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Achene
Small, dry, one seed fruit that doesn't open.
Acumunate
Tapering to a slender point.
Aggregate Fruit
A fruit developing from the several separate carpels of a single flower.
Angiosperm
A seed borne in a vessel.
Apical Meristem
The meristem at the tip of the root or shoot in a vascular plant.
Autotroph
An organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide.
Berry
Any fruit that has its seeds enclosed in a fleshy pulp.
Ex: Tomato or banana
Biennial
A plant that normally requires two growing seasons to complete its life cycle, flowering and fruiting in its second year. (Lives for 2 years)
Plant Bulb
A short underground stem covered by enlarged and fleshy leaf bases containing stored food.
Fruit Capsule
In angiosperms, a dehiscent, dry fruit that develops from two or more carpels.
Carbohydrates
An organic compound consisting of a chain of carbon atoms to which hydrogen and oxygen are attached in a 2:1 ratio (CH2O)
Ex: Sugars, starch, glycogen, and cellulose.
Carpel
The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an ovary, a stigma, and usually a style.
Caryopsis
Simple, dry, one-seeded fruit.
Ex: Nut
Cellulose
A carbohydrate that is the chief component of the cell wall in plants and some protists; an insoluble complex carbohydrate formed of microfibrils of glucose molecules attached end to end.
Chloroplasts
( In green plant cells ). A plastid that contains chlorophyll.
Collenchyma
A supporting tissue composed of collenchyma cells; common in regions of primary growth in stems and in some leaves.
Cork Cambium
The lateral meristem that forms the periderm, producing cork (phellem) toward the surface 9outside) of the plant and phelloderm toward the inside. This is common in stems and roots of gymnosperms and woods angiosperms.
Cotyledons
An embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants, one or more of which are the first leaves to appear
Cypsela
Dry, single seeded from the ovary. Only 1 develops into a seed.
Cytoskeleton
The flexible network within cells, composed of microtubules.
Determinate Growth
Stops once a genetically pre-determined structure has completely formed.
Differentiation
A developmental process by which a relatively unspecialized cell undergoes a progressive change to a more specialized cell; the specialization of cells and tissues for particular functions during development.
Diffusion
The spreading of something more widely.
Drupe
Fruit with skin and central "stone".
Ex: Cherry, olive.
Endoplasmic Recticulum
A network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuos with the nuclear membrane. It usually has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
Endosymbiosis
Symbiosis in which one of the symbiotic organisms lives inside the other.
Epiphytes
An organism that grows upon, but is not parasitic on, another organism.
Follicle
A dry, dehiscent simple fruit derived from a single carpel and the opening along one side.
Guard Cell
Pairs of specialized epidermal cells surrounding a pore, or stoma; changes in the turgor of a pair of guard cells cause opening and closing of the pore.
Hesperidium
A fruit with sectioned pulp inside a separable rind, e.g., an orange or grapefruit.
Indeterminate Growth
Unrestricted or unlimited growth, such as by a vegetative apical meristem that produces an unrestricted number of lateral organs indefinitely.
Kranz Anatomy
The leaflike arrangement of mesophyll cells around a layer of large bundle-sheath cells, forming two concentric layers around the vascular bundle; typically found in the leaves of C4 plants.
Lanceolate
Shaped like the head of a lance; of a narrow oval shape tapering to a point at each end.
Leaf Primordium
A lateral outgrowth from the apical meristem that will eventually become a leaf.
Legume
A type of dry simple fruit that is derived from one carpel and opens along both sides. A member of the pea and bean family.
Lenticel
In vascular plants, spongy areas in the cork surfaces of stems, roots, and other plant parts that allow interchange of gases between internal tissues and the atmosphere through the periderm.
Lipids
A class of substances that are insoluble in water 9 and other polar solvents ), but are soluble in non polar substances ( such as ether or chloroform ).
Mesocarp
The middle layer of the mature ovary wall, or pericarp, between the exocarp and endocarp.
Mesophyll
The ground tissue (parenchyma) of a leaf, located between the layers of epidermis.
Middle Lamella
The layer of intercellular material, rich in pectic compounds, cementing together the primary walls of adjacent cells.
Mitochondria
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
Monocotyledons
One of the two great classes of angiosperms, Monoctyledonae; Plants having an embryo with one cotyledon; abbreviated as "monocots".
Morphogenesis
The development of form.
Multiple Fruit
A cluster of nature ovaries produced by a cluster of flowers, as in the pineapple.
Nucleic Acids
A single unit of nucleic acid, composed of a phosphate, a five carbon sugar (either ribose and deoxyribose ), and a purine or a pyrimidine.
Nucleotide
A single unit of nucleic acid, composed of a phosphate, a five-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), and a purine or a pyrimidine.
