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Behavioral: Chapter 4
Specific Behaviors: Obesity and Sleep
Terms in this set (38)
What are the normal levels of body fat for women and men?
Obesity carries the increased risk of what diseases?
Cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, diabetes.
What psychological distress does obesity cause?
Depression, self-blame, lowered self-esteem.
A BMI over ______ is considered obese.
How does leptin affect weight?
Secreted by fat cells, it signals the hypothalamus whether the body has sufficient energy stores of at.
Leptin signals a negative feedback system because it...
Inhibits neurons that stimulate appetite and activates those that suppress appetite.
Although leptin was responsible in obese mice, how did the research translate to humans?
Humans had high, not low, levels of leptin. Injections of leptin did not reduce either the eating or the body fat of obese humans.
Gherlin is secreted in the ________ at what times?
Stomach; just before meals.
How did rats with damage to the ventromedial hypothalamus behave?
Ate excessively, little sensitivity to internal hunger cues, sensitivity to external food cues.
What percentages of adult Americans are overweight and obese?
What are some of the consequences related to the stigma of obesity?
Obese women make less wages; doctors believe obese people are lazy; overweight women less likely to receive family support for college.
At what grade level have most children already been on a diet?
According to the justification-suppression model, prejudice is followed by either of what two things?
Justification (they deserve it because...)
Suppression (social norms, values, etc.)
People on diets typically lose ______ percent of their starting weight in the first ______ months.
Thought suppression is effortful and depends on what two processes?
Automatic monitoring process.
Controlled operating process.
Why does thought suppression often lead to a rebound?
Ironic monitoring process primes stereotype at low levels (increases accessibility).
Muraven and Baumeister found out what 3 things about self control?
Limited resource; all self-control draws on same resource; continuous draw depletes store.
What are four theories as to why we require sleep?
Protects us from dark, restores body, allows us to make memories, allows us to grow.
How do naps help us?
Focus attention and make complicated decisions.
Circadian rhythm is largely affect by what sleep-inducing hormon?
How does the length of circadian rhythm affect morning or evening people?
Shorter rhythms experience more alertness earlier, longer experience it later.
How long is a sleep cycle?
Describe stage 1 of sleep.
5 minutes, fantastic images, sensation of falling, floating, sudden jerking.
Describe stage 2 of sleep.
20 minutes, can wake up, sleep talking, bursts of brain activity (spindles).
Describe stage 3 of sleep.
30 minutes, transitional, begin to emit slow "delta" waves.
Describe stage 4 of sleep.
30 minutes, slow-wave sleep, hard to wake, at end of 4 comes sleepwalking and bedwetting.
Describe stage 5 of sleep.
Regress back through stages.
When does REM occur? Describe it.
When you have regressed back to the second stage of sleep. Dreams, 20-25% of sleep.
Sleep deprivation is ________.
Cumulative: you need to make up the amount missed the next night (or later).
How is sleep deprivation related to obesity?
People with less than 7 hours of sleep a night are more likely to be overweight. Affects hormones.
How does sleep deprivation alter the hormones leptin and ghrelin?
Lowers leptin, raises ghrelin.
What three things account for insomnia more than drugs like caffeine or alcohol?
Stress, depression, stimulus overload.
What is narcolepsy?
People spontaneously collapse into REM sleep, often triggered by strong emotions.
What is sleep apnea? Why is it dangerous?
Intermittently stopping breathing during sleep. Causes central nervous system to stop functioning.
What are parasomnias?
Sleep walking, sleep talking, tooth grinding, night terrors.
How do dreams differ between genders?
Women dream of men and women equally; men dream mostly of men.
What are the four theories as to why we dream?
1) Activation-synthesis (sensory input)
2) Neurocognitive (special kind of thinking)
3) Organize memories
4) Develop/preserve neural pathways
Describe the typical experience of someone in sleep paralysis.
Wakes up, is paralyzed, senses a presence in the room, feels fear, perceives buzzing and strange lights.
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