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168 terms

U.S.History

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astrolabe
An astronomical instrument used to measure the altitude of the sun or stars.
capital
The amount of money or property that a company or a person uses in carrying on a business; national or individual wealth as produced by industry and available for reinvestment in the production of goods.
maneuver
To make a series of changes in direction.
mercantilism
The economic system prevailing in Europe in the 1500s and 1600s which favored a balance of exports over imports, national wealth being measured by the amount of gold and silver possessed.
unearth
To discover or disclose.
The nobles
owned all the land and the houses as well.
The serfs
worked the land for the nobles and had few, if any, freedoms. Serfs could not own land, find another job in another place, or even leave the village without the noble's permission.
The clergy
attended to preaching, teaching, and caring for the sick. The clergy upheld the doctrines of the Catholic Church and gave stability to the society.
advocate
To favor or support.
colonize
To found or settle a territory.
diagnose
To recognize or identify by examination.
erect
To construct.
haven
A safe place.
infest
To overrun or inhabit.
ingenuity
Cleverness; originality
inhabitant
Permanent resident.
The first colony in Virginia was on WHAT Island ?
Roanoke Island
The first permanent English colony in the New World was at
Jamestown, Virginia
Plymouth
as settled by Separatists who were later called Pilgrims. To gather money to travel to the New World, the Pilgrims sold their goods and bought shares in a joint-stock company. The London Company guaranteed the Pilgrims religious freedom in return for settling on company land in Virginia.
Massachusetts Bay
was settled by a group of wealthy Puritans who were given permission to settle in New England under the name of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Their experiences with religious persecution in England were similar to those of the Separatists.
The Puritan
had several advantages over the Separatists. They found a loophole in their charter and took the charter with them to assure freedom from England's supervision.
Rhode Island.
Roger Williams, an advocate of religious freedom and pastor of the church of Salem, was banished from the Massachusetts Colony because he spoke out against the Puritan church. He believed that Native Americans should be paid for lands settled by the colonists. He also believed that government affairs and church affairs should be separate.
New Hampshire
Located north of Massachusetts, New Hampshire became a haven for early settlers who were uncomfortable with life in Massachusetts Bay. Eventually, New Hampshire received its own charter in 1679 and became a separate colony.
The Middle Colonies
The Middle Colonies were New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. The soil was perfect for planting and agriculture blossomed. The Middle Colonies then became known for grain. Shipbuilding and lumbering were manufacturing bonuses in the middle colonies. There was a great amount of diversity in the middle colonies.
The Southern Colonies
Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Pennsylvania
was founded by William Penn as a haven for the Society of Friends, or Quakers. It eventually became one of the most successful proprietary colonies.
Georgia
was founded as a buffer to keep the Spanish from moving further north and to serve as a refuge for English prisoners. James Oglethorpe founded the colony in 1732. He was to control the colony for twenty-one years, after which it would become a royal colony.
New Jersey
was settled by a group of wealthy Quakers who purchased the western part of the state from its owner.
-refuge for Quakers
Delaware
was purchased from the Duke of York by William Penn because Penn's first grant of land had no coastline. The land became a part of Pennsylvania, but it was later made into a separate colony and named Delaware.
People in the Middle Ages were members of three classes:
nobles
serfs
clergy
What was the main responsibility of the clergy during the Middle Ages?
care for the souls of the people
The significance of Marco Polo's trip to the Far East was that he returned with stories of:
a modern way of life
three events led to the Renaissance
printing press
education for reading and writing
scientific progress
How did the invention of the printing press influence the Renaissance?
Writings and ideas were quickly produced and spread rapidly.
What effect did increased trade have upon many countries?
It brought in more capital.
Who was the person who caused England to become interested in colonization?
Richard Hakluyt
which of the following areas was the first colony in Virginia?
Roanoke
What happened to the first colony in Virginia?
no ones knows
Who was the person most directly responsible for the survival of the Jamestown colony?
John Smith
three bodies were part of Virginia's representative government.
governor
council
elected representatives from settlements
The chief motivation for the settling of New England was:
religious freedom
The Puritans who sought refuge in Holland were called:
Separatists
Why was Roger Williams banished from Massachusetts?
1.he spoke out against religious laws made by the government
&. he believed Native Americans should be paid for land taken over by colonists
What was the model document from which future state constitutions were developed?
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Maryland
refuge for English Catholics
New York
to avoid English taxes
Carolinas
lands sales to get rich
-annex
To add on or attach.
