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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
AP US History Terms "America: A Narrative Hisotry" by Tindall and Shi
Terms in this set (310)
large horse-drawn wagons.
he invented the cotton gin in 1793. It stated a revolution with soaring cotton production and a profitable use of slaves.
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It separated cotton see from cotton fiber, speeding the cotton process and making the cultivation of hardy, but difficult to clean, short-staple cotton more profitable. It led directly to the dramatic 19th century expansion of slavery in the South.
the right of squatters to purchase land at the minimum price. A law which stated that squatters could stake out claims ahead of the land surveys and later get 160 acres at the minimum price of $1.25 per acre. In effect the law recognized a practice enforced more often than not by frontier vigilantes.
the progressive reduction of the price on lands that had not sold until the price of land was reduced to 12 ½ per acre after 30 years.
inventor of the steel plow in 1837
Cyrus Hall McCormick
the inventor of the primitive grain reaper in 1831
built in 1794, after its completion the movement for graded and pave roads in the northeast gathered momentum. (Turnpike- the pole at the tollgate which was turned to admit traffic)
along with Robert R. Livingston he put the first steamboats into service in 1807. He sent the Clarmont up the Hudson River to Albany.
the most important and profitable of the barge canals of the 1820's and 1830's. It stretched from Buffalo to Albany, NY, connecting the Great Lakes to the East coast and making New York the nation's largest port. It tied together the west and the north and isolated the south. The success of the canal caused many canals to be built but none were as successful.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
the inventor of a water powered mill in 1790. The water powered spinning machine needed 9 children and it could turn out satisfactory cotton yarn. Transformed the way people thought of water. Water was no longer something everyone shared, it was not something someone owned or rented.
Samuel F.B. Morse
the inventor of the telegraph in 1832
the creation of a product with the concern on quantity not quality. The process of making things in factories in mass quantities for a cheaper price.
in 1844 he invented the process of vulcanizing rubber, which made it stronger and more elastic.
the first plant in which spinning and weaving by power machinery was brought under one roof, with each process being mechanized. They could start with raw material and produce a completed product. They tried to create and industrial center compatible with republican vales of plain living and high thinking. They mainly employed young women and tried to keep it a safe and honest way to live, but as factories grew, conditions got worse.
Cult of Domesticity
kept women at home
an anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic feeling in the 1830's-1850's. The largest group was New York's order of the Start-Spangled Banner, which expanded into the American, or Know-nothing, party in 1854.
A Nativism and anti-Catholic third party. It was organized in 1854 in reaction to the large-scale German and Irish immigration. The party's only presidential candidate was Millard Fillmore in 1856. It was a secret fraternal order where members refused to talk about things outside of the party.
Commonwealth v Hunt
(1842) a landmark ruling of the MA Supreme Court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
(1837) It established the obligation of a contract. The Charles River Bridge was commissioned and claimed that when MA commissioned the Warren Bridge only a little while later that MA was breaking its contract because they thought they had a monopoly of the river. The Supreme Court sided with the Warren Bridge.
a nickname given to President Andrew Jackson. He thought being right wasn't the only thing you had to be, you also had to be tough.
the term meaning the filling of the federal government jobs with persons loyal to the party of the president. It originated with Andrew Jackson. It was replaced in the Progressive Era by civil service.
Martin Van Burren
a new York senator, Andrew Jackson's secretary of state and in Jackson's second term he was vice president. He was also the 8th president (1837-1841). His presidency follows suit with Jackson's and is part of the Jacksonian Era.
Maysville Road Bill
Federal funding for a Kentucky road was vetoed by President Andrew Jackson in 1830. The bill would have authorized the government to buy stock in a road from Maysville to Lexington, which would make it completely in Kentucky. Jackson was completely against the federal government participating in internal improvements but he also called it unconstitutional because it could be viewed as a purely local undertaking.
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff of 1828- it taxed imported goods at a very high rate. The south hated the tariff because it feared it would provoke Britain to reject American cotton.
the concept of invalidation of a federal law within the borders of a state. It was first expounded in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (1798). It was then cited by South Carolina in its Ordinance of Nullification (1832) of the Tariffs of Abominations. It was again used by the southern states to explain their succession from the Union in 1861, and the southern states citied again to opposed the Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954
S senate debate in January 1830 between Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Robert Hayne of South Carolina over land and later nullification and states' rights. It sharpened the lines between states' rights and the Union. Webster believed in one nation made up of people, while Hayne believed in one nation made up of states. It started out as a debate over western land sales with the Foot Resolution.
a key issue about land. From 1829-1830 Senator Foot proposed that the government restrict land sales in the west. Hayne thought this would be bad for the union because it would cause hardship for some and benefit others which would cause sectionalism. It sparked the Webster-Hayne debate. This resolution was defeated.
Tariff of 1832
pushed by John Quincy Adams. It would cut rates due to the demand of the nullificationists but still had high taxes on iron and cloth. Jackson wanted to stop the nullificationists.
the Kentucky senator Henry Clay circulated a plan to reduce the tariff gradually until 1842. His support was important for this to pas. It was less than South Carolina wanted but it got the nullifiers out of the corner they had put themselves in.
In 1833 President Jackson requested from Congress a "force bill" specifically authorizing him to use the army to compel compliance with federal law in South Carolina. He technically already had this power but this bill would strengthen his power in this issue. It was nullified after South Carolina gave into following the tariff.
Indian Removal Act
In 1830 President Jackson signed this act, which permitted the negotiation of treaties to obtain the Indian lands in exchange for their relocation to what would become Oklahoma. While technically this was okay because the Indians theoretically had to be willing, in most cases the Indians were unwilling but were still uprooted.
Black Hawk War
the Souk and Fox Indian tribes sought to reoccupy some lands they had abandoned in the previous year. They were just seeking a place to grow corn away from the famine and hostility west of the Mississippi River. The Illinois militia massacred them
Trail of Tears
the Cherokee's own term for their forced march from 183801839 from the southern Appalachians to the designated Indian lands (what would later by Oklahoma). There was horrible cruelty and treatment along the way and many died.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
(1831) the first attempt by the Cherokee's to gain complete sovereignty over their nation. Marshall ruled that the Supreme Court lacked jurisdiction in the case because the Cherokees were a "domestic dependent nation" rather than a foreign state in the meaning of the Constitution. Marshall also said that the Cherokees had an "unquestionable right" to their lands until they voluntarily gave them up. Jackson did not enforce this Supreme Court ruling.
Worcester v. Georgia
in 1830 a Georgia law had required whites in the territory to get licenses authorizing their residence in Georgia and take an oath of allegiance to the state. Two New England missionaries among the Indians refused and were sentenced to four years of hard labor. On appeal, their case reached the Supreme Court and the court held that the Cherokee Nation was "a distinct political community" within which Georgia law had no force. The Georgia law was therefore unconstitutional.
president of the Bank of the United States- president Jackson felt that the bank hel too much financial power and vetoed the bill to re-charter the bank. TO prove that the US needed the bank, Biddle went to an extreme and called in all loans.
In addition to being the first 3rd party it was the first party to hold a national nominating convention and the first to announce a platform, all of which it accomplished in 1831 when it nominated William Wirt of Maryland for president. It was afraid that if important officials were all free masons and had secret meetings then the government did not have checks and balances any more.
small stat6e banks set up by Jackson in 1833 to keep federal funds out of the National Bank. They were used until the funds were consolidated into a sing treasury. The decision to move the money to these pet banks was highly controversial. Most pet banks were fun by supporters of Jackson.
unstable banking institutions that issued paper money called wildcat currency to lend to speculators. They were operated under state charters and were especially numerous after Jackson defeated the second B.U.S. They didn't require collateral for loans so farmers took out loans, bought land, lost money on the land, defaulted on their loans, and then the banks started to fail.
issued by the secretary of Treasury because of Jackson's order- the government would now only accept gold or silver (specie) for the payment of land. It was to repress fraud and discourage extension of bank notes and credit and to withhold support from speculators. It ended up hurting farmers and helping speculators. Few farmers had specie and were now even more in the hands of the speculators. It put a strain on the supply of gold and silver.
Whigs (Political Party)
Founded in 1834 to unite faction opposed to President ("King") Jackson. The party favored federal responsibility for internal improvements. It ceased to exist by late 1850's when the party members divided over the issue of slavery. It was led by Henry Clay. It also believed in expanding federal power on economy and encouraged industrial improvement. It linked them to the patriots of the American Revolution.
King Andrew I
a nickname given to President Jackson by his enemies, the Whigs. His supporters, "supporters of the king", were Tories and his enemies were the Whigs. It came about because many thought he was assuming too much power as president.
Panic of 1837
a major economic depression lasting about six years. It was started by the British financial crisis which was when British investors pulled their money out the BUS and it was made worse by falling cotton prices, falling credit, currency problem and over speculation in land, canals, and railroads.
Independent Treasury Act
(1840) promoted by President Martin van Buren. The measure sought to stabilize the economy by preventing state banks from printing unsecured paper currency and establishing an independent treasury based on specie.
Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign
It was a Whig party presidential campaign of William Henry Harrison in 1840. It portrayed Harrison as a simple man sprung from the people when in reality he was rich. It won Harrison the election. Campaigning among the masses.
Bank of the United States
proposed by Hamilton in 1791 and operated until 1811 to issue uniform currency, make business loans, and collect tax monies. The Second Bank was charter in 1816 under Madison but the bank was not renewed by President Jackson, 20 years later. The Bank was located in Philadelphia, causing many Westerners to doubt how much it would favor the west. Madison had seen how hard the War of 1812 had been without the Bank.
a leading attorney who had argued many famous cases in the Supreme Court. He was a congressman from New Hampshire and the senator representing Massachusetts. He was an important person in the Webster-Hayne debates, he led the debate of the 2nd Bank of the United States (he didn't want it moved from Boston to Philadelphia)>
Tariff of 1816
the first protective tariff, intended strictly to protect American goods against foreign competition. Initially the South and North thought it would help but late it severely hurt the South because they sell to the British and it leads to South Carolina's desire for state interposition and the concept of protective tariffs being against the constitution.
