46 terms

Summit Field Journal


Terms in this set (...)

7 LNTs abbreviation means
7 Leave No Trace Principles
7 LNTs mnemonic sentence
papa tom doesn't like my red boots
papa tom doesn't like my red boots
- 6 things
- plan ahead and prepare
- travel and camp on durable surfaces
- dispose of waste properly
- leave what you find
- minimize campfire impact
- respect wildlife
- be considerate of other visitors
7 LNTs number of points
plan ahead and prepare
- 6 things
- know the regulations and special concerns for the area you'll visit
- prepare for extreme weather, hazards and emergencies
- schedule your trip to avoid times of high use
- visit in small groups
- repackage food to minimize waste
- use a map and compass to eliminate the use of rock cairns, flagging, or marking paint
travel and camp on durable surfaces
- 5 things
- durable surfaces include established trails, campsites, rock, gravel, dry grass and snow
- protect fragile areas around lakes and streams by camping at least 200 feet away
- good campsites are found not made
- in popular areas - use existing trails and campsites and walk single file in the middle of the trail even when wet or muddy - keep campsites small
- in pristine areas - disperse over large area - avoid places where impact is beginning to show
dispose of waste properly
- 3 things
- pack it in, pack it out - pack out all trash including food, toilet paper and feminine hygiene products - check the campsite for scraps
- deposit feces in a cat-hole 6-8" deep and at least 200' from water, camp and trails. bury and disguise
- Broadcast strained water from dishes or showers 200 feet from water source and use little biodegradable soap.
leave what you find
- 3 things
- look but don't touch at cultural or historical artifacts
- leave natural objects in tact
- do not move or introduce non-native species - they can be invasive
minimize campfire impact
- 5 things
- use a stove for cooking and candle or electric source for light
- when fires are permitted use a fire pit, mound or pan
- allow small fires to burn thoroughly
- when cool to the touch disappear fires
- use wood that is the 3ds - down, dead, detached
respect wildlife
- 4 things
- observe wildlife from a distance and do not approach
- never feed wildlife and protect food and trash
- do not loose pets in the wilderness - they may disturb wildlife
- avoid wildlife during sensitive times - mating, nesting, raising young and winter
be considerate of other visitors
- 3 things
- when meeting other visitors yield and step to the downhill side
- take breaks off the tail out of the way
- be quiet
Lightning safety
- 8 points
- If you see lightning...
- count the number of seconds between the lightning and the thunder
- every 5 seconds of time is 1 mile of distance
- have the team count off to get numbers assigned
- spread out 30' apart
- all teammates should maintain visual and auditory contact with the teammates numbered above and below you
- squat, don't sit, on a a non-conductive pad and off the dirt
- once seated, count off continuously, until the lightning has passed.
ABCS of a well balanced pack
- Accessibility - things that need to be dry in the liner bag
- Balance - place heavy items closer to the center of your back.
- Compression - any bulges?
- Streamlined - avoid attaching things
Pre-Nav =
- Compass anatomy
- colors on a trail map
compass anatomy
- 7 things
- direction of travel arrow (fred)
- transparent base plate
- magnifier
- index line
- orienting arrow (shed)
- magnetic needle (red)
- compass housing
colors on a trail map
- 6 things
- green = forested area
- white = cleared forest area
- black = man-made feature
- brown = contour line
- blue = water
- purple = recent revision
separation from the group / lost procedure
- 5 things
- stay calm
- stay put
- blow your whistle - 3 times every 2 minutes
- listen - searchers blow their whistle once every 2 minutes
- don't move - when searchers come for you
Environmental (temperature) Hazards
- Hypothermia - signs, treatment, prevention
- Frostbite - signs, treatment, prevention
- Hyperthermia - signs, treatment, prevention
Hypothermia - progressive signs
- 8 things
- "I'm not cold"
- shivering
- the umbles
- intense shivering
- immobile, non-communicative
- shivering stops
- unconscious
- death
Hypothermia - Treatment
- 5 things
- remove from immediate danger
- remove wet clothes
- exercise
- eat
- drink
Hypothermia - Prevention
- 3 things
- drink and eat
- wear appropriate layers, change when needed
- dress pro-actively
Frostbite - signs
- 2 things
- skin is pale, numb, cold
- still soft means frostbite superficial
