The Secession of Katanga
Terms in this set (97)
Where was Katanga?
Which country ruled the Congo up until it gained independence?
Who was the leader of the Congolese nationalist movement?
What happened at the Brussels Conference that contributed to the violence in the Congo after independence?
The Congolese rejected Belgium's offer of a gradual transfer of power and demanded immediate independence
What party was popular in Katanga?
Who was the leader of CONAKAT?
How many parties made up the Congo's first coalition government?
Which Belgian king gave the Congo independence?
King Badouin I
Who was the first president of the Congo?
Who was the first prime minister of the Congo?
What disaster occurred within days of independence?
The 2500 Congolese army went on the rampage attacking white settlers
How did Belgium respond the the Congolese army mutiny after Lumumba refused their offers to help?
They flew in troops to protect white civilians and take over key positions but this was seen as an illegal act as the Congo was now independent and Lumumba declared Belgium was at war with the Congo
What were Katanga's major mineral resources?
Copper, diamonds and uranium
What type of government did Katanga favour?
A federal government to allow them to have more control over it's future
When was Katanga declared an independent republic?
11th July 1961
Who encouraged Tshombe to secede?
The Belgian mining company, Union Minière and the Belgian government who wanted to control the export of minerals, secure their mining interests and protect Katanga from the chaos of the rest of the Congo
What support did Tsombe have in seceding?
6000 Belgian troops who trained his native troops as well as hundreds of European mercenaries
How much of the Congo's revenue came from the exports of Katanga?
Who was the UN Secretary General at the time of the secession?
Who did Lumumba first appeal to for help?
The UN who passed Resolution 143 ordering Belgium to remove it's troops
What was Resolution 143?
A UN resolution calling on Belgium to remove it's troops from the Congo
What was the UN's 'Operation in the Congo'?
An organised airlift of African troops and a plan for a civilian force to run the civil service
Why did Lumumba and the UN come into conflict?
Lumumba wanted the UN to expel the Belgian forces and end the secession but the UN was limited by it's charter which forbade it from interfering in a countries internal affairs
Who did Lumumba ask for help after the UN refused to end the secession?
Why did Lumumba asking the USSR for help anger the Americans?
The Cold War was ongoing and the US feared the Congo would become a base for communism in central Africa
What did Eisenhower authorise after Lumumba asked the USSR for help?
The assassination of Lumumba by the CIA
Why did the Belgian government plan to get rid of Lumumba?
He was an obstacle to their plans for the country
What did Lumumba use Soviet aircraft for?
To transport troops for an invasion of the diamond-rich Kasai, another breakaway province
What were the results of Lumumba's attack on Kasai?
The death of hundreds of Baluba's and the movement of 250,000 refugees
Why was the UN worried about Lumumba?
They believed him to be irrational and possibly crazy
Who was Joseph Mobutu?
The chief of staff of the Congolese army
What occurred between Kasavubu and Lumumba in 1960?
Kasavubu dismissed Lumumba as prime minister of the Congo and replaced him with Ileo. Lumumba then accused Kasavubu of treason on the radio and dismissed him as president
Who seized power on September 14th?
Mobutu, he claimed that he was suspending the political system until the end of the year and formed an interim government with Kasavubu remaining president and Lumumba under house arrest
What happened to Lumumba after Mobutu took power?
He was captured by Mobutu's troops and handed over to Tshombe's forces in Elizabethville where he was tortured and killed
Why did Tshombe's position seem strong in 1961?
His troops were led and trained by Belgian officers, he was backed by the wealthy Union Minière and was supported by Britain, France and Belgium
What occurred in Madagascar 1961?
The Congolese leaders met to attempt to reach and agreement. Tshombe accused Kasavubu of breaking the agreement by co-operating with the UN. Tshombe was arrested.
Why was Tshombe released after being arrested?
He promised to end the secession but he broke this agreement once he returned to Katanga
In early 1961, what groups ruled the Congo?
Mobutu in Leopoldville supported by the USA
Tshombe in Katanga supported by Belgium and the mining companies
Gizenga in Stanleyville supported by the USSR
Kalonji in Kasai supported by Belgium and the mining companies
What was Resolution 161?
A UN resolution that allowed the use of force if necessary as a last resort to prevent civil war in the Congo
What happened in August 1961?
Mobutu, Lumumba's supporters and the people of Kasai came together to form a Government of National Unity under Cyrille Adoula
What was Operation Rumpunch?
UN forces captured buildings in Elizabethville and rounded up mercenary soldiers
What happend during Operation Morthor?
Connor Cruise O'Brian with the support of UN leaders in Leopoldville acted against the Katangan mercenaries and set about arresting and expelling them, he announced prematurely over the radio that the secession was over but because of bad planning the operation ultimately failed. Most of Europe condemned this action, O'Brian claimed he'd had authorisation but Hammarskjöld denied this
What happened to Dag Hammarskjöld while he was on his way to negotiate with Tshombe?
He died in a plane crash
What happened on the 20th of September 1961?
A ceasefire was called
Why did negotiations breakdown after the September ceasefire?
Tshombe still refused to return Katanga to the Congo
What did U Thant propose?
A new plan to reunite the Congo but Tshombe still resisted as he had the support of European governments and Union Minière
What happened during Operation Grand Slam?
Elizabethville was captured, Tshombe's position collapsed and the secession of Katanga ended
What problems did the UN face after the secession ended?
Financial problems because the campaign was costing them a lot of money but they would have to keep their troops in Africa until June due to the bad economy and poor organisation of the Congolese army
What did Kasavubu ask Tshombe in July 1964?