(national road) the first federal interstate road, built between 1811 and 1838 and stretching from Cumberland, MD to Vandalia, IL. There was a huge debate of whether or not the federal government had the right to build roads or participate in internal improvement. Jefferson and other presidents recommended making an amendment allowing the federal government to help with internal improvements so the debate would be over but that didn't happen for a while.
a Virginia senator and anti-federalist who became the 5th president from 1817-1825. He was the secretary of state for President Madison. He provided the country a break from the partisan politics. Under his presidency were the: Missouri Compromise, Monroe doctrine, Era of Good Feelings, Convention of 1818, Rush-Bagot Agreement, etc.
Era of Good Feelings
A contemporary characterization of the administration of the popular Democratic Republican president James Monroe.
(1817) an agreement between the US and the British to remove all armed fleets from the Great Lakes. It gave rise to the longest unfortified border in the world between the US and British Canada (until 2002 and the 9/11 attacks)
Convention of 1818
covered 3 major points: the set of the northern border of the Louisiana territory at the 49th parallel, Oregon would be administered jointly by the US and Britain, and Americans gained the right to fish off of Newfoundland and Labrador.
"Runaway" or "Separatists", Creek (an Indian tribe) refugees in Florida. They took in runaway slaves and criminals from the US. General Andrew Jackson was ordered into Florida just to recover the stolen 'property' by Secretary of War Calhoun. In the process Jackson easily took Florida. Spain demanded the return of their land and the US agreed under the pretense that they could retake it at any time. In 1819 the US signed the Florida Purchase Treaty where Spain ceded Florida to the US if the US assumed private American claims against Spain.
the general sent to attack Seminoles in Florida and ended up conquering Florida. He was the major general who defeated the British at New Orleans in the War of 1812. He was the 7th president of the US (1829-1837). He represented Tennessee as a Congressman and a Senator. When running for the presidency his vagueness on issues helped him. He was against the BUS and refused to continue its charter. Use the veto power very liberally and believed in the spoils system.
Adam's Transcontinental Treaty (Adam's-Onis treaty)
1819- an agreement between Spain and the US that settled the borders of the Louisiana Purchase. Spain gave up East and West Florida tot eh US and the US/Mexico Border was set at the 42nd parallel so later Texas and the American southwest would be part of Mexico. A diplomatic success and a climatic event of post war nationalism.
Panic of 1819
a financial collapse brought on by sharply falling cotton prices, declining demand for American exports, and reckless western land speculation (Yazoo Fraud). Over speculating in the west put great strains on the banks. Cause by the land Act of 1800 which made western land available in smaller chunks so average farmers could buy land. Farmers would take out loans without collateral buy land fail at making a profit default on loans banks go under
a resolution proposing an amendment prohibiting further introduction of slaves into Missouri and providing freedom at age 25 to those slaves born after the territory's admission as a state. Didn't pass.
Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820)
a deal propose by Kentucky Senator Henry Clay to resolve the slave/free imbalance in Congress and the Senate that would result in Missouri's admission as a slave state. By accepting Maine as a free state at the same time, the balance between slave states and free states in the Senate would be kept. Slavery was prohibited in the remainder of the Louisiana Territory north of the southern border of Missouri- 36
Fletcher v Peck
(1810) the Supreme Court struck down a state law as unconstitutional. In the Yazoo Land Fraud Georgia claimed a bunch of land from the Louisiana Purchase that it had no right to claim. Georgia then sold the land to speculators who sold it to farmers. The Federal government stepped in and takes back the land and tells Georgia to give back the money but the money will just end up with the speculators and not the farmers. The Federal government says that the farmers must be paid. This was asserting federal power over state power.
Cohens v. Virginia
(1821) The Supreme Court assumed the right to take appeals from state courts on the ground that the Constitution, the laws, and the treaties of the US could be kept uniformly the supreme law of the land only if the Supreme Court could review decisions state courts made. Virginia didn't allow lottery tickets to be sold within the state but the Cohens brothers were selling lottery tickets. The Supreme Court asserts Judicial nationalism where a state case could have the Supreme court looking over its shoulder. The Supreme Court sided with Virginia and therefore was supporting states rights but was also taking away from states' rights by looking over the states' decisions.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
(1819) The Supreme Court upheld the original charter of the college against New Hampshire's attempt to alter the board of trustees. It set the precedent of support of valid contracts against state interference. Asserted federal power of state power and the sanctity of contracts.
McCulloh v. Maryland
(1819) The US Supreme Court decision in which Marshall, upholding that Maryland could not tax the 2nd BUS, supported the authority of the federal government over the authority of a state's government. "The power to tax is the power to destroy"~ Marshall
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824) The US Supreme Court decision reinforcing the "commerce clause" (the federal government's right to regulate interstate commerce) of the Constitution. Marshall ruled against the state of New York's granting of steamboat monopolies along the Hudson because the Hudson River is in New York and New Jersey.
President James Monroe's declaration to Congress on December 2, 1823, that the American continents would be henceforth closed to colonization bug that the US would honor existing colonies of European nations. The US was relying on British military to help back this. Didn't have much of an impact for a while and carried no weight.
a group of members from Congress that met together to elect a person for the presidency. There was no method for choosing candidates for each party. Kind of like an oligarchy. It was replaced by nominating conventions. The corruptness of this was seen in the 1824 election.
a supposed agreement between Adams and Clay. Because Clay was the Speaker of the House and the 1824 election was so close that it went to the House of Representatives, Clay swung the votes in favor of Adams. As a result Adams put Clay as secretary of state. Never proven that this bargain was true, and was just an argument Jackson made.
a program of internal improvements and protective tariffs promoted by Speaker of the House Henry Clay in his presidential campaign of 1824. His proposals formed the core of the Whig ideology in the 1830's and 1840's.
Adams and Clay led this party. This party favored the federal government.
a growing party of Jacksonians. Later became the Democratic Party. They favored state governments.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
written in 1828 by Vice President Calhoun of South Carolina to protest the so-called Tariff of Abominations, which seemed to favor northern industry. It introduced the concept of state interposition and became the basis for South Carolina's Nullification Doctrine of 1833.
Revolution of 1800
the first time that an American political party surrendered power to the opposing party. Jefferson, a Democratic Republican, had defeated Adams, a federalist, in the presidential election. It is miraculous that it happened peacefully.
a Swiss-born Pennsylvanian Republican whose financial skills had won him the respect of even the Federalists. He was appointed as Secretary of the Treasury by Jefferson. During the first part of his tenure he made great progress in balancing the federal budget. He helped the US pay for the Louisiana Purchase without a tax increase.
Marbury v. Madison
~(1803) The first US Supreme Court decision to declare a federal law- the Judiciary Act of 1801- unconstitutional. President Adam's "midnight appointment" of Federalist judges prompted the suit. Chief justice John Marshall declared that the Supreme Court could declare federal laws unconstitutional- judicial review. Adams had appointed Marbury as justice of the peace in the District of Columbia. Marbury's letter of appointment didn't come until Jefferson was in office and Jefferson order Madison not to deliver the letter. Marshall said that while he thought Marbury deserved the letter, the Supreme court did not have the jurisdiction.
In 1804 Jefferson used the impeachment power against Pickering, a partisan Federalist judge. District Judge Pickering of New Hampshire. Pickering was clearly insane and was given to profane and drunken harangues from the bench. Although insanity is not a high crime or misdemeanor, the Senate decided that the drinking on the bench was an impeachable offense and Pickering was impeached.
In 1804 Jefferson tried to impeach Chase as well as Pickering to counter the Federalist influence. He tried to impeach Chase because Chase was one of the most partisan Federalist judges. There was nothing to impeach him of except hatred. He couldn't' be impeached.
plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa. President Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations between 1801 and 1805. Prior to Jefferson, the US government had paid tribute. Jefferson's decision helped keep the US navy in good condition. In the end we got out men back without paying tribute.
President Thomas Jefferson's 1803 purchase from France the important port of New Orleans and 828,000 square miles west of the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. This more than doubled the territory of the US at a cost of only $15 million. Jefferson knew we needed the port of New Orleans to open up the west and the French needed the money. This purchase was controversial because the Constitution said nothing about buy land but Jefferson said it fell within the ability to make treaties.
he led a slave uprising in Haiti. The French tried to put down the rebellion but lost many men to yellow fever and disease. Napoleon didn't want to risk more disease which is why he offered up Louisiana to the US. Because of this slave uprising on the US"s doorstep, US slave owners became very wary.
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
Lewis and Clark were leaders of the Corps of Discovery, a government funded mapping and scientific expedition to the far Northwest beyond the Mississippi River. Lewis was formerly Jefferson's private secretary. They lived off the land and learned from the Indians. On the way back Clark went part of the way by the Yellowstone River while Lewis went back the way they came. They stated in St. Louis, across Great Plains Pacific and then returned. They returned with extensive maps, drawings and scientific samples.
Corps of Discovery
1804- the exhibition led by Lewis and Clark to explore the Louisiana Purchase. St. Louis Missouri River Great Plains North Dakota etc. It was a great mapping and discoveries of resources and new species.
an explorer who investigated the upper regions of the Mississippi River Valley, the Arkansas River headwaters in Colorado, and parts of New Mexico. He said that most of it was dessert, which left it unsettled for a long time.
the illegal sale of the Yazoo lands (much of present-day Alabama and Mississippi) by Georgia legislature. By 1802 it had become a tangle of conflicting claims that the US Supreme Court settled in the case Fletcher v Peck (1810). ????
scheme by Vice-President Aaron Burr to lead the succession of the Louisiana Territory from the US and create his own empire. He was captured in 1807 and charged with treason. Because there was no evidence or two witnesses he was acquitted. Marshall upholds the strict rules for trying someone for treason.