-furor
Fury or rage.
-revoke
To withdraw or repeal.
-barter
to trade
tax on tea
In 1773, The Tea Act was passed by Parliament. The act was designed to save the East India Tea Company from bankruptcy. It allowed the East India Tea Company to sell tea to the colonies without paying any duties. This allowed them to undercut colonial merchants. The Americans responded to the Tea Act by boycotting tea. Most port agents were persuaded (coerced?) into resigning so that the tea could not unloaded and had to be carried back to England.
Proclamation Act of 1763
prohitibted colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. Prevent future hostilities between colonists and Native Americans. Colonists reacted with anger and defiance
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
created by delegates from nine colonies, set forth view of British power in colonies. Parliament didn't have right to tax colonists without their legislative consent and demanded repeal of Stamp and Sugar Acts
Stamp Act of 1765
Law placing a tax on all printed material in the colonies, including, but not limited to, stamps, legal documents, newspapers, playing cards, etc (with date)
Intolerable Acts
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Grenville Program
As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in 1764 and the Stamp Act in 1765 to help finance the cost of maintaining a standing force of British troops in the colonies. He believed in reducing the financial burden on the British by enacting new taxes in the colonies.
Quartering Act
March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Hat Act
Prohibited the exporting of hats from one colony to another
Reconstruction Act of 1867
This Act was passed by Congress which was vetoed by President Johnson. This Act invalidated the state govn'ts formed under the Lincoln & Johnson plans and all the legal decisions made by those govn'ts.
balk
To stop or refuse to do something.
immune
To be protected from something.
Articles of Confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states
After the Declaration of Independence, state constitutions began to provide for what two provisions of government?
qualifications for holding office and voting
developing public schools and education
The convention for revision of the Articles of Confederation elected as chairman:
George Washington
Edmund Randolph suggested that a national government be established, consisting of:
three branches: judicial, legislative, and executive
William Paterson suggested an alternate to the Virginia Plan that was called:
the New Jersey Plan
The result of "The Great Compromise" was:
a House membership based on population and a Senate with equal representation
One of the important features of the Constitution is that:
it divides power between the Federal government and the state and local governments
Alexander Hamilton
established a national banking system
Bill of Rights
first ten amendments to the Constitution
John Adams
first vice president of the United States
George Washington
first president of the United States
Pinckney's Treaty
treaty with Spain that clarified boundary and navigation disputes
John Jay
worked out a treaty with England
four departments George Washington establish as cabinet posts
foreign affairs
treasury
war
attorney general
Judiciary Act
established the Supreme Court
Mint Act
established a federal mint and provided for the coinage of gold, silver, and copper
Navigation Act
British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British
a political party that emerged during Washington's term as president
Democratic Republican
Republican
Why did the United States remain neutral during the French Revolution?
The army was too weak to participate in the war.
draft
To make a preliminary plan.
precipitate
To bring on or hasten.
self-determination
To decide something by one's own free will.
Why did the representatives to the Second Continental Congress decide to write the Declaration of Independence?
It was the only way for the colonists to prevent British control over them
Which of the following was a bold new idea expressed in the Declaration of Independence?
People had rights not granted by their government.
Hessians
foreign mercenaries
Richard Henry Lee
directed by Virginia colonists to present a resolution of independence
Olive Branch Petition
document stating why colonists were fighting in Boston
Lafayette
Frenchman who fought for the colonists
Thomas Jefferson
wrote Declaration of Independence
Common Sense
booklet advocating independence from England
The fall of New York
Washington was defeated twice by a large British army.
The battles of Trenton and Princeton
Washington surprised the Hessians on Christmas Eve while they were celebrating.
Burgoyne's march through New York
Colonists cut down trees to slow Burgoyne's progress to Saratoga where he lost his entire army.
The capture of Philadelphia
Even though it was the capital city, it did not mean the end of the war. It provided the British with comfortable quarters.
deem
To think or believe.
sectionalism
Support for one section without regard for the needs of the other sections or the nation as a whole. ( North, South, and Western regions of the United States)
nationalism
the doctrine that nations should act independently (rather than collectively) to attain their goals
civil war
a war between factions in the same country
Marbury v. Madison established the principle that
the Supreme Court could declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
Jefferson referred to his election as:
the Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's Republican opponent in the 1800 election was:
Aaron Burr
Negotiations with France to purchase Louisiana were motivated by:
the closing of the port of New Orleans to American traffic
Who did Jefferson choose to negotiate the Louisiana Purchase?
