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Chapters 1-10 and some of 14


Whatever the speaker communicates to another person


The means by which a message is communicated


The person who receives the message


The messages the listener sends back to the speaker


Anything that impedes the communication of a message


The time and place the speech occurs


The belief that our own culture is superior


The branch of philosophy that deals with right and wrong

Guidelines for Ethical speaking

Make sure your goals are ethically sound

Guideline for ethical speaking

Be fully prepared for your speech

Guideline for ethical speaking

Be honest in what you say

Guideline for ethical speaking

Avoid name- calling

Global Plagiarism

Stealing your speech entirely from another source and passing it off as your own.
Example:copying and pasting an entire speech and using it as your own.

Patchwork Plagiarism

Copying from a few different sources and piecing them together using your own transitions
Example: Looking up a topic and copying a paragraph from each and then passing it off as your own

Incremental plagiarism

When a speaker fails to give credit for particular parts
Example: Using a quotation and not citing where you found it

Plagiarism and the internet

Copying information from the internet.
Example: Using google and the copying some information

Ethical listening guideline

Be courteous and Attentive

Ethical listening guideline

Avoid prejudging the speaker

Ethical listening guidelines

Maintain the free and open expression of ideas

Difference between hearing and listening

Listening is paying close attention

Appreciative listening

Listening for pleasure
Example: Listening for music

Empathetic listening

Listening to provide emotional support
Example: Listening to a friend in need

Comprehensive listening

Listening to understand the message of the speaker
Example: What we do in class

Critical listening

Listening to evaluate a message to accept or reject it
Example: The speech of a political speaker

Spare Brain Time

The difference between the rate at which people speak and the rate at which or brains can process language

Active Listening

Giving undivided attention to the speaker

Focus Listening

Focusing on the important parts of the speech

Suspended judgement

Hear people out before reaching a final judgement

Keyword outline

An outline that briefly notes a speaker's main points


The subject of a speech


A method of generating ideas for speech topics

general purpose

The broad goal of a speech

specific purpose

a single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech

central idea

A one sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech

residual message

What the speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in the speech

Type of Brain Storming

Personal inventory Brain storming

Type of Brain Storming

Clustering Brain Storming

Type of Brain Storming

Reference Search

Type of Brain Storming

Internet Search

Specific Purpose statement tip

Write the Purpose statement as a full infinitive Phrase

Specific Purpose statement tip

Express your Purpose as a statement, Not a question

Specific Purpose Statement tip

Avoid Figurative Language in your Purpose Statement

Specific Purpose Statement tip

Limit your Purpose Statement to one distinct idea

Specific Purpose Statement tip

Make sure your specific Purpose is not too vague or general

Specific Purpose Question #1

Does my Purpose meet the assignment

Specific Purpose Question #2

Can i Accomplish my purpose in the time allotted

Specific Purpose Question #3

Is the Purpose relevant to my audience

Specific Purpose Question #4

Is the Purpose too Trivial for my audience

Specific Purpose Question #5

Is the Purpose too technical for my audience

Guidelines for the central idea

Should not be in the Form of a question

Guidelines for the central idea

should not be in a full sentance

Guidelines for the central idea

should avoid figuratice language

guidelines for the central idea

should not be vague

Audience Centeredness

Keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of the speech preparation


A process in which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common goals, values, goals, and experiences

Identifying Audience Demographics

Audience analysis that focuses on demographic factors such as age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, and racial background

Situational Analysis and Audience Adaption

Audience Analysis that focuses on situational factors such as the size of the audience, the physical setting for the speech, and the disposition of the audience toward the topic, the speaker, and the occasion


A listing of all the books, periodicals, and other resources owned by a library

call number

a number used in the libraries to classify books and periodicals and to indicate where they can be found on the shelves

Periodical database

a research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of journals or magazines


A summary of a magazine or journal article, written by someone other than the original author

reference work

A work that synthesizes a large amount of related information for easy access by researchers

general encyclopedia

A comprehensive reference work that provides information about all branches of human knowledge

special encyclopedia

A comprehensive reference work devoted to a specific subject such as religion, art, law, science, music, etc.


A reference work published annually that contains information about the previous year

biographical aid

A reference work that provides information about people

virtual library

A search engine that combines internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data

sponsoring organization

A orginization the, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the internet

research interview

An interview conducted to gather information for a speech

preliminary bibliography

A list compiled early in the research process of works that look as iff they might contain helpful information about a speech topic

brief examples

A specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point

extended examples

A story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point

hypothetical examples

An example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation

Tips for using examples

Use Examples to clarify your ideas

Tips for using examples

Use examples to reinforce your ideas

Tips for using Examples

Use examples to personalize your ideas

Tips for using examples

Make your examples vivid and richly textured

Tips for using examples

Practice Delivery to enhance your extended examples

expert testimony

Testimony from people who are recognized in their fields

peer testimony

Testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience or insight on a topic

Main Points

The major points developed in the body of a speech

Chronological order

Speeches follow a time pattern with their main points

spatial order

Speeches follow a directional pattern

Causal order

Speeches show a cause-effect relationship

Problem-Solution order

A method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem

Topical order

A method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics


A word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one though and is moving on to another

Internal Previews

A statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next

Internal Summaries

A statement in the body of the speech the summarizes the speakers preceding point or points


A very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas

Relate topic to audience

A way to gain the audience attention. Relating the topic to your listeners

State the importance of topic

A way to gain the audience attention. Telling your audience why they should consider your speech important

Startle the audience

A way to gain the audience attention. Shock the audience with your opening sentence

Arouse the curiosity of the audience

A way of gaining the audience attention. Get them curious about your topic

Question the audience

A way of gaining the audience attention. Asking a rhetorical question to get them thinking

Begin with a quotation

A way of gaining the audience attention. Open with an interesting quotation.

Tell a story

A way of gaining audience attention. Open with an interesting story to get them interested.

Preparation outline

A detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, sub points, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography.

Visual Framework

The pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationship among the speakers ideas

Speaking outline

A brief outline used to jog a speakers memory during the presentation of a speech

Guideline for Prep. Outline

State the specific Purpose of your speech

Guideline for Prep. Outline

Identify the central idea

Guideline for Prep. Outline

label the introduction, Body, and conclusion

Guideline for Prep. Outline

use a consistent pattern of symbolization and indentation

Guideline for Prep. Outline

State main points and subpoints in full sentences

Guideline for Prep. Outline

Label transitions, Internal summaries, and internal Previews

Guideline for Prep. Outline

Attach a bibliography

Guideline for Prep. Outline

Give your speech a title, If one is desired

Guideline for Speaking Outline

Follow the visual framework used in the preparation outline

Guideline for Speaking outline

Make sure the outline is legible

Guideline for speaking outline

Keep the outline as brief as possible

Guideline for speaking outline

Give yourself cues for delivering the speech

Speeches about objects

Type of informational Speech. Informs about a tangible thing
Example: A speech about the Iphone

Speeches about Processes

Type of informational speech. Step by step speech
Example: A speech about how beer is made

Speeches about Events

Type of informational speech. Discusses a date in history
Example: A speech about gettysburg

Speeches about Concept

Type of informational speech. Discusses Beliefs, theories, ideas, ETC.
Example: A speech about Buddhism

Personalize your speech

Make your speech personal so the audience can understand and relate it to their lives

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