Orders in Council
in a series of order in council adopted in 1806 and 1807, the British government set up a "paper blockade" of Europe that barred all trade between England and Continental Europe. All vessels headed to European ports were required to get British licenses and were subject to British inspection. This led to the War of 1812. This was harassment of US neutrality.
Berlin and Milan decrees
1806 and 1807- Berlin decree- Napoleon declared his own paper blockade of the British Isle and barred British ships from ports under French control. The Milan decree ruled that neutral ships that complied with the British orders in council were subject to seizure when they reached continental ports. This was Napoleon's "Continental system." This helped lead to the War of 1812. IT was harassment of US neutrality. Put the US in an awkward spot, either orders/decrees they followed they would be in trouble with the other.
the kidnapping of US sailors, by the British, to serve in the British navy. A major cause of the War of 1812. When US ships were stopped and searched because of the orders in council, the British often kidnapped the US sailors.
In 1807 the British ship Leopard order the American ship the Chesapeake to allow the British to board and look for British deserters. The US ship was sailing in international waters and refused. The British ship then fired on the US ship. US public wrath. Led to the War of 1812. Jefferson managed to hold off on War for a little bit even though the country was in an angry frenzy.
Embargo Act of 1807
Jefferson's attempt to exert economic pressure instead of waging war in reaction to British impressment of US sailors. The embargo didn't have much of an effect on either the British or the French. It closed all US ports. In the short term it greatly hurt the US economy. In the long term it forced the US to make internal improvements and gave US manufacturing a jump start. Smugglers easily circumvented the embargo act. The Embargo act was a failure and was repealed two years later.
(1809) after repealing the Embargo Act, Congress implemented this act which re-opened trade with all countries except Britain and France. If one of the two countries repealed their unfair regulations, the US would re-open trade with that country. Later Macon's Bill No. 2 allows trade with both countries but when one country drops its regulations, non-intercourse would be restored with the other country.
Shawnee Indian leader who attempted to unite Indians in their struggle against the onslaught of US settlers. He tried to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. His brother was the Prophet.
Tecumseh's brother. He tried to help unite the Northwest Indian tribes in their struggle against the onslaught of US settlers.
William Henry Harrison
the governor of the Indiana territories, who became a national hero after defeating the Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe. Later he was the last Whig president and the first to die in office (pneumonia).
Battle of Tippecanoe
November 1811, the Indiana governor Harrison defeated the Shawnee Indians at the Tippecanoe River in northern Indiana. The Victory fomented war fever against the British who were believed to be aiding the Indians.
led by Clay and Calhoun. They were eager for war with Britain (War of 1812). There were mainly people from the West and the South who demanded war with Britain because they believed the British were aiding the Indians and because they wanted to acquire Canada.
Francis Scott Key
Fort McHenry in Baltimore Harbor was unsuccessfully bombarded by the British in September 1814. The siege took place at night, the next morning Baltimoreans looked to see if the Fort had survived and the US flag was raised in victory. Francis Scott Key was inspired by this battle and wrote "The State Spangled Banner" which later became the national anthem.
Battle of New Orleans
the last battle of the War of 1812. It was fought in January 1814, weeks after the peace treaty had been signed but prior to the ratification of the treaty. General Andrew Jackson led the victorious troops. The British tried to hold out and win the battle and use it as leverage in the treaty but they were too slow.
Treaty of Ghent
the meeting of US and British delegates in the Flemish city of Ghent, bringing an official end to the War of 1812. Nothing changed. It was signed on Christmas Eve 1814. All it really accomplished was an end to the war.
a meeting of New England Federalists on December 15, 1814, to protest the War of 1812. They proposed 7 constitutional amendments which would limit embargoes, and change requirements for office holding, declaring war and admissions of new states. The war ended before Congress could respond to the federalist. They had no power to make this happen and it was completely against what the exuberant people wanted. Federalists were no longer of any importance.
an advisory body for the President. The Constitution made no formal provision for this but President Washington created it and routinely called the members of his cabinet to sit as a group to discuss matters of policy. Examples: Department of State, Department of Treasury, attorney general.
named as the first chief justice of the Supreme Court by Washington. He served until 1795. He had great distinction as a lawyer, was a representative to the 1st and 2nd Continental Congresses, and from 1778 to 1779 he was the American minister in Spain. He helped John Adams and Benjamin Franklin negotiate the Treaty of Paris. He served as secretary of foreign affairs and co-authored The Federalist. He was a federalist leader. He negotiated Jay's Treaty with the British in 1794.
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the US Constitution. It was adopted in 1791 to guarantee individual rights and to help secure ratification of the Constitution by all of the states. James Madison made it a priority in the House of Representatives. One of the ways the federalists convinced the anti-federalists to go with the Constitution. It provided not rights or legal protection to African Americans or slaves.
someone who speculates in the public funds for gain. One who's job is to buy and sell stock. They would be the chief beneficiaries of the federal government assuming the states' debts.
Part of Hamilton's idea. The federal government would assume the debts of the states. It helped sectional differences emerge. The south had already paid off most of its debt while New England hadn't and therefore New England would benefit from assumption more than the South. Madison opposed assumption because he thought stock-jobbers and speculators and New England would benefit the most. Compromise in return for the northern votes in favor of locating the permanent national capital on the Potomac River, Madison pledged to seek Sothern votes to pass assumption. Hamilton outsmarted Madison; in hindsight Madison saw that the location of the capital wasn't nearly as important as the idea of assumption.
Hamilton wanted a national bank which would issue bank notes (paper money) to provide a uniform currency that would address the chronic shortage of gold and silver. Government bonds held by the bank would back up the value of its new bank notes. The bank would remain under government control but private investors would supply 4/5 of the $10 million capital and name 20 directors. The federal government would provide the other 1/5 of the capital and 5 directors. Government bonds would be received in payment for ¾ of the stock in the bank and the other fourth would be payable in gold and silver. The bank would serve the housekeeping need of the government and make a stable/flexible national currency. There was no basis in the Constitution for the Bank. Madison, Jefferson, and Washington were against it but Congressed passed it and Hamilton's sophisticated analysis convinced Washington to sign the bill.
Because of Hamilton's plans, this department began to retire Revolutionary war debt in the early 1790's. Foreign capital began to flow once again. Hamilton was the secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton's policies revived the economy, established the foundations for a capitalist republic with resilience and durability, and helped Americans see beyond their local interests.
a political faction that succeed the Anti-federalists after the ratification of the Constitution. It was led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. It soon developed into the Democratic Republican party. It had agrarian ideals, wanted a decentralized republic made up of small farmers. Its support lay in the South and New York. They supported the French. Were very against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey and his proposal for the national bank.
April 1793, it was issued by President Washington. He declared the US neutral and that anyone/citizen aiding the hostilities between Britain and France would be prosecuted. It was a way to keep the US out of British and French wars and other European Problems.
a French ambassador to America, in 1793, who used his position to support French Revolutionaries back in France. An embarrassment to his Republican supporters. He sought asylum in America when he was unable to return to France due to the changing political climate. He settled down as a country gentleman, eventually becoming an American citizen.
a treaty with Britain, negotiated in 1794 by Chief Justice John Jay. Britian agreed to vacate forts in the Northwest Territories, and festering disagreements (the border with Canada, prewar debts, shipping claims) would be settled by a commission. The public was outraged. This treaty was made because the British were snatching US ships and impressing sailors (kidnapping and then forcing them into the British navy) who were US citizens.
Treaty of Greenville
a treaty with the Indians after Anthony Wane headed an exhibition into the Northwest Territory and inflicted serious damage on the Indians in 1795. The US bought from 12 tribes, at the cost of $10,000 annuity, the rights to the southeastern quarter of the Northwest Territory. The US only paid the price once.
a violent protest by western Pennsylvania farmers against the federal excise tax on corn whiskey put in place by Hamilton in 1794. Washington sent troops to put down the rebellion. Because of Washington's quick and strong response the US government made its point and gained a reputation of strength. This rebellion and Washington's response also led many people to side with Jefferson's party since they felt Washington over reacted.
a treaty with Spain negotiated by Thomas Pickney in 1795. It established the US boundaries at the Mississippi River and the 31st parallel and allowed open transportation on the Mississippi River and the use of New Orleans.
Washington's Farwell Address
On his departure from public office after 2 terms as President, Washington made a formal speech and published it. The speech highlighted the need for unity among the American people in backing their government. It also stressed neutrality and refraining from making permanent alliances. He decried the rising spirit of sectionalism and political parties. The speech was given in September 1796.
in 1797 French foreign minister Talleyrand's 3 anonymous agents demanded payments to have negotiations (this was common at the time) about the French stopping plundering American ships. The US refusal to pay led to 2 years of sea war with France (1798-1800). The US had no money to pay the demand. The US men Pickney, John Marshall (VA Federalist) and Elbridge Gerry (MA Republican) went to France for the negotiations that didn't happen. The famous quote was sparked: "millions for defense but not one cent for tribute." Adams strengthened the navy and militia but refused to officially declare war.
Convention of 1800
The US"s minister to the Netherlands, William Van Murray, was sent on a special envoy to Paris. There was a new victorious government in France under Napoleon. The US won the best terms they could. In return for giving up all claims of indemnity for US losses, the US got the suspension of the 1778 perpetual alliance with France and an end to the 'quasi' war.
Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
Four measures passed by Congress and approved by President Adams during the undeclared war with France. These acts limited the freedoms of speech and press and restricted the liberty of noncitizens. It was mainly to hurt Democratic Republicans. The acts stated that the government could expel foreigners, and jail people who criticize the government such as newspapers and editors. It was proposed by extreme Fede3ralists. The Sedition Act defined as a high misdemeanor any conspiracy against legal measurements of government, including interference with federal officers, an insurrection, and rioting. It forbade writing, publishing, or speaking anything against the government. Mainly hurt Democratic Republicans who had support from new citizens and who were criticizing the government.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
(1798-1799) These resolutions argued that states had the right to determine whether or not the laws passed by Congress were constitutional and could then have the power to nullify an unconstitutional law within their state borders. States couldn't/didn't actually do this but it was an important idea for the future. It was written in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts. It advanced the state-compact theory. It was anonymously written and published by Jefferson and Madison.
Since the constitution arose as a compact among the states, the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions argued that the states should decide when Congress had exceeded its powers.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Enacted while being a lame duck (when a new president has been elected but the old president is still in power) Congress allowed Federalists, the losing party in the presidential election, to reorganize the judiciary and add offices and fill the open offices with Federalists. It is often called the "Midnight Act." It was Adam's attempt to ensure the Federalists control over the judicial system and keep the Federalists in power.
Before Adams left office, he named Marshall to the vacant office of chief justice. He was one of the most important chief justices in US history. In the case "Marbury v. Madison" he created judicial review- the ability of the Supreme Court to find a law unconstitutional. Marshall played an important role in establishing the powers of the judicial branch.
a label for the period of the history of the United States under the Articles of Confederation. Fear of a central government caused fragmentation and stagnation. Lessons learned under the Confederation would serve well in formulating a new constitution. It is also a label for the early part of the US's history because it was a critical time in the forming country. It was critical because the formation of a strong government and a united country would be what kept the country going. No other country at this time thought that the US would survive.
a plot hatched in 1783 by officers in the Continental Army to oust Congress in a coup and set up a military dictatorship. Officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay and they met in Newburgh, NY to address Congress about their pay. Unfortunately the US government had little money after the Revolutionary war. The conspirators also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting cease when George Washington talked them out of it.
Land Ordinance of 1785
directed surveying of the Northwest Territory into townships of 36 sections (square miles) each. The sale of the 16th section was either used to finance a school or for a school to be built upon.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of PA). It established the conditions for self-government and statehood, including a Bill of Rights and permanently prohibiting slavery in the territory/new states. An area could petition to become a state once it had a population at least equal to the smallest state which at this point was Rhode Island.
Massachusetts farmer Daniel Shays and 1,200 compatriots, seeking debt relief through issuance of paper currency and lower taxes, stormed the federal arsenal at Springfield in the winter of 1787 but were quickly repulsed. Shay led an uprising in Massachusetts in 1786 of debtors (farmers) who were upset over the government's lack of support. This rebellion showed that the government wasn't doing enough for the people and that anarchy was too easy.
a meeting in Philadelphia from May to September of 1787 of delegates from all 13 colonies except Rhode Island to revise the Articles of Confederation. The convention soon resolved to produce and entirely new constitution. It set up the current system of government we have today. It kept what it was going a secret until the very last minute.
"Father of the Constitution," a Federalists leader and the 4th president of the United States. He wanted a strong central government, and separation of powers. He was the ablest philosopher and central figure at the Constitutional convention.
called for a strong central government and a two house legislature apportioned by population. One of the differing opinions of delegations to the Constitutional Convention. This plan proposed separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches and a truly national government to make laws binding upon individuals and states. It wanted to throw out the Articles of Confederation and start over.
New Jersey Plan
proposed to keep the existing structure of equal representation of the states in a unicameral Congress but to give Congress the power to levy taxes and regulate commerce and the authority to name a plural executive (with no veto) and a supreme court. It was one of the differing opinions of delegations to the Constitutional Convention.
this compromise mediated the difference between the Virginia and New Jersey delegations to the Constitutional Convention by providing for a bicameral legislature, the upper house of which would have equal representation and the lower house which would be apportion by population. Proposed by Roger Sherman.
a compromise between the Southern and Northern states at the Constitutional Convention. 3/5 of the population of slaves would be counted for the purpose of the apportionment of members of the House of Representatives and for the distribution of taxes. It was proposed by James Wilson and Roger Sherman. Those opposed to slavery wanted to count only the free inhabitants of each state. Those supporting slavery wanted all slaves counted. The actual wording was "all other persons" as 3/5 of the actual number.
one of the two first national political parties. It favored a strong central government. They were nationalists.
those who favored a more decentralized federal system. They wanted more power in the states.
He wrote An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution in 1913. He believed that the delegates of the Constitutional Convention had selfish economic interest in the outcome. He argued that the delegates represented an economic elite of speculators in western lands, holders of depreciated government securities, and creditors whose wealth was mostly in "paper." He provided useful arguments of the unquestioning hero worship of our founding fathers. He has been proven wrong because the founding fathers had no compelling stake in paper wealth, only in land holding.
a collection of essay written anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay and originally published between 1787 and 1788. IT was written support of the ratification of the Constitution. The essays defended the principle of supreme national authority, but at the same time sought to reassure doubters that the people and the states had little reason to fear usurpations and tyranny by the new government.
a concept related to women's roles as mother in the US before and after the war (1760-1800) centered on the belief that children should be raised to uphold the ideals of republicanism, making them perfect citizens of the new nation.
General William Howe
commander-in-chief of the British army in America at the beginning of the Revolutionary War. He was the vanguard of a huge effort to re-conquer America. He invaded/occupied New York and wanted to sever New England from the rest of the colonies by occupying New York. He believed in the loyalists and the loyalists' help/support too much.
replaced General Gage (the British General responsible for Lexington and Concord) during the siege of Boston. He took command of the northern British Armies. He proposed to bisect the colonies by having his men advance southward from Canada to the Hudson River, While General Howe would lead a force up the Hudson River from New York City. Howe's last minute decision to move against Philadelphia instead of following the plan, left Burgoyne open to an attack and defeat at Saratoga. He had his mistress and a ton of baggage and champagne which slowed him and his troops down. He took Fort Ticonderoga but delayed there giving American re-enforcements time to arrive. He surrendered to the American General Gates.
the site where the Continental Army camped during the winter of 1777-1778 after its defeats at the Battles of Brandywine and Germantown. The winter was a season of intense suffering and casualties due to the cold and disease. Washington shoes this site because it allowed him to protect the Continental Congress, which was meeting in York, Pennsylvania, if necessary. The army was motivated and trained by von Steuben. When Howe invaded Philadelphia in 1777, Washington took his troops and ran. Many soldiers died or fled that winter and the patriotic morale was seriously wavering.
a major defeat of general John Burgoyne and more than 5,000 British troops at Saratoga, New York on October 17, 1777. British general Burgoyne attacked southward from Canada along the Hudson valley in NY, hoping to meet up with General Howe in NYC and thereby cutting the colonies in half. Burgoyne was defeated by American General Horatio Gates, causing the entire British army in the north to surrender. The British probably would have won if General Howe had stuck to the plan instead of going to Philadelphia. This American victory convinced the French to support the American war effort.
Treaty Alliance of 1778
formed between America and France. In return for backing America in the war with resources such as goods, and capital, America agreed to recognize France's claim to the West Indies. No agreement for France's actually gain for taking part in the Alliance would come until after the war was over and America was secure from Britain. The treaty is important because without the support of France, America would have never obtained the capabilities necessary for winning the war. France hoped to weaken Britain by its loss of the American colonies. French were persuaded to support the colonies after the victory at Saratoga. Both parties agreed that they would continue to fight until American Independence was won and neither would conclude a truce or peace without the formal consent of the other and France bound itself neither to seek Canada nor other British possessions on the mainland of North America. It was signed along with the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, in which France recognized the new US country and offered trade concessions, including important privileges in American shipping.
he led a small band of settlers in the Kentucky territory who risked constant attack by Indians and their British and Tory allies. He survived frequent ambushes, 7 skirmishes, and 3 battles. In 1778 he held off an assault by more than 400 Indians at Boonesborough with 30 men and families. He was captured twice and was shot He refused to leave Kentucky. The frontier skirmishes had no real effect on the outcome of the war.
a British General who surrendered his troops at Yorktown. He brought new naval and land forces, with General Clinton, southward to join a massive amphibious attack that bottled up an American force led by General Benjamin Lincoln on the Charleston peninsula. In 1780 Lincoln surrendered the city and its 5,500 defenders, the greatest single American loss of the War. Cornwallis was in charge of the British troops in the South. He subdued the Carolina interior and surprised Gates forces at Camden, SC. He almost had south Carolina under control when 2 subordinates who mobilized Tory militia men, overreached themselves in order to subdue Whigs. Instead of following Greene after the Cowpens, Cornwallis headed north to Virginia in hopes of eliminating it as a source for re-enforcements.
in the early 1780's the British switched their strategy (because of a lack of success in the northern colonies) and undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies. This was equally unsuccessful and the British decided to return to their headquarters in NYC. While marching from Virginia to New York, the British commander Cornwallis became trapped in Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and waited for re-enforcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape. After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army on October 19, 1781, which ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary war. This was the last battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis along with 7,000 troops surrendered at Yorktown.
John Paul Jones
American privateer who helped disable the British fleet. He took the fight to Britain. September 1779- he won a desperate battle with a British frigate, which Americans had captured and occupied before their own ship sank. His famous words: "I have not yet begun to fight."