Frostbite - treatment
- 2 things
- if superficial, rewarm with skin to skin contact
- never massage or use other heat source
Frostbite - Prevention
- 3 things
- eat and drink
- wear appropriate clothes
- be active
Hyperthermia - progressive signs
- 12
- fatigue
- loss of appetite
- cramps
- nausea
- increased heart and respiratory rate
- excessive sweating
- skin appears red and hot
- sweating stops
- altered consciousness
- unconscious
- death
Hyperthermia - Treatment
- 7 things
- remove from heat - get shade
- remove layers
- cool the person as much as possible, with water or whatever you have
- fan them
- give electrolyte solution of 1tsp salt per 1 qt water
- massage extremities to encourage hot blood to move out from the core
- if no improvement, evacuate them - do not let them exert
Hyperthermia - Prevention
- 6 things
- drink amayc
- get salt
- don't over exert
- take breaks
- wear appropriate clothing
- watch for hyperthermia
campsite selection
- 3 Ws + 1
- water - 200' (75 paces) away
- weather - wind, water, sun
- widow makers
- protect the site from signs of use
Nav 101 =
- 3 things
- contours
- legend
- scale
- 3 aspects
- Lines - show constant elevation
- Indexes - a line with the elevation marked
- Interval - the empty space between lines shows a change in elevation.
clove hitch
an all purpose hitch
figure eight follow through
- strong
- forms secure, non-slip loop
lesson plan
have you created one?
page 64
Nav 201 =
- 4 things
- how to orient your map
- how to measure a real world bearing
- how to measure a bearing from a map without orienting
- how to measure a bearing from an oriented map
how to orient your map
- 7 steps
- find the declination of your map ( a # of degrees + a direction W or E)
- for east (subtract) turn compass housing to the right - for west (add) turn compass housing left
- keep magnetic (metal) objects away from compass
- place compass on map with compass direction of travel area pointing towards map north
- line up the compass base-plate with one of the maps north-south gridlines
- rotate the map and compass together until "red" the magnetic needle is in the "shed" the orienting arrow.
- map north is now true north
how to measure a real world bearing
- 3 steps
- Point the direction of travel arrow toward the landmark that you would like to measure a bearing towards.
- turn the compass housing so that the orienting arrow is beneath the magnetic needle.
- your bearing is now at the index line
how to measure a bearing from a map that is not oriented or a map that is oriented
- 4 steps
- if you add declination beforehand, than your map is oriented and you can take a bearing that is true - if your map is not oriented you can take a bearing that is not true and than add declination to it
- lay your map down and put the side edge of the compass base plate on your starting point
- rotate the base plate so that your destination is on the same edge - so that the edge of the base plate is a straight line from your starting point to your destination with the direction of travel are pointing towards your destination.
- now rotate the compass housing so that the compass' north south orienting lines match up with the maps north south grid lines with the orienting arrow pointing north.
- get your bearing from the index line
Nav 301 =
- How to follow a bearing off trail
- 8 things
- leap frogging
- handrailing
- contouring
- back boundary
- aiming off
- detouring
- checking
- absolute nav point
Leap frogging
- 4 things
- a way to follow a magnetic bearing
- set your bearing on the housing and rotate the compass until red is in the shed
- look in the direction of fred and choose a landmark
- walk to the landmark and repeat
special mean requirements
- plan
- pack out
- prepare
- clean up
Nav 401 =
- finding direction without a compass
- watch method
- shadow stick method
- north star method
watch method
- hour hand at the sun
- south is midway between the hour hand and 12
shadow stick method
- put a stick in the ground
- mark the end of the shadow
- wait 30 minutes and then mark where the end of the shadow has moved to
- place your left foot on the first mark and right foot on the second and you are facing north
north star method
- find the big dipper
- the two stars on the right side of the pot point toward the big dipper 5 lengths away
Nav 501 =
- triangulation
- a way to figure out your location, when you have a map and compass and can see three map identifiable landmarks
- 3 things
- orient the map
- draw 3 lines on the map from your approximate location towards the 3 landmarks.
- the intersection of the lines is your approximate location