26 terms

Neo Institutional Theory

Task environment
The set of forces and conditions that originate with suppliers, distributors, customers, and competitors and affect an organization's ability to obtain inputs and dispose of its outputs because they influence managers daily.
Institutional environment
The set of values and norms in an environment that governs the behavior of a population of an organization.
Rationalized myths
organizations adopt forms because of myths in an environment, as opposed to because those forms are necessarily connected to more effective organizational outcomes

organizations conform to rationalized myths in society about what constitutes proper organization.

Myths emerge as solutions to widely perceived problems of organizing and become rationalized when they are popularly believed to constitute the proper solutions to these problems.

The more organizations that conform, more deeply institutionalized they become
A constraining process that forces one organization to resemble others that face the same set of environmental conditions.
innovative idea is spread to different organizations.

dependent on:
communication, amount of time group is subject to innovation, nature of social group, and innovation itself

Example: new ads may be very good at conversion, so these types of ads spread across organizations
Organizational field
An organizational field is a networked set of organizations with a collective and similar aim and shared set of norms, values and expectations.

Falls under neo-institutional theory.

Consists of resources, regulatory frameworks, political and economic environments, and the actors who participate.
Competitive isomorphism
same need drives similarity?
not sure
Institutional isomorphism
the tendency for organizations in similar areas or lines of work to be similar in structure and procedures
Coercive isomorphism
Pressures from other organizations in which they are dependent upon

Cultural expectations, governmental mandates, contract law, financial reporting requirements, etc.
Following the success of others:

Uncertainty encourages imitation. Organizational models can be diffused through employee migration or by consulting firms.
Norms develop in professions:
-People go to school and get taught the same thing. Licensed/certified for same thing
-Inter organizational networks (like guilds i guess)
Task environmental vs. Institutional environment
Task environment is generally what you have to do, institutional environment is what you're supposed to do
Decoupling is separating formal structure from production structure because task environment and institutional environment are at odds
Information in the Era of the Internet
•From information scarcity to information abundance, more content choices than we can possibly process.
•Individuals are overwhelmed by the abundance of information
Response to environment
Too much information-end up in your own bubble

•Complexity and overloaded information may drive human beings to a personalized world.

•Search engines offer searching, filtering and complexity reduction service.

Rely on artificial intelligence to locate reliable and valuable information.
Search engines and abundance
SE responses to information abundance
Abundance requires high level of searching skill
Google personalized rankings (4)
-Sites someone clicks on in search results
-Sites added to the Google Personalized Homepage
-Sites saved with Google Bookmarks
-(added in 2011) Sites an individual visits as recorded with Web History
The Filter Bubble
Effect of personalization of google

•64% of research results are different either in rank or simply in contents between the users (same search yields different stuff)
Danger of bubble
-Invisible: you dont know what you're missing.
-Google/FB top 2 filters: bascially a handful of companies run the web, and they're the filters. Have huge power
S.E. effect on researchers
-takes them to search item
-amplify biases and lack of context
Democratized news media
-People dont have to see everything, just find what they want to see
Traditional gatekeeper vs new gatekeepr
Traditional media members decided what you saw

Now it's an algorithm so you see more personalized stuff
Possible to build ethics into algorithm?
old medias were required to take civil responsibility in many ways, but algorithms cant really be programmed with ethics
Commercial roots of the bubble
-Google tracks you: IP address, laptop, font size in browser.
-Uses information in front of you
Possible solution
New media should have no filter, social media can.