37 terms

Atmosphere, Winds, and Weather 6th Grade

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Atmosphere
a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon
Troposphere
the lowest layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature decreases at a constant rate as altitude increases; all weather occurs here; we live here.
Air pressure
the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface
Stratosphere
the layer of the atmosphere that is above the troposphere and in which temperature increases as altitude increases; contains the ozone
Mesosphere
The middle layer of the atmosphere; where most meteoroids burn up
Thermosphere
The upper most layer that feels cold but has a very HOT temperature.
Radiation
the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves
Thermal Conduction
The transfer of energy through direct contact.
Convection
The transfer of energy by the circulation of a gas or liquid
Global warming
gradual increase in average global temperature
Green House Effect
is the process by which gases in the atmosphere, such as water vapor and carbon dioxide, absorb thermal energy and radiate it back to Earth
Wind
Movement of gases caused by differences in air pressure
Coriolis Effect
The apparent curving of the path of winds and ocean currents due to the Earth's rotation
Polar Easterlies
The wind belts that extend from the poles to 60° latitude in both hemispheres
Westerlies
The wind belts found between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemisphereS
Trade Winds
In both hemispheres, the winds that blow from 30° latitude almost to the equator
Doldrums
The trade winds of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres meet in an area around the equator; dull or sluggish winds
Jet Streams
narrow belts of high-speed winds that blow in the upper troposphere and lower strato sphere
Sea Breeze
During the day cooler air over the ocean forms a high pressure area. This high pressure blows toward the land creating a
Land Breeze
During the night, higher pressure is over land and the breeze blows toward the ocean creating a
Weather
condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place
Relative Humidity
the amount of water vapor in the air compared with the maximum amount of water vapor that the air can hold at a certain temperature
Humidity
The amount of water vapor in the air
Condensation
the process by which a gas, such as water vapor, becomes a liquid
Dew Point
When air becomes saturated as it cools
Cumulonimbus
Thunderstorms come from a kind of cloud called
Air Mass
large body of air where temperature and moisture content are similar throughout
Continental Polar (cP)
Air mass that forms in a polar region over land
Maritime Tropical (mT)
Air mass that forms from the ocean from the south
Maritime Polar (mP)
Air mass that forms from the ocean in the polar region
Continental Tropical (cT)
Air mass that formed from deserts in northern Mexico
Front
Area in which two types of air masses meet
Occluded Front
A warm air mass is caught between two colder air masses
Stationary Front
Forms when a cold air mass meets a warm air mass
Thunderstorm
Small, intense weather systems that produce strong winds, heavy rain, lightning, and thunder
Tornado
small, spinning column of air that has high wind speeds and low central pressure and that touches the ground
Hurricane
A large, rotating tropical weather system that has wind speeds of at least 120 km/h; also called typhoons and cyclones
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