Peace of Paris
Signed on September 3, 1783, the treaty ending the Revolutionary war and recognizing American independence from Britain. It also established the border between Canada and the United States, fixed the western border at the Mississippi River, and ceded Florida to Spain. Britain kept Canada but gave up all land from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River. The treaty allowed both British and American ships to sail the Mississippi River. America had to protect loyalists and recognize them as citizens. America promised that the British would be allowed to collect money owed to them by America merchants and Congress agreed to recommend that loyalists' land be given. These last two were face-saving gestures that allowed the British to keep troops nearby with the excuse of waiting for debts to be repaid. Congress had no real power to give the land back to loyalists.
Articles of Confederation
became effective in March 1781. It delegated most of the powers (the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draft troops) to the individual states but left the federal government the power over war, and foreign policy. It gave the federal government so little power that it couldn't keep the country united in policies or ideas. It was successful in settling the western land claims with the Norwest Ordinance. 9 of 13 states had to agree for a new law to be passed but all states had to agree when amending a law. Didn't accomplish much other than convincing the colonists of the need for a stronger central government.
Richard Henry Lee
motioned in the Second Continental Congress, for colonial independence. ??????????
manumission laws said that owners might free their slaves through individual acts. It was the freeing of slaves by the action of a white owner. The only change after the war was that these laws were relaxed.
one of the most learned, spirited, and independent woman of the time. She was the wife of John Adams. She is most known for her letter to John asking that the men remember the ladies in the new government and asking for rights for women. She was very ahead of her time. Men, including John, thought this was crazy.
Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom
In 1786 (written by Thomas Jefferson) this statue declared that men had total religious freedom, including the freedom to become an atheist which was a shocking addition. This plus the revolutionary ideology that justified this law, it helped shape the course that religion would take in the US, which was pluralistic and voluntary rather than state supported and monolithic.
a lawyer and political leader who fought the writs of assistance and alter became a member of the MA assembly and a founding member of the Sons of Liberty. He lost the case against the writs of assistance but advanced the provocative argument that any act of Parliament that authorized such 'instruments of slavery' violated the British constitution and was therefore void.
Royal Proclamation of 1763
Royal directive issued after the French and Indian war prohibiting settlement, surveys, and land grants west of the Appalachian Mountains. Although this was soon overridden by treaties, colonists continued to harbor resentment that the British government would make such a proclamation when the colonists had just finished fighting for that land.
IN 1763 he became the prime minister and the first lord of the Treasury. He was industrious, honest, and hardheaded. He was a strong-will accountant whose humorless self assurance verged on pomposity. He agreed with the King with cutting government expenses, reducing the national debt and generating more revenue from the colonies to pay for their defense. He took for granted the need for redcoats to defend the American frontier, even though the colonies had been left mostly to their own devices before 1754. He wanted to keep a large standing army in America which raised costs. Since there was a large tax burden at home in England, and a lighter tax burden in the colonies he decided that Americans should share the cost of their own defense. He issued stern orders to colonial offices to tighten enforcement and order the British navy to patrol for smugglers. The period of salutary neglect was coming to an end.
(AKA Revenue Act of 1764) Parliament's tax on refined sugar and money other than colonial products. This was the first tax designed solely to raise revenue for Britain. It actually cut the duty on sugar in half from the Molasses Act of 1733 which posed a threat to New England's prosperity. Passed under Grenville.
Currency Act of 1764
the colonies faced a chronic shortage of money, which kept going out to pay debts in England. To meet the shortage they issued their own money but the British creditors feared payment in such a depreciated currency. This act prohibited the colonies from printing money which resulted in a decline in the value of the existing paper money, since nobody was obligated to accept it. This plus new duties and stricter enforcement jolted a colonial economy already suffering a post war decline. Passed under Grenville.
1765- Parliament required that revenue stamps be affixed to all colonial printed matters, documents, dice, and playing cards. The colonial Stamp Act Congress met to formulate a response and the act was repealed the following year when the colonies ignored it. Passed under Grenville.
1765- Parliamentary Act that required the colonies to house and provide for British troops. Passed under Grenville. It mainly affected New York which was the British redcoat headquarters.
a radical minority that slowly began to take hold in the colonies. The ideas of the Real Whigs derived from various sources but above all John Locke's justification of the Glorious Revolution ("Two Treatises on Government"). Locke and other Real Whigs viewed English history as a struggle by Parliament to preserve life, liberty, and property against royal tyranny. In 1764 & 1765 colonists felt like Parliament and Grenville had loosed upon them the very engines of tyranny Parliament had rescued Britain from a couple decades earlier. A standing army was the historic ally of despots so was the standing army in the colonies really to protect the colonists or was it to subdue them?
among the fundamental rights of the English people were trial by jury and the presumption of the innocent but these new courts excluded juries and put the burden of proof on the defendant.
a dubious opinion espoused by Treasury minister Grenville. It was the idea that each member of the British Parliament represented not only the district that elected them but also the interests of the entire country and empire, including the American colonies.
Sons of Liberty
In 1765 colonial resentment boiled over in meetings, parades, bonfires, and other demonstrations. The militants began to call themselves the Sons of Liberty. They met underneath "liberty trees"- in Boston a great elm on Hanover Square, in Charleston a live oak. These secret organizations formed by Samuel Adams, John Hancock and other radicals, in response to the Stamp Act, attacked British officials and planned such harassments as the Boston Tea Party.
a colonial boycott of the importation of British products in 1765. The Americans knew that they had become a major market for British goods and hope that by shutting off imports they could exercise real leverage.
a series of resolutions inspired by Patrick Henry. The burgesses declared that Virginians were entitled to the rights of the Englishmen and Englishmen could only be tacked by their own representatives. Virginia had always been governed by laws passes with their own consent. Other assemblies followed suit. This was the first blow against the Stamp Act.
inspired the Virginia Resolves. ??????????????
Stamp Act Congress
In 1765, 9 colonies with 27 delegates issued expressions of colonial sentiment which included the Declaration of the Rights and Grievances of the Colonies, which was a petition to the king for relief and a petition for Parliament for the repeal of the Stamp Act
External and Internal taxes
an impression encouraged by the Lord of Treasury, the Marquis of Rockingham, that a distinction be made between "internal" taxes within the colonies and "external" taxes on trade. Internal taxes were to raise revenue. External taxes were to regulate trade.
In 1766 when Parliament repealed the Stamp Act they passed this act. This act asserted the full power of Parliament to make laws binding in the colonies. It was a face-saving gesture. This re-enforced the distinction between external and internal taxes. This made no concession with regard to taxes but made no mention of them either.
Chancellor of the Exchequer (Treasury). He was determined to force the American colonies into obedience. He took advantage of Pitt who was in control of the ministry but was unstable mentally. Townshend took control through Pitt. He reopened the question of colonial taxation and said that external taxes were tolerable to the colonies even though he didn't believe it. Townshend Acts.
1767- Parliamentary measures that punished The New York Assembly for failing to house British soldiers. It taxes tea and other commodities and established a Board of Customs Commissioners and colonial vice admiralty courts. To punish NY it suspended all acts of the NY colonial assembly until it would yield, which it did. The Revenue Act of 1767 levied taxes on colonial imports. The Townshend acts provided the vice admiralty courts at Halifax, Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston.
a Philadelphia lawyer who pretested the Townshend Acts in his 12 "letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer," which argued that Parliament might regulated Commerce and collect duties incidental to that purpose but that it had no right to levy taxes for revenue, whether they were internal or external.
Massachusetts assembly member, founding organizer of the Sons of Liberty and a distant cousin of John Adams. He was the supreme genius of revolutionary agitation.
he replaced Townshend as the Chancellor of the Exchequer. In 1770 the king installed a cabinet of the King's Friends with North as first minister. He modified the Townshend Acts.
a clash between British soldiers and a Boston mob on March 5, 1770 in which 5 colonists were killed. Colonists and Atticus baited the soldiers as a crow grew until a soldier was knocked down and then shot into the crow. This caused the repeal of all the Townshend duties except the tax on tea.
once of the 5 colonists killed in the Boston Massacre. Atticus was a runaway slave who it is said led the protest against the Townshend Acts that resulted in the bloody conflict with the British soldiers.
Samuel Adam's distant cousin. He defended the soldiers in the Boston Massacre who were indicted for murder. He sought that the soldiers were victims of circumstance, and had been provoked. He was a major player in the American Revolution.
vengeful Pennsylvania frontiersmen who in protest to a perceived lack of frontier protection massacred local Indian tribes. The Colonial assemblies didn't pay much attention to the frontier which angered the frontiersmen.
Groups of backcountry Carolina settlers who protested colonial polices. They organized societies to administer vigilante justice in the region and refused to pay taxes until they gained effect government. In 1769 the assembly set up 6 new circuit courts but did not respond to the backcountry's demand for representation. North Carolinian royal governor William Tryon retaliated against regulators at the Battle of Alamance on May 17, 1771.
a British schooner patrolling for smugglers that accidentally ran aground near Providence, Rhode Island. Its crew proceeded to commandeer local sheep, hogs and poultry. A crowd from town boarded the ship, removed the crew and burned the vessel. This led to the creation of the British Gaspee commission which bypassed the courts of RI but no witnesses were found. Rhone Island was punished.
Committees of Correspondence
In response to the Gaspee commission, committees sprung up around MA and eventually other colonies as well and mobilized the public opinion and kept colonial resentments at a simmer. Samuel Adams convinced a town meeting to form the first Committee.
Tea Act of 1773
Lord North in 1773 bailed out the East India Company which had some 17 pounds of Tea in British warehouses. Under this act, the government would allow the mismanaged company to send its south Asian tea directly to America without paying any duties. British tea merchants could thereby undercut their colonial competitor, most of whom were smuggling tea from the Dutch. The Committees of Correspondence put this off as Britain trying to purchase colonial acquiescence with cheap tea.
Boston Tea Party
On December 6, 1773, The Sons of Liberty, dressed as Indians, dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the Boston harbor to protest the Tea Act of 1773 under which the British exported to the colonies millions of pounds of cheap but still taxed tea and thereby undercutting the tea duty. In response Lord North closed the Boston port until they had paid for the lost tea.
