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An astronomical instrument used to measure the altitude of the sun or stars.


The amount of money or property that a company or a person uses in carrying on a business; national or individual wealth as produced by industry and available for reinvestment in the production of goods.


To make a series of changes in direction.


The economic system prevailing in Europe in the 1500s and 1600s which favored a balance of exports over imports, national wealth being measured by the amount of gold and silver possessed.


To discover or disclose.

The nobles

owned all the land and the houses as well.

The serfs

worked the land for the nobles and had few, if any, freedoms. Serfs could not own land, find another job in another place, or even leave the village without the noble's permission.

The clergy

attended to preaching, teaching, and caring for the sick. The clergy upheld the doctrines of the Catholic Church and gave stability to the society.


To favor or support.


To found or settle a territory.


To recognize or identify by examination.


To construct.


A safe place.


To overrun or inhabit.


Cleverness; originality


Permanent resident.

The first colony in Virginia was on WHAT Island ?

Roanoke Island

The first permanent English colony in the New World was at

Jamestown, Virginia


as settled by Separatists who were later called Pilgrims. To gather money to travel to the New World, the Pilgrims sold their goods and bought shares in a joint-stock company. The London Company guaranteed the Pilgrims religious freedom in return for settling on company land in Virginia.

Massachusetts Bay

was settled by a group of wealthy Puritans who were given permission to settle in New England under the name of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Their experiences with religious persecution in England were similar to those of the Separatists.

The Puritan

had several advantages over the Separatists. They found a loophole in their charter and took the charter with them to assure freedom from England's supervision.

Rhode Island.

Roger Williams, an advocate of religious freedom and pastor of the church of Salem, was banished from the Massachusetts Colony because he spoke out against the Puritan church. He believed that Native Americans should be paid for lands settled by the colonists. He also believed that government affairs and church affairs should be separate.

New Hampshire

Located north of Massachusetts, New Hampshire became a haven for early settlers who were uncomfortable with life in Massachusetts Bay. Eventually, New Hampshire received its own charter in 1679 and became a separate colony.

The Middle Colonies

The Middle Colonies were New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. The soil was perfect for planting and agriculture blossomed. The Middle Colonies then became known for grain. Shipbuilding and lumbering were manufacturing bonuses in the middle colonies. There was a great amount of diversity in the middle colonies.

The Southern Colonies

Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia


was founded by William Penn as a haven for the Society of Friends, or Quakers. It eventually became one of the most successful proprietary colonies.


was founded as a buffer to keep the Spanish from moving further north and to serve as a refuge for English prisoners. James Oglethorpe founded the colony in 1732. He was to control the colony for twenty-one years, after which it would become a royal colony.

New Jersey

was settled by a group of wealthy Quakers who purchased the western part of the state from its owner.
-refuge for Quakers


was purchased from the Duke of York by William Penn because Penn's first grant of land had no coastline. The land became a part of Pennsylvania, but it was later made into a separate colony and named Delaware.

People in the Middle Ages were members of three classes:


What was the main responsibility of the clergy during the Middle Ages?

care for the souls of the people

The significance of Marco Polo's trip to the Far East was that he returned with stories of:

a modern way of life

three events led to the Renaissance

printing press
education for reading and writing
scientific progress

How did the invention of the printing press influence the Renaissance?

Writings and ideas were quickly produced and spread rapidly.

What effect did increased trade have upon many countries?

It brought in more capital.

Who was the person who caused England to become interested in colonization?

Richard Hakluyt

which of the following areas was the first colony in Virginia?


What happened to the first colony in Virginia?

no ones knows

Who was the person most directly responsible for the survival of the Jamestown colony?

John Smith

three bodies were part of Virginia's representative government.

elected representatives from settlements

The chief motivation for the settling of New England was:

religious freedom

The Puritans who sought refuge in Holland were called:


Why was Roger Williams banished from Massachusetts?

1.he spoke out against religious laws made by the government
&. he believed Native Americans should be paid for land taken over by colonists

What was the model document from which future state constitutions were developed?

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut


refuge for English Catholics

New York

to avoid English taxes


lands sales to get rich


To add on or attach.


Fury or rage.


To withdraw or repeal.


to trade

tax on tea

In 1773, The Tea Act was passed by Parliament. The act was designed to save the East India Tea Company from bankruptcy. It allowed the East India Tea Company to sell tea to the colonies without paying any duties. This allowed them to undercut colonial merchants. The Americans responded to the Tea Act by boycotting tea. Most port agents were persuaded (coerced?) into resigning so that the tea could not unloaded and had to be carried back to England.

Proclamation Act of 1763

prohitibted colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. Prevent future hostilities between colonists and Native Americans. Colonists reacted with anger and defiance

Declaration of Rights and Grievances

created by delegates from nine colonies, set forth view of British power in colonies. Parliament didn't have right to tax colonists without their legislative consent and demanded repeal of Stamp and Sugar Acts

Stamp Act of 1765

Law placing a tax on all printed material in the colonies, including, but not limited to, stamps, legal documents, newspapers, playing cards, etc (with date)

Intolerable Acts

in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses

Grenville Program

As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in 1764 and the Stamp Act in 1765 to help finance the cost of maintaining a standing force of British troops in the colonies. He believed in reducing the financial burden on the British by enacting new taxes in the colonies.

Quartering Act

March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.

Hat Act

Prohibited the exporting of hats from one colony to another

Reconstruction Act of 1867

This Act was passed by Congress which was vetoed by President Johnson. This Act invalidated the state govn'ts formed under the Lincoln & Johnson plans and all the legal decisions made by those govn'ts.


To stop or refuse to do something.


To be protected from something.