James Monroe
initiate
To introduce or to begin.
Which state wanted to be admitted to the Union as a slave state?
Missouri
How did Jackson respond to the close of the Bank of the United States?
established state banks.
When they first came to the United States, slaves were used as:
laborers
More and more black slaves were brought to the United States to do field labor when:
fewer Indians and indentured servants were available
South nation =
slave nation
devastate
To destroy; to ruin.
ravage
To destroy.
Freed Slaves
The Freedman's Bureau was established by Congress in 1865 to help freed slaves adjust to freedom and to help protect their civil rights.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
This Act was passed by Congress which was vetoed by President Johnson. This Act invalidated the state govn'ts formed under the Lincoln & Johnson plans and all the legal decisions made by those govn'ts.
component
A part or ingredient.
defray
To pay.
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
American Federation of Labor
The first federation of labor unions in the United States. Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886
National Labor Union
founded by William Sylvis (1866); supported 8-hour workday, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages, women; excluded blacks
Part owners in companies who elected the boards of directors were
stockholders
What was the purpose of the Federal Trade Commission and Clayton Antitrust Act?
regulate and control large corporations
Why did workers band together and form unions?
to change conditions in the factories
The first organized union in the United States was the:
National Labor Union
Which organization was developed to strengthen and charter national unions?
American Federation of Labor
curtail
To shorten or reduce.
ironic
Directly opposite from what might have been expected.
throes
Pain or affliction.
An armistice was signed on
November 11, 1918.
surveillance
To observe closely; to be watchful.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
landed troops on North Africa
James H. Doolittle
leader of Tokyo bombing
Harry S. Truman
president who decided to drop A-bomb on Hiroshima
Adolf Hitler
dictator of Germany
Douglas MacArthur
led military in the Pacific
hot war
involves actual combat, such as World War II
Cold war
refers to hostilities and differences that occur between nations but that have not resulted in physical battles.
Peace
The signing of a peace treaty by North Vietnam, the Vietcong, South Vietnam, and the United States occurred in Paris on January 17, 1973. The United States agreed to leave Vietnam within sixty days.
VIETNAM WAR
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
KOREAN CONFLICT
The Korean War was fought from 1950 to 1953. The North was supported by USSR and later People's Republic of China while the South was supported by U.S. and small United Nations force. The war ended in stalemate, with Korea still divided into North and South.
implicated
To be involved in some matter.
predicate
To affirm, assert, or to declare.
Alliance for Progress
provided funds for social programs
President Johnson's program to create new jobs and to appropriate money to faltering economic areas was called:
War on Poverty
President Johnson's health insurance plan for the elderly became known as
Medicare
assets
Property of a person or business.
Reaganomics
Reagan's economic plan
Iran-Contra
a political scandal in the United States which came to light in November 1986, during the Reagan administration, in which senior US figures agreed to facilitate the sale of arms to Iran, the subject of an arms embargo, to secure the release of hostages and to fund Nicaraguan contras.
Nicaragua
he profits from the sales were used to support the anti-Communist rebels in Nicaragua, known as the Contras
Sandra Day O'Connor
first woman supreme court justice. appointed by Reagan
conservative
a person who has conservative ideas or opinions
Star Wars
missile defense system
Bush
-The Persian Gulf War was against Iran
-didn't raised taxes.
-directed the CIA
deficit
The excess of what is owed over available funds.
free trade
Trade carried on without governmental control.
The program suffered a great tragedy on January 28, 1986, when the shuttle Challenger exploded, killing the crew and schoolteacher .......
Christa McAuliffe.
Achille Lauro
-Italian cruise ship
- was taken over in 1985 by terrorists who killed an American tourist
In 1993
- a powerful bomb exploded in the World Trade Center garage in New York
The Murrah Federal Building
in Oklahoma City was bombed in 1995, killing 169 people.
December 1989
the United States invaded the Panama Canal Zone to protect the Americans in the zone, arrest Noriega, and send him to the United States for trial.
Gorbachev reforms
glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring).
The Communist Party
became deactivated.
Hubble Telescope
most famous equipment launched from a shuttle
Grenada
Caribbean island invaded in 1983
World Trade Center
site of bomb attack by foreign terrorists
Manuel Noriega.
Panamanian dictator arrested by the United States
Murrah Federal Building
Oklahoma City site bombed by an American terrorist militia group
The trade deficit for the United States in the 1990s was
about $150 billion dollars