23 terms

Bertino Forensics Chapter 8 - Parts of the Blood

Parts of the Blood and Blood Typing
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antibodies
Protein that is produced by lymphocytes (white blood cells) and that attaches to a specific antigen.
agglutination
The clumping of molecules or cells caused by the antigen-antibody reaction
antigens
foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.
antigen-antibody response
an immune response that occurs when an antibody comes into contact with the specific antigen for which it was formed. in a transfusion reaction, the response is a clumping together, or agglutination of the red blood cells carrying the antigens.
cell surface protein
proteins embedded in the cell membrane
hemoglobin
Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells and give blood its characteristic red color
erythrocytes
Scientific name for Red blood cells that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
thrombocytes
Scientific name for platelets, blood-clotting cell fragments that are involved in repairing damaged blood vessels
DNA in blood
only from white blood cells which have a nucleus containing DNA
leukocytes
Scientific name for white blood cells, or WBC, form in the bone marrow that fight disease and foreign invaders
RH factor
the presence, or lack, of antigens on the surface of red blood cells that may cause a reaction between the blood of the mother and fetus, resulting in fetal anemia. 80% of people have this antigen
ABO system
a classification system for the antigens of human blood, used to determine blood type. Under this system, the primary blood types are A, B, AB, and O. The letters A and B refer to antigens on the surface of red blood cells.
M and N proteins
additional blood proteins that can be used to identify the origin of blood
plasma
55% of blood; watery base; helps to regulate body temperature; contains essential minerals, enzymes, fats, sugars, oxygen and carbon dioxide
finding the probability of having a specific blood type
convert the individual percentages to decimals and multiply them together. Multiply your answer by 100
universal donor
a person whose type O Rh-negative blood may be safely transfused into persons with other blood types
stem Cells
Immature (uncommitted) cells with the potential to develop into almost any type of cell.
bone marrow
A soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells
hemophilia
a medical condition in which the ability of the blood to clot is severely reduced, causing the sufferer to bleed severely from even a slight injury. The condition is typically caused by a hereditary lack of a coagulation factor.
universal receiver
AB+ can receive all types of blood
blood spatter
Blood drops resulting from some force acting on the source of the blood, usually the victim
blood type inheritance
The four ABO blood groups, A, B, AB and O, arise from inheriting one or more of the alternative forms of this gene (or alleles) namely A, B or O. The A and B alleles are codominant so both A and B antigens will be expressed on the red cells whenever either allele is present.
blood circulation
movement of blood in a cycle throughout the body from heart to lungs to heart to arteries to veins to heart