idea
should avoid figuratice language
guidelines for the central idea
should not be vague
Audience Centeredness
Keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of the speech preparation
Identification
A process in which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common goals, values, goals, and experiences
Identifying Audience Demographics
Audience analysis that focuses on demographic factors such as age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, and racial background
Situational Analysis and Audience Adaption
Audience Analysis that focuses on situational factors such as the size of the audience, the physical setting for the speech, and the disposition of the audience toward the topic, the speaker, and the occasion
Catalogue
A listing of all the books, periodicals, and other resources owned by a library
call number
a number used in the libraries to classify books and periodicals and to indicate where they can be found on the shelves
Periodical database
a research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of journals or magazines
abstract
A summary of a magazine or journal article, written by someone other than the original author
reference work
A work that synthesizes a large amount of related information for easy access by researchers
general encyclopedia
A comprehensive reference work that provides information about all branches of human knowledge
special encyclopedia
A comprehensive reference work devoted to a specific subject such as religion, art, law, science, music, etc.
yearbook
A reference work published annually that contains information about the previous year
biographical aid
A reference work that provides information about people
virtual library
A search engine that combines internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data
sponsoring organization
A orginization the, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the internet
research interview
An interview conducted to gather information for a speech
preliminary bibliography
A list compiled early in the research process of works that look as iff they might contain helpful information about a speech topic
brief examples
A specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point
extended examples
A story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point
hypothetical examples
An example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation
Tips for using examples
Use Examples to clarify your ideas
Tips for using examples
Use examples to reinforce your ideas
Tips for using Examples
Use examples to personalize your ideas
Tips for using examples
Make your examples vivid and richly textured
Tips for using examples
Practice Delivery to enhance your extended examples
expert testimony
Testimony from people who are recognized in their fields
peer testimony
Testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience or insight on a topic
Main Points
The major points developed in the body of a speech
Chronological order
Speeches follow a time pattern with their main points
spatial order
Speeches follow a directional pattern
Causal order
Speeches show a cause-effect relationship
Problem-Solution order
A method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem
Topical order
A method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics
Transitions
A word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one though and is moving on to another
Internal Previews
A statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next
Internal Summaries
A statement in the body of the speech the summarizes the speakers preceding point or points
Signposts
A very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas
Relate topic to audience
A way to gain the audience attention. Relating the topic to your listeners
State the importance of topic
A way to gain the audience attention. Telling your audience why they should consider your speech important
Startle the audience
A way to gain the audience attention. Shock the audience with your opening sentence
Arouse the curiosity of the audience
A way of gaining the audience attention. Get them curious about your topic
Question the audience
A way of gaining the audience attention. Asking a rhetorical question to get them thinking
Begin with a quotation
A way of gaining the audience attention. Open with an interesting quotation.
Tell a story
A way of gaining audience attention. Open with an interesting story to get them interested.
Preparation outline
A detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, sub points, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography.
Visual Framework
The pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationship among the speakers ideas
Speaking outline
A brief outline used to jog a speakers memory during the presentation of a speech
Guideline for Prep. Outline
State the specific Purpose of your speech
Guideline for Prep. Outline
Identify the central idea
Guideline for Prep. Outline
label the introduction, Body, and conclusion
Guideline for Prep. Outline
use a consistent pattern of symbolization and indentation
Guideline for Prep. Outline
State main points and subpoints in full sentences
Guideline for Prep. Outline
Label transitions, Internal summaries, and internal Previews
Guideline for Prep. Outline
Attach a bibliography
Guideline for Prep. Outline
Give your speech a title, If one is desired
Guideline for Speaking Outline
Follow the visual framework used in the preparation outline
Guideline for Speaking outline
Make sure the outline is legible
Guideline for speaking outline
Keep the outline as brief as possible
Guideline for speaking outline
Give yourself cues for delivering the speech
Speeches about objects
Type of informational Speech. Informs about a tangible thing
Example: A speech about the Iphone
Speeches about Processes
Type of informational speech. Step by step speech
Example: A speech about how beer is made
Speeches about Events
Type of informational speech. Discusses a date in history
Example: A speech about gettysburg
Speeches about Concept
Type of informational speech. Discusses Beliefs, theories, ideas, ETC.
Example: A speech about Buddhism
Personalize your speech
Make your speech personal so the audience can understand and relate it to their lives