Nucleus
The central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its inactivity and growth.
Nut
A fruit consisting of a hardshell around an edible kernel.
Oblanceolate
A narrow oval shape with both ends pointed but the base is more pointed.
Obovate
Like an oval but the base end is more narrow.
Ovate
Having an oval oval shape.
Ex: Egg
Palmate Compound
A leaf that looks like a hand with the fingers extended. 5 leaves.
Palmate Venation
A vein arrangement in a leaf with the veins radiating outward from the base of the leaf like fingers spread out from the palm of a hand.
Parenchyma
A tissue composed of parenchyma cells.
Parenchyma Cell
Living, general thin-walled plant cell of various size and form; the most abundant kind of cell in plants.
Pedicel
The stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence.
Peduncle
The stalk of an inflorescence or of a solitary flower.
Pepo
Watery fruit with firm rind and numerous seeds.
Ex: Apple, watermelon, cucumber
Perennial
Lasting for a long period of time.
Periderm
Outer protective tissue that replaces epidermis when it is destroyed during secondary growth; includes cork, cork cambium, and phelloderm.
Ex: Bark
Petal
A flower part, usually conspicuously colored.
Petiole
The stalk of a leaf.
Phloem
The food conducting tissue of vascular plants.
*made of sieve elements and various kinds of parenchyma cells, fibers, and sclereids.
Pinnately Compound
Leaflets arise from either side of the stem.
Pinnate Venation
The vein arrangement in a leaf with one main vein extending from the base to the tip of the leaf and smaller veins branching off the main vein.
Plasma Membrane
Outer boundary of the cytoplasm, next to the cell wall; consists of a single membrane.
Plasmodesmata
The minute cytoplasmic threads that extend through openings in cell walls and connect the protoplasts of adjacent living cells.
Plastids
Any class of small organelles, such as chloroplasts, in the cytoplasm of plant cells, containing pigment or food.
Pome
A simple fleshy fruit, the outer of which is formed by the floral parts that surrounded the ovary and expand with the growing fruit.
Ex: Apples, Pears
Primary Growth
In plants, growth originating in the apical meristems of shoots and roots.
Proteins
Large illogical molecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acids residues.
Pteridophyte
A member of the Pteridophyta, a division of plants including the ferns and their allies.
Rhizome
A more or less horizontal underground stem.
Ribosome
A small particle composed of protein and RNA; the site of protein synthesis.
Samara
A winged nut or achene containing one seed as in ash and maple.
Schizocarp
Dry simple fruit with two or more united carpels that split apart at maturity.
Sclereid
A sclerenchyma cell with a thick, lignified secondary wall having many pits. Sclereid are very in form but typically not very long; they may or may not be living at maturity. Like a walnut.
Sclerenchyma
In plants, growth originating in the apical meristems of shoots and roots.
Sclerenchyma Cells
Cells of variable form and size with more or less thick, often lignified, secondary cell walls.
Secondary Growth
Growth in vascular plants from reproduction of secondary tissues by a lateral meristem, usually resulting in wider branches and stems.
Secondary Metabolite
Molecules that are restricted in their distribution, both within the plant and among different plants.
Sepal
One of the outermost flower structures, a unit of the calyx:
Sessile
Referring to a leaf lacking a petiole or to a flower or fruit lacking a pedicel.
Sieve Cells
A long, slender sieve element with relatively unspecialized sieve areas and with tapering end walls that lack sieve plates; found in the phloem of gymnosperms.
Sieve Tube Members/Elements
One of the component cells of a sieve tube.
Found only in flowering plants.
Stamen
The male fertilizing organ of a flower that produces the pollen.
Stoma/Stomata
A minute opening, bordered by guard cells, in the epidermis of leaves and stems where gases pass.
Stroma
The ground substance of plastids.
Sympetalous
Having the petals united along their margins to form a tubular shape.
Syncarpous
Having the carpels united.
Tendrils
A modified leaf or part of a leaf or a modified stem forming a slender, coiling structure that aids in support of the plants stems.
Thylakoids
A sac like structure in cyanobacteria and in the chloroplasts of eukaryotic organisms.
Tracheid
A long, thick-walled cell of xylem that conducts and supports. It has tapering ends and pitted walls without perforations. Found in nearly all vascular plants.
Tricome
An outgrowth of the epidermis, such as a hair, scale, or water vesicle.
Tuber
An enlarged, short, fleshy underground stem, such as that of the potato.
Turgor Pressure
Pressure within the cell resulting from the movement of water into the cell.
Vacuole
A space or cavity within the cytoplasm filled with a watery fluid.
Vascular Cambium
A cylinder sheath of cells that divide to produce secondary phloem and secondary xylem.
Xylem
A complex vascular tissue that most of the water and minerals are conducted through.

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