What was America's relationship to the international economy on the eve of the Great Depression?
Circular loans, europe depending on American loans, unstable structure
What were the major factors contributing to the onset of the Great Depression?
all of these were factors except factors- lack of diversification in economy, maldistribution of wealth, exports, european industry credit structure, crop pricestoo low, small banks no reserves
What actions and events did the stock market crash trigger? Could different governmental policies have prevented these actions?
Bank failures, yes, tarriff raise
What actions did the Federal Reserve Board take in response to the market crash? Were its actions effective? Counterproductive? Why?
closing in- not letting money out- causes banks to fail-counterproductivity
What changes took place within American families as a result of the Great Depression? Why?
marriage rates and birth rates go down
What were the actions and the objectives of the American Communist Party between 1935 and 1939? Why did it attract so much support from artists, writers, and intellectuals?
softened their attitude toward FDR, praised the new deal, formed loose alliances with many other progressive groups, because they helped to mobilize writers, artists and intellecuals behind a pattern of social criticism
What did the Scottsboro case illustrate about American culture and society? Did justice eventually prevail?
blacks guilty until proven innocent
Who were the major American authors of the Depression era, and what were their most important works?
Jon Dos Passos- U.S.A ; Nathanael West- Miss Lonelyhearts ; Jack Conroy- The disinherited ; James T. Farrell- Studs Lonigan
What did the films of Frank Capra illustrate about American culture and society during the Great Depression?
good and evil; good and bad
What were the major trends in American music during the Great Depression? In what ways did popular music reflect the lives and aspirations of most Americans?
jazz and swing music, optimistic, escapist music
How did the Great Depression affect the lives of women in the United States?
strengthened belief that a women's proper place was in the home
What actions did President Herbert Hoover take to help combat the Great Depression and alleviate its effects? Did he do too much, or too little?
he did a lot, but it didnt work- agricultural marketing act-RFC
How effective was the Reconstruction Finance Corporation in promoting recovery from the Depression? According to Dr. Brinkley, what factors made it less effective than it might otherwise have been?
didnt give it enough money and didnt do enough
How did President Hoover respond to the encampment of the Bonus Army?
Police couldnt clear them out so he called the army
What were the keys to Franklin Roosevelt's success in the election of 1932?
Anyone but hoover, promised to do more, able to be optimistic, to minimize the cultural issues and focus economically
What enabled Roosevelt to quickly restore public confidence in government after his inauguration?
What groups made up Roosevelt's New Deal coalition?
organized labor, african americans, urban workers, white souther farmers, former progressives
What was the general trend of New Deal policies toward women and African Americans?
not hostie but didnt go to any great lengths
What was the goal of federal Indian policy during the New Deal?
get back to tribal autonomy-reinforce tribal ways
What were the goals of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) during the 1930's?
form industrial unions
What New Deal measure legalized collective bargaining by unions? What was the enforcement mechanism?
NIRA-National Industrial Recovery Act
What was a key difference between the labor strife of 1919 and that of 1937?
1937-unions won most of the time
For what benefits did the 1935 Social Security Act provide?
American life, including old age, poverty, unemployment, and the burdens of widows and fatherless children.
During the First New Deal, how did the Supreme Court respond to challenges to Roosevelt's programs?
went with the challenges
Why did the Supreme Court declare the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional?
because conflict of the powers-overreach interstate commerce
What were the most serious political threats to Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal during his first term?
Why was Roosevelt's proposal to expand the Supreme Court controversial? What was Roosevelt trying to accomplish?
They were afraid of his hunger for power, the courts were overworked and needed additional manpower and younger blood to enable them to cope with their increasing burdens
What was the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, and why was its initial implementation controversial?
it would tell individual farmers how much they should produce and would pay them subsidies for leaving some of their land idle. the government had no constitutional authority to require farmersto limit production
What was the largest and most effective New Deal relief program, and what did it accomplish?
WPA-Works Progress Administration- work relief for unemployed
What were the major characteristics of American foreign policy from 1921 until 1928? In what ways was policy was consistent, and in what ways did it change over time?
What was the goal of United States in calling the Washington Naval Conference? What were the results of the conference? How well did the agreements reached serve the original goals?
to prevent a naval arms race
What was the Dawes Plan? Why was it considered necessary? What was its long-term impact?
loan money to germany, germany pay france soon
What is the major evidence that the United States did not pursue an isolationist foreign policy during the 1920's? What is the major evidence that the U.S. did pursue isolationist policies from 1935 onward? What steps did the U.S. take to move away from isolationism prior to Pearl Harbor?
london and washington naval acts-started assesting the navy-cash and carrey act
Characterize American policy toward Latin America during the 1920's. How did Hoover change previous policy? How did Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy" differ from what had gone before? What was the impact of this policy?
buying raw materals from latin america then giving finished products back
How did American policies toward the Soviet Union change from 1917 to 1933? Why did the United States finally recognize the Soviet government in 1933?
It didn't, the soviet union appeared to be a possible source of trade
In what ways did President Hoover and Secretary of State Stimson respond to Japanese aggression in Asia? What actions did the Roosevelt administration later take?
refused to recognize japanese rule
What was the official American policy regarding the Spanish Civil War? What were the results of this policy? Whose interests did this policy serve?
The good neighbor policy
How did the American public respond to Roosevelt's Quarantine Speech of 1937? What did this indicate about the public's thoughts about America's role in the increasingly dangerous world?
intensified America's isolationist mood, causing protest by isolationists and foes to intervention
How did Franklin Roosevelt respond to the outbreak of hostilities in Europe in 1939? How did this compare to the response of Woodrow Wilson to the outbreak of World War I?
he said the nation would remain neutral
How well-prepared was the U.S. militarily for its entry into World War II? What were the strongest features of the military plans on hand on 7 December 1941? What were the weakest features of those plans?
Not very prepared because they didn't know where it would take place- no strong features- they were ill prepared and battleships got destroyed.
What actions did the American people and the American government take with regard to World War II raging in Europe and the continuing Sino-Japanese war between 1939 and 1941?
What was the purpose of the meeting between President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill in August 1941, while the Unites States was still neutral? What were the major elements of the resulting "Atlantic Charter"?
to make the atlantic charter and discuss strategy incase of war- two nations set out "certian common principles" on which to base a "better future for the world."
What accounts for "revisionist" interpretations of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor? What are the major arguments of these interpretations?
What was the biggest diplomatic obstacle to concluding the war between the United States and Japan in 1945?
In what areas did the United States and Great Britain make major technological innovations during World War II?
Characterize American strategy during World War II in the following areas: its freedom of actin in Europe, American troops in their first engagements against the Germans, Reducing Japanese control over mainland China during the war, Truman's decisin touse atomic weapons to conclude the war against Japan, and surrender terms with the Axis powers.
How effective in eliminating work stoppages were the "no strike" pledges signed by union leaders during the war?
In comparison to World War I, how extensively did the federal government interfere with civil liberties?
What was the Soviet Union's position regarding the American and British campaigns in North Africa and Italy?
Characterize black experiences during the war with regard to:Racial segregation in the military, The black migration from the rural South, Militancy of black organizations, Federal government actions to reduce racial inequalities.