Articles of Confederation

a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states

After the Declaration of Independence, state constitutions began to provide for what two provisions of government?

qualifications for holding office and voting
developing public schools and education

The convention for revision of the Articles of Confederation elected as chairman:

George Washington

Edmund Randolph suggested that a national government be established, consisting of:

three branches: judicial, legislative, and executive

William Paterson suggested an alternate to the Virginia Plan that was called:

the New Jersey Plan

The result of "The Great Compromise" was:

a House membership based on population and a Senate with equal representation

One of the important features of the Constitution is that:

it divides power between the Federal government and the state and local governments

Alexander Hamilton

established a national banking system

Bill of Rights

first ten amendments to the Constitution

John Adams

first vice president of the United States

George Washington

first president of the United States

Pinckney's Treaty

treaty with Spain that clarified boundary and navigation disputes

John Jay

worked out a treaty with England

four departments George Washington establish as cabinet posts

foreign affairs
attorney general

Judiciary Act

established the Supreme Court

Mint Act

established a federal mint and provided for the coinage of gold, silver, and copper

Navigation Act

British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British

a political party that emerged during Washington's term as president

Democratic Republican

Why did the United States remain neutral during the French Revolution?

The army was too weak to participate in the war.


To make a preliminary plan.


To bring on or hasten.


To decide something by one's own free will.

Why did the representatives to the Second Continental Congress decide to write the Declaration of Independence?

It was the only way for the colonists to prevent British control over them

Which of the following was a bold new idea expressed in the Declaration of Independence?

People had rights not granted by their government.


foreign mercenaries

Richard Henry Lee

directed by Virginia colonists to present a resolution of independence

Olive Branch Petition

document stating why colonists were fighting in Boston


Frenchman who fought for the colonists

Thomas Jefferson

wrote Declaration of Independence

Common Sense

booklet advocating independence from England

The fall of New York

Washington was defeated twice by a large British army.

The battles of Trenton and Princeton

Washington surprised the Hessians on Christmas Eve while they were celebrating.

Burgoyne's march through New York

Colonists cut down trees to slow Burgoyne's progress to Saratoga where he lost his entire army.

The capture of Philadelphia

Even though it was the capital city, it did not mean the end of the war. It provided the British with comfortable quarters.


To think or believe.


Support for one section without regard for the needs of the other sections or the nation as a whole. ( North, South, and Western regions of the United States)


the doctrine that nations should act independently (rather than collectively) to attain their goals

civil war

a war between factions in the same country

Marbury v. Madison established the principle that

the Supreme Court could declare acts of Congress unconstitutional

Jefferson referred to his election as:

the Revolution of 1800

Jefferson's Republican opponent in the 1800 election was:

Aaron Burr

Negotiations with France to purchase Louisiana were motivated by:

the closing of the port of New Orleans to American traffic

Who did Jefferson choose to negotiate the Louisiana Purchase?

James Monroe


To introduce or to begin.

Which state wanted to be admitted to the Union as a slave state?


How did Jackson respond to the close of the Bank of the United States?

established state banks.

When they first came to the United States, slaves were used as:


More and more black slaves were brought to the United States to do field labor when:

fewer Indians and indentured servants were available

South nation =

slave nation


To destroy; to ruin.


To destroy.

Freed Slaves

The Freedman's Bureau was established by Congress in 1865 to help freed slaves adjust to freedom and to help protect their civil rights.

Reconstruction Act of 1867

This Act was passed by Congress which was vetoed by President Johnson. This Act invalidated the state govn'ts formed under the Lincoln & Johnson plans and all the legal decisions made by those govn'ts.


A part or ingredient.


To pay.

Knights of Labor

1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed

American Federation of Labor

The first federation of labor unions in the United States. Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886

National Labor Union

founded by William Sylvis (1866); supported 8-hour workday, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages, women; excluded blacks

Part owners in companies who elected the boards of directors were


What was the purpose of the Federal Trade Commission and Clayton Antitrust Act?

regulate and control large corporations

Why did workers band together and form unions?

to change conditions in the factories

The first organized union in the United States was the:

National Labor Union

Which organization was developed to strengthen and charter national unions?

American Federation of Labor


To shorten or reduce.


Directly opposite from what might have been expected.


Pain or affliction.

An armistice was signed on

November 11, 1918.


To observe closely; to be watchful.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

landed troops on North Africa

James H. Doolittle

leader of Tokyo bombing

Harry S. Truman

president who decided to drop A-bomb on Hiroshima

Adolf Hitler

dictator of Germany

Douglas MacArthur

led military in the Pacific

hot war

involves actual combat, such as World War II

Cold war

refers to hostilities and differences that occur between nations but that have not resulted in physical battles.


The signing of a peace treaty by North Vietnam, the Vietcong, South Vietnam, and the United States occurred in Paris on January 17, 1973. The United States agreed to leave Vietnam within sixty days.


a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States


The Korean War was fought from 1950 to 1953. The North was supported by USSR and later People's Republic of China while the South was supported by U.S. and small United Nations force. The war ended in stalemate, with Korea still divided into North and South.


To be involved in some matter.


To affirm, assert, or to declare.

Alliance for Progress

provided funds for social programs

President Johnson's program to create new jobs and to appropriate money to faltering economic areas was called:

War on Poverty

President Johnson's health insurance plan for the elderly became known as



Property of a person or business.


Reagan's economic plan


a political scandal in the United States which came to light in November 1986, during the Reagan administration, in which senior US figures agreed to facilitate the sale of arms to Iran, the subject of an arms embargo, to secure the release of hostages and to fund Nicaraguan contras.


he profits from the sales were used to support the anti-Communist rebels in Nicaragua, known as the Contras

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