Massachusetts Government Act
made the colony's council and law-enforcement officers all appointive rather than elective, declared that sheriffs would select jurors, and stipulated that no town meeting could be held without the governor's consent, except for the annual election of town officers. This was Lord North's response to the Boston Tea Party.
Intolerable Acts (1774)~ four parliamentary measures in reaction to the Boston Tea Party that forced payment for the tea, disallowed colonial trials of British soldiers, forced the quartering of soldiers in private homes, and set up a military government. This was designed to isolate Boston and make an example of it. Instead it galvanized colonial resistance. It also closed the Boston Harbor.
June 1774- provided that the government in Canada would not have a representative assembly and would instead be lead by an appointed governor and council. It gave a privileged position to the Catholic Church. TO the colonists it seemed merely another indicator of British authoritarianism. Colonists thought the British seemed to be protecting papists at the expense of their own colonists who had just fought to liberate the trans-Appalachian West from French Catholics.
First Continental Congress
September 5, 1774, in Philadelphia, 55 members representing 12 colonies. They met to formulate actions against the British policies. They endorsed the Suffolk Resolves which declared the Intolerable Acts null and void, and urged Massachusetts to arm for defense and called for economic sanctions against British commerce. The Congress adopted a Declaration of American Rights. They conceded only Parliament's right to regulate commerce and those matters that were strictly imperial affairs. The congress proclaimed the rights of Americans as English citizens. They proclaimed the right of each colonial assembly to determine the need for British troops within its own province. They boycotted British goods. Non-importation and non-exportation. Lord North's response to this Congress Conciliatory Resolution on February 1775- it was as far as the British would go, Parliament would refrain from using nay measures but taxes to regulate trade, and would grant to each colony the duties collected within is boundaries, provided that the colonists would contribute voluntarily to a quota for defense.
April 1775, famous ride to spread the alarm of the British attack of Concord. Helped warn Lexington and Concord so that they were ready for the British attack.
colonists who organized quickly and volunteered to defend the colonies. Fought at Lexington and Concord.
Lexington and Concord
first shots fired in the Revolutionary War on April 19, 1775, near Boston. Approximately 100 minutemen and 250 British soldiers were killed. Royal governor of MA- General Thomas Gage decided to capture and arrest leaders of the Provincial Congress and seize the military's supply depot at Concord. Revere warned the minute men. Lexington- the minute men were easily defeated. At Concord although the British succeeding in seizing some weapons most were moved before they arrived and the minute men continued to attack the British while they were marching back to Charleston peninsula. The British suffered about 3 times the casualties as the Americans. The Americans earned much respect.
Second Continental Congress
1775-1789- conducted the war and adopted the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. George Washington was the unpaid commander-in-chief of the Continental Army
led MA volunteers in the attack of Fort Ticonderoga in northern New York. He started out fighting for the Americans and then switched to fighting for the British. A well known general on both sides.
George Washington (Revolutionary War)
commander in chief of the Continental Army. He was a member of the Continental Congress. He was charismatic and his experience in the French and Indian war made him one of the most experienced officers in America. He was from Virginia which was and influential, wealthy, and most populous province which made him very attractive. He looked like a leader.
Battler of Bunker Hill
The First major battle of the Revolutionary War. It actually took place nearby at Breed's Hill, MA on June 17, 1775. The high number of British casualties made English generals more cautious in subsequent encounters with the Continental Army. Congress recommended that all able-bodied men enlist in a militia. After this battle there was no longer a middle ground for colonists, now they have to choose a side.
Olive Branch Petition
Written by John Dickinson, this petition professed continued loyalty to King George III and begged him to restrain further hostilities pending a reconciliation. It traced the history of the controversy, denounced the British for the unprovoked assault at Lexington and rejected independence but affirmed the colonists' purpose to fight for their rights rather than submit to slavery. King George III refused to even look at this and on August 22, he declared American colonists "open and avowed enemies." The next day he issued a proclamation of rebellion.
mercenaries hired by the British to fight the colonists- Germans- more than half were from the principality of Hesse-Cassel so they were all called Hessians.
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
1776- Paine argued for independence, directly attacking allegiance to the monarchy, refocusing hostility previously vented on Parliament. The pamphlet was published anonymously in Philadelphia. He proved himself the consummate Revolutionary rhetorician. The Common sense of the matter, it seemed, was that King George III bore the responsibility for the malevolence toward the colonist. Before Paine, few colonists thought Independence was an option.
Declaration of Independence
a document adopted on July 4, 1776, that made the official break with Britain. It was drafted by a committee of the Second Continental Congress including the principal writer Thomas Jefferson. The committee was Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Robert Livingston (NY), and Roger Sherman (CT). The declaration was a public explanation of reason for colonial discontent and provided a rationale for independence. It drew primarily on Jefferson's own draft preamble to the Virginia Constitution and George Mason's draft of Virginia's Declaration of Rights. The document stressed the natural rights of Life, liberty and property, the right of citizens to overthrow their government if it does not protect the peoples' rights (a compelling restatement of John Locke's contract theory of government). Parliament was never mentioned in the Declaration.
the limitation and exploitation of colonial trade by an imperial power. It was a nationalistic program that assumed that the total of the world's gold and silver remained essentially fixed, with only a nation's share in the wealth subject to change. The government therefore had to control all economic activities in an effort to keep as much gold and silver within the country
several acts that helped make England have a mercantile system. It gave England a monopoly over the tobacco and sugar produced in the Chesapeake and West Indies. IT channeled all colonial commerce through English merchants and enriched English ship-builders. Commercial activities in the colonies became ever more important to the strength of the British Empire. They supplied a convenient rational for a colonial system where a colony's job was to serve the economic needs of the mother country. Also known as the British Acts of Trade. 1651- requires that all goods imported to England or the colonies be carried only on English ships and that the majority of each crew by English. 1660- a ship's crew had to be ¾ English and specified goods had to be shipped only to England or English colonies. 1663-all colonial imports from Europe to America had to stop first in England, be offloaded, and have duty paid before being shipped to the colonies.
certain specified goods from the colonies, including tobacco, cotton, sugar, and furs, which were to be shipped only to England or other English colonies.
the first man to make a career in the colonial service and the nemesis of insubordinate colonials for a quarter of a century. In 1676 he arrived in Boston and demanded that Massachusetts abide by the Navigation Acts. He was the King's collector of customs in Boston. His efforts to tighten control over commercial activity excited massive resentment. In 1678 a defiant Massachusetts legislature declared that the acts had no legal standing in Massachusetts and in 1684 the Lords of Trade overruled the MA legislature.
Dominion of New England
Consolidation into a single colony of the New England colonies- and later New York and Jew Jersey- by the royal governor Edmund Andros in 1686. The dominion reverted to individual colonial governments 3 years later. The Dominion was to have a royally appointed governor and the governor and council would rule without an assembly. Taxation was now levied without the consent of the General Court.
Sir Edmund Andros
the Royal governor of the Dominion of New England. He was a soldier and accustomed to taking and giving orders. He was honest, efficient and loyal to the crown but tactless in many circumstances. He took over the Puritan Church and made it Anglican causing great resentment. There was a growing resentment of him by colonists.
a German immigrant who became governor of New York from 1688 to 1691 after disposing of Andros' lieutenant governor. In 1691 he hesitated to give up power to a royally appointed governor and he was hanged for treason. In 1695 Parliament exonerated him of all charges but it didn't really matter because he was already dead.
the first minister (1721-1742) to the German princes George I and George II who let the cabinet emerge as the central agency of administration. He deliberately followed a policy toward the colonies that the Philosopher Edmund Burke claimed as 'a wise and salutary neglect.' His relaxed policy towards the colonies not only gave them greater freedom to pursue their economic interests but it unwittingly also enabled Americans to pursue greater political independence.
Writs of assistance
general search warrants that did not have to specify the place to be searched. Act to prevent Frauds and Abuse in 1696 allowed customs officers to use writs of assistance. They were one of the colonists main complaints against the British because they allowed unlimited search warrants without cause to look for evidence of smuggling.
the Act to Prevent Fraud and Abuse ordered that accused violators (of smuggling) to be tried in these courts because colonial juries refused to convict their peers. These cases were decided by judges whom royal governors appointed.
So-called system (of Prime Minister Walpole) by which the Board of Trade became chiefly an agency of political patronage and lax in its enforcement of trade relations. Gave the American colonies greater economic and political freedom.
House of Burgesses
the elected colonial assembly of Virignia-1619?
French and Indian War
the climactic conflict between Britain and France in North America. It began in 1754 when enterprising Virginians crossed the Allegheny Mountains and into the Ohio River Valley to trade with Indians. This infuriated the French who then established forts in Pennsylvania. In response the Virginia governor sent out a warning which the French refuse to follow. Washington and volunteer army killed a French detachment (who had actually been on a peace mission). This was known in Europe was the Seven Year's War, the last (1755-1763) of 4 colonial wars fought between England and France for control of North America east of the Mississippi River.
George Washington ( and the French and Indian War)
an ambitious young Virginian militia officer. He started the French and Indian War by ambushing a French detachment on a peace mission. He retreated and created a crude stockade called Fort Necessity. A large group of French soldiers then attacked and Washington was forced to surrender and withdraw- 1754- July
a gathering in Albany, New York of colonial representatives who met from June 19-July 10, 1754 to develop a treaty with Native Americans and plan the defense of the colonies against France. It ended with little accomplished. They sent the Iroquois chieftains away loaded with gifts in return for halfhearted promises of support.