To form a coalition government with him in order to quell the rebel forces
By what stage were the rebel forces largely beaten?
The end of 1965
What outside help allowed the Congo to defeat the rebel forces?
Belgian paratroopers, US help and white mercenaries
What was the impact on the fight against the rebels on the country?
There was widespread hunger due to crop failure
What did Mobutu do in 1965?
He took control of the entire Congo and established a one party dictatorship
Who supported Mobutu?
The Americans because they thought he would act as a barrier to communism
What happened to Tshombe after he was deposed?
He fled abroad and was sentenced to death in his absence. He was arrested in Algeria and this sparked a mutiny among the European mercenaries
What did the Congo begin it's life as?
The personal property of the Belgian king
How much bigger than Belgium is the Congo?
What are the main resources of the Congo?
Ivory, rubber, diamonds and copper
What was the problem with the Congo's borders?
They were drawn with no regard for tribal differences
How many different tribes existed in the Congo?
What made maintaining a unitary state difficult after the Congo gained it's independence?
How long did A.J van Bilsen believe it would take Belgium to give the Congo it's independence and why?
30 years due to the time it would take to create an African elite who would be able to replace the Belgians in positions of power
What events in the late 50s led to resentment of Belgian rule in the Congo?
A fall in the price of copper which in turn caused a rise in unemployment
What did rioting in Leopoldville in 1959 spark?
A Belgian panic and them announcing a programme of political reform with elections to be held for local governments and a vague statement o future independence
How many political parties were registered for the first local elections in 1959?
Describe the Abako party
Led by Kasavubu, tribal party supported by the Bakongo, support came from Leopoldville and the lower Congo region
Describe the MNC party
Led by Lumumba, only party to attempt to unite different tribes into a national independence movement
Describe the Conakat party
Led by Tshombe, wanted home rule for the province of Katanga and to maintain good relations with Belgium
What did the Belgians fear they would be dragged into in the Congo?
An Algerian type of war
What did the British agree to at the Brussels Conference?
To hold elections in May and transfer power on June 30th 1960
Of 1400 civil servants in the Congo, how many were Congolese?
What was there a serious lack of in the Congolese workforce?
Congolese doctors, engineers, secondary school teachers and high-ranking army officers, there were literally none
How many Congolese university graduates were there in 1960?
How many Congolese secondary school graduates were there in 1960?
What had never been held in the Congo before 1960?
An election, of any sort at all
What party emerged as the largest in the 1960 election and how many seats did they win?
MNC with 33 seats of 137
How did Lumumba respond to the Congolese army mutiny?
He dismissed all Belgian officers and replaced the with Congolese ones, he renamed the army "Congolese National Army" and he made Joseph Mobutu chief-of-staff of the army
What did the Belgian government try to persuade Lumumba to do after the Congolese army mutiny?
Let Belgian soldiers who were already in the Congo restore order
Why did Katanga secede from the Congo?
It was supported by the Belgian government and the minig companies who controlled Katanga's resources, they claimed to be 'seceding from chaos' and they felt Katanga would be better off on it's own
How did the Belgian government show it approved of Katanga seceding?
By sending a government mission to Elizabethville to help establish the government there
Why did Belgium support the secession of Katanga?
It safeguarded Belgian economic interests in the region and they planned to use Katanga as a base to overthrow Lumumba and replace him with a pro-Belgium leader
What did Lumumba threaten the UN with when he was not satisfied with Resolution 143?
He said that if the UN did not send a force to remove Belgian troops within 2 days he would call on the USSR for help
Why was Lumumba threatening to ask for help from the USSR a big mistake?
It put the Congo in the middle of Cold War rivalries and raised the suspicions of the US who feared the Congo would be used as a base for communism in Africa
How did Hammarskjöld respond to Lumumba's initial demands?
He quickly organised an airlift foreign troops from countries such as Ghana, Tunisia and Morocco into the Congo
Who was the president of the province of Kasai?
What did the failed invasion of Kasai cost Lumumba?
The support of Mobutu who had thought the invasion was ill-advised
What did Antoine Ginzenga do following Mobutu seizing power?
Set up a rival government to his in Stanleyville
What did Lumumba's death cause?
A worldwide outcry and increased Cold War tensions as the USSR blamed the UN for his death. Khrushchev called for the resignation of Hammarskjöld and denounced the UN for not forcing the end of the secession
What question did Resolution 161 raise?
Was the UN more concerned with peace keeping or peace enforcing?
What did the formation of the Government of National Unity do for the Congo?
It brought stability to the Congo and eased Cold War tensions and allowed the UN to give greater attention to Katanga
What was clear by the end of August 1961?
Tshombe had no intention of ending the secession and he continued to ignore the UN resolutions calling for the removal of foreign mercenaries
What was the siege of Jadotville?
A company of 155 Irish UN soldiers were attacked and trapped in Jadotville for 6 days before they had to surrender to the Katangan Gendarmerie
What was UN Resolution 169?
It allowed UN forces in the Congo to take vigorous action including the use of force to remove all foreign military not under UN command from Katanga and called for an end to all secessionist activities in the Congo
Why did the peace talks following Unokat take so long?
Tshombe was dragging them out so he could continue ruling Katanga as an independent state
What did the ending of the secession fail to do?
Bring stability to the Congo
What was the secession of Katanga instrumental in?
Sparking the civil war that followed Congolese independence
How many people died between 1960 and 1964 because of the violence in the Congo?
Over 1 million