Plan of Union
the main thin the Albany Congress is remembered for. This plan of Union was worked out by a committee under Benjamin Franklin and adopted by a unanimous vote of commissioners. It called for a chief executive, a kind of supreme governor, to be called the president general of the United Colonies. This president general would be appointed and supported by the crown and a supreme assembly, a Grand Council, with 48 members would be chosen by the colonial assemblies. This federal body would oversee matters of defense, Indian relations, and trade and settle the West. It would also levy taxes to support its programs. The colonies thought it gave too much power to the crown and the crown thought it gave the colonies too much power. It failed.
Peace/Treaty of Paris
1763- this brought an end of the world war and to the French power in North America. The British had won. Britain took all French North American possession (except New Orleans) east of the Mississippi and all of Spanish Florida. The British also got Indian lands which angered the Indians.
in 1763 the Indian tribes struck back after the British moved French frontier forts and cut off the trade and gift giving practice fo the French. In the midst of Indians attacking Fort Pitt, General Amherst approved the distribution of small-pox infested blankets and handkerchiefs to the Indians besieging the garrison. The far-flung Indian attacks on the frontier forts convinced most American colonists that all Indians must be removed. Britain negotiated an agreement that allowed Redcoats to reoccupy the frontier forts in exchange for a renewal of trade and gift giving. The name of the rebellion is based on the prominent role played by the Ottawa chief.
a system for providing cheap labor in the colonies. Indentured servants worked from 5-7 years without wages in exchange for passage to the American colonies.
after rounding up slaves who participated in this uprising in South Carolina in 1739, enraged planters cut of the slaves' heads and set them up at every mile post.
the means by which exports to one country or colony provided the means for imports from another country or colony. New Englanders shipped rum to Africa, where they bartered for slaves, took the slaves to the West Indies, and brought various commodities home: New England (Provisions) West Indies (sugar, molasses) England (manufactured goods) New England
a voluntary union for the common worship of God and for the purpose of government. The Puritan version of Calvin's theology- God had entered a covenant with worshippers which they could secure salvation through. An assembly of true christens could enter a church covenant.
Allowed baptized children of church members to be admitted to a "half-way" membership in the church and secure baptism for their own children in turn, but allowed neither a vote in the church nor communion- around 1662 with Boston Ministers
Salem village was 8 miles from Salem town. The village struggled to free itself from the influence and taxes of Salem Town. Salem witchcraft hysteria- 1691-1692- several adolescent girls began meeting in the kitchen of the minister Samuel Parris and listened to African tales told by Tituba, Parris's West Indian slave. The entranced girls began to behave oddly. Salem Village prison was filled with people accused of practicing witchcraft. 19 people had been hanged. The life in Salem was dreary, with long festering local feuds, property disputes, frequent Indian attacks. Along with those things the role of women and King William's War were all causes of the hysteria.
John Peter Zenger's trial for seditious libel, for publishing criticism of New York's governor in his News Papers. He was imprisoned for 10 months and had a trial in 1735. The English law allowed people to be punished for criticism. The jury agreed he had told the truth and he was not guilty. The law stayed in place but many editors began to criticize officials more freely.
argues in Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) that humanity is largely a product of the environment, and that the mind is a blank tablet on which experience is written. Application and improvement of Reason.
a scientific and ideological revolution in the 17th century that involved the use of reason. It created the ideas that the US is later founded upon. Enlightenment ideals fit with the American experience based upon observation, experiments and thinking anew.
Followers of Sir Isaac Newton's idea of natural law, reducing God to the position of a remote creator who would it all up and let it go to run according to natural laws.
a Boston-born American who epitomized the Enlightenment. A printer by trade, he went on to become a publisher, inventor and an important statesman.
Fervent religious revival movement in the 1720's through the 1740's that was spread throughout the colonies by ministers like New England Congregationalist John Edwards and English revivalists George Whitefield. This was stimulated by the Enlightenment.
a New England Congregationalist who spread the Great Awakening throughout the colonies. He began a religious revival in his Northampton Church.
a Presbyterian revivalist in the Great Awakening. He set u p a "Log College" in Pennsylvania for the education of ministers to serve the Scottish-Irish Presbyterians living around Philadelphia
part of the Great Awakening. He was a young English minister who's reputation as a spellbinding evangelist preceded him to the colonies. His objective was to resort eh fires of religious fervor to American congregations. He enthralled his audiences with his unparalleled eloquence. He had the idea of 'newbirth.'
Old Lights vs. New Lights
Presbyterians divided into an 'Old side' and a 'New Side' and Congregationalists into 'old lights' and 'new lights.' More traditional clergy were undermined was church members chose sides and either dismissed their ministers or deserted them. Many 'new lights' were Baptists, Presbyterians and Methodists.
a college founded in 1636 because the Puritans dreaded 'to leave an illiterate ministry to the church when our present ministers shall lie in the dust.' The First of a long line of Colleges to be created for religious purposes.
a slave rebellion on September 9, 1739 in the colony of South Carolina. The largest slave uprising in British America before the American Revolution. One of the earliest known organized rebellions in the US. Native Catholic Africans from the Kingdom of Congo rebelled. In response South Carolina passed the Negro Act of 1734 which restricted slave assembly, education and movement.
William and Mary
After the restoration in England, Charles II's brother James II came to the throne. James avowed Catholicism and the people only bared it because one of his Protestant daughters Mary or Anne was supposed to take the throne. When James had another child and this time a Catholic one, Parliament asked Mary and her husband William of Orange to assume the throne jointly. Called:"The Glorious Revolution." In 1689 Parliament created a Bill of rights where William and Mary gave up the royal abilities to suspend laws, erect special courts, keep a standing army, or levy taxes without Parliament's consent. Freedom of Speech in Parliament, freedom of petition to the crown, the Act of Toleration (1689), the Act of Settlement (1708) and the Act of Union (1707) all contributed to giving British people rights.
When William and Mary were brought in by Parliament, because James II was having a Catholic child and the people wanted a Protestant leader, it was a peaceful transition with no fighting and it started a new era that limited a monarch's power and gave more freedom to the people.
Joint Stock Companies
ancestors of the modern corporation, where stockholders shared the risks and profits for single ventures or on a permanent basis. Some of the larger companies managed to get royal charters that entitled them to monopolies in certain areas and even governmental powers in their outposts. This was hoe most of the American colonies were started.
Intended as the first permanent British colony in the Americas. It was settled in 1606 on the banks of the James River in Virginia. It was created by the London group of the Virginia Company. It consisted of mostly townsmen and gentlemen which proved unsuccessful in supporting a town very well.
A powerful, charismatic chief of numerous Algonquian-speaking towns in eastern Virginia. He was the leader of a largely agricultural people and they developed a lucrative trade with the colonists by giving colonists corn and hides for hatchets, swords, and muskets. As chief he collected tribute from the tribes he had conquered.
A soldier of fortune with rare powers of leadership and self-promotion. He was appointed to the resident council to manage the Jamestown colony. He imposed strict discipline and force all to work. He imprisoned, whipped and forced colonists into labor. He bargained with the Powhatan Natives and explored and mapped the Chesapeake region. Because of him, Jamestown survived. He was saved by Pocahontas after being captured while exploring.
Lord De La Warr
the governor of Jamestown, who sent Thomas Gates as interim governor. Gates -1609 he was shipwrecked on Bermuda and while he was shipwrecked the colony experienced famine, drought, and a harsh winter. In 1610 Lord Delaware arrived as settlers were giving up and he took them back inland and created Richmond. In 1611 Gates took over with a strict system of laws.
In 1612 he experimented with the harsh Virginia tobacco and got a hold of the good Spanish variations. In 1616 the tobacco became a profitable export staple. Virginia's tobacco production soared. This took place in Jamestown, Virginia.
daughter of Indian Chief Powhatan, and married John Rolfe. She saved John Smith's life when he was captured while exploring. In 1614 she was kidnapped by the people of Jamestown to blackmail Powhatan but she surprised them all by embracing Christianity. She was renamed Rebecca and fell in love with John Rolfe. She moved to England with Rolf and infant song and died of a lung disease shortly after.
Head right system
A system inaugurated by Sir Edwin Sandys, head of the Virginia Company. The "head right" policy gave anyone who bought a share in the company and could afford to get to Virginia, fifty acres, and fifty more for any additional servants they brought.
A revolt of common laborers and small farmers against Virginia's wealthiest planters and political leaders. Causes: festering hatred for governor Sir William Berkely, depressed tobacco prices, rising taxes, roaming livestock, crowds of freed servants. Berkely despised commoners.
a colony owned by an individual instead of by a joint-stock company. Maryland was the first proprietary colony. It was given to Lord Baltimore by King Charles I as a refuge for English Catholics.
one who undertakes a religious journey, a band of English settlers who landed at Cape Cod and established the Plymouth Colony. They belonged to the most uncompromising set of Puritans, the Separatists, who severed all ties with the English church. The Separatists fled to Holland to escape persecution and then to Plymouth. They were led by William Bradford and were crammed on the Mayflower with "saints' and strangers'.
the colony settled by the Pilgrims near Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
also known as Pilgrims, these rigorously devout Puritans had severed all ties with the Church of England.
led the Pilgrims on the Mayflower and the governor of Plymouth colony.
a formal agreement made by 41 Pilgrim leaders prior to landing at Plymouth to abide by laws of their own devising. They created this because they were outside the jurisdiction of any organized government and therefore didn't have an outside source dictating their government.
an Indian who spoke English and showed the dwindling Pilgrims of Plymouth how to grow maize. The friendly relations with the neighboring Wampanoag Indians proved to be the Pilgrims salvation. By autumn the Pilgrims had a bumper crop of corn. To celebrate the Pilgrims held a harvest feast for the Wampanoag's- Thanksgiving
Like the Pilgrims, the Puritans who colonized Massachusetts Bay were primarily Congregationalists who sought to form self-governing churches with membership limited to 'visible saints' (those who could demonstrate receipt of the gift of God's grace). They still hoped to reform the Church of England. They were non-separating Congregationalists.
Puritan leaders and governor of Massachusetts Bay colony. In 1629 King Charles I issued a charter for the MA Bay Company to a group of English Puritans led by Winthrop. It was resolved to use the colony as a refuge for persecuted Puritans and as an instrument for building a "wilderness Zion in America. The colony was self governing. Winthrop kept the charter hidden and tried to limit the power of the freemen in the MA General Court but he was forced to show the charter and the freemen turned the General Court into a representing Body.
the Arbella migrants (Winthrop and settlers) proved to be the vanguard of a massive movement that carried some 80,000 Britons to new settlements around the world. Many fled religious prosecution and economic depression at home and they gravitated to Ireland, the Netherlands, Rhineland and most importantly the New World.
The Puritan who established Providence, Rhode Island, the first permanent settlement in Rhode Island. He espoused the idea of the separation of church and state. He started in MA but caused problems because he came to believe that the true covenant was between God and the individual. He questioned Calvinism. He believed that the purity of the church required complete separation of church and state and freedom from coercion in matters of faith. Providence was the first settlement in America to legislate freedom of religion.
the articulate, strong-willed and intelligent wife of a prominent Boston merchant. She espoused her belief in direct divine revelation. She was hauled before the General Court and banished from the colony. She was undermining the fragile social system by claiming to know which neighbors had been saved and which ones hadn't. She settled on an island south of Providence and near modern Portsmouth, Rhode Island.
he led three church congregations from Massachusetts Bay to the Connecticut River towns. He helped create the Fundamental Orders. He helped start colonies in Connecticut.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
The Connecticut General Court adopted this series of laws in 1630. These laws provided for a government like that of Massachusetts except that voting was not limited to Church members. The first written constitution in Western tradition.
(1637) In a successful bid to dislodge the Pequot Indians from their lands, this war resulted in the slaughter of Pequot men, women and children, and the dissolution of the Pequot nation. A Pequot was accused of killing a colonist in Massachusetts. Massachusetts with the help of Connecticut burned a Pequot village for revenge. The treaty of Hartford (1638) dissolved the Pequot nation.
King Philip's War
causes: the growth of New England colonies, the decline in the beaver population, the pressure on Natives. In 1675, Philip, chief of the Wampanoag's (the tribe that had helped the Pilgrims) forged an alliance among the remaining tribes of southern New England. John Sassamon, a "praying Indian" who served as a British spy was murdered. The officials of Plymouth executed 3 Natives for the murder. The natives then attacked and burned colonial settlements throughout Massachusetts. Philip's wife and son were captured and sold. The war devastated Native American culture and cut the Native population in half. This enabled Puritans to assert more control over natives.
New England Confederation
(1643) 4 New England colonies: Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut and New Haven, formed this confederation to provide joint defense against the Dutch, French, and Natives. 2 commissioners from each colony met annually to contract business. It behaved like a sovereign power. It made treaties, and in 1653 it declared war against the Dutch. Massachusetts, which was far from the scene of trouble, failed to cooperate and by not helping it greatly weakened the confederation.
Maryland Toleration Act
(1649) Endorsed by Lord Baltimore and passed by the Maryland assembly, this act assured that Puritans would not be molested in their religion.
Fundamental Constitution of Carolina
drawn by one of the proprietors of South Carolina (Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper) with the help of John Locke- its cumbersome frame of government and its provisions for an elaborate nobility had little effect except to encourage large land grants. The grant of religious toleration encouraged immigration and gave South Carolina a greater degree of Indulgence than England and most other colonies (except RI)
a Dutch colony conquered by the English. It became four new colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware. It was conquered by the King's brother, the duke of York who later became king James II
an English captain hired by the Dutch East India Company to seek a passage to China. He sailed along the coast of North America in 1609- he discovered Delaware Bay and explored the Hudson River.
a Dutch system- it provided that any stock holder might obtain a large estate ( a patroonship) if he people it with 50 adults in 4 years. The patron was obligated to supply cattle, tools, and buildings to the adults and in return he got rent and the surplus crop. It was transplanting the feudal manor to America. This system was created to populate the moth of the Hudson River to protect Dutch fur trade.
The Dutch colony's government was under almost absolute control of a governor sent by the company. The polyglot colonists prized their liberties and lived in a smoldering state of near mutiny against the colony's governors. In 1664 the colonists showed no interest when Governor Stuyvesant called them to arms against a British fleet. They surrendered without a fight and Stuyvesant lived on his farm in the new colony of New York
(or Iroquois Confederacy) tribes of the Iroquois forged an alliance so strong that they outnumbered the Dutch and English traders and therefore the traders were forced to work with the Indians in the fur trade. The sachems (chiefs) made decisions for all the villages and mediated rivalries in the confederacy. Beaver Wars (1640's)- the Indians went into Canada and hunted the Beaver population in the region to extinction. They made peace with the French in 1701.
founder of Pennsylvania. William Penn's Quaker Commonwealth- the colony of Pennsylvania. He pushed for immigrants by publishing glowing reviews of the colony in several languages. Quaker vales in the government. Frames of government- freemen elected councilors and assembly, and the governor had no veto power.
Society of Friends, founded by George Fox in 1647 with the idea of individual inspiration and interpretation. They refused to acknowledge rank (referred to all with same respect), refused to take oaths, they embraced pacifism, believed in religious freedom for everyone, and equality of the sexes. William Penn's commonwealth in Pennsylvania was a Quaker colony.
accompanied the first colonists as resident trustee to Georgia. He represented both of the ideas for founding Georgia. He served as a soldier who organized defenses and he served as a philanthropist who loved prison reform.
Between 12,000 and 15,000 years ago the first humans in the western Hemisphere (now others are known to come first from Europe) were Siberians who had crossed this strait on a land bridge to Alaska. This was made possible by receding waters during the last Ice Age.
Ancient Mesoamerican civilization that thrived from about A.D. 300 to A.D. 900. They developed enough mathematics and astronomy to devise a calendar more accurate than the calendar used by Europeans at the time of Columbus, the Mayan culture collapsed because of: Overexploited the rainforest, Deforestationerosion loss of farm land, Overpopulation, Civil wars. The Mayan Culture fell to the Toltecs
Mesoamerican civilization that thrived in the 14th and 15th centuries A.D. They founded the city Tenochtitlan in 1325 and gradually expanded their control over central Mexico. In 1519 when the Spanish invaded Montezuma II ruled. Montezuma was easily controlled by Cortes and his own people turned on him
Erik the Red
A.D. 985- Norse Icelander- New World's first real estate booster, colonized the west coast of Greenland, one of the earliest know expeditions
son of Erik the Red, sailed from Greenland about A.D. 1001 and sighted Helluland (Baffin Island), Markland (Labrador), and Newfoundland (Vinland). The colonies in North America were deserted because of hostile natives.
aka Newfoundland, founded by Leif Eriksson and where he settled for the winter. Norse settler withdrew in face of hostile natives. First colony in North America
Prince Henry the Navigator
son of King John of Portugal, in 1422 he dispatched his first naval expedition to map the African coast. Created a seamanship school and pushed for explorers.
in 1488 he routed the Cape of Good Hope at Africa's southern tip, he was Portuguese
A self-taught Italian mariner who sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean in search of the Indies in the 15th century. He was supported by Isabella and Ferdinand, Spanish monarchs. He chartered the ships Santa Maria, Pinta, and Nina. In 1492 he found an island in the Bahamas which he named San Salvador; he thought he was near the Indies so he called the people "los Indios." Later he found Hispaniola where he found gold, and found Cuba and Jamaica. 1489- He found Trinidad and South America. He believed he had found the Indies.
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494- a compromise agreement between Spain and Portugal that cut the world in half in a line west of the Cape Verde Islands. The area west of the line was Spanish and the area to the east was Portuguese territory
1499- an Italian explorer who first suggested that South America was so large it must be a new continent. Named after him.
Venetian, sponsored by Henry VII of England, who was the first to see the North American continent. In 1497 he sailed across the North Atlantic and his land fall gave England the basis for a later claim to all of North America. England became too preoccupied with conflicts to capitalize on Cabot's discoveries until a long time later.
1519- Portuguese seaman hired by the Spanish. He discovered the Magellan strait at the southern tip of South America and kept sailing across the Pacific Ocean. He was killed in the Philippines but his crew made it back to Spain in 1522. First voyage around the world.
Ruthless leader of the conquistadors. In 1519 he attacked the Aztecs with Native allies. He was unauthorized by the Spanish government. He deceptively made his way peacefully into Tenochtitlan and made Montezuma his puppet. In 2 years he had conquered the legendary Aztec Empire
In 1531 he conquered the Incan Empire and from there conquistadors extended Spanish authority to Chile and Columbia.
received no pay and were military entrepreneurs willing to risk their lives for a share in the expected plunder and slaves of their conquests. They were Spanish. The groups that Cortes and Pizarro were a part of.
the conquistadores used this system in America where favored officers became privileged landowners who controlled Indian villages. The encomenderos where called upon to protect and care for the villages and support missionary priests. Went through labor too quickly to last very long. Gave way to the haciendas (great farms or ranches).
Bartolome de las Casas
Catholic missionary and Bishop in Mexico who wrote A Brief Relation of the Destruction of the Indies in 1552. He was a defender of the Indians.
Juan Ponce de Leon
Governor of Puerto Rico and the first known explorer of Florida. He was Spanish. 1513
Hernando de Soto
in 1539 he landed on Florida's west coast and hiked as far as Western North Carolina and then moved west beyond the Mississippi River and up the Arkansas River. He traveled to the interior of America.
A Spanish outpost in Florida-1565- It became the first European town in present day US. It served as a defensive base.
the sons/children of Spanish fathers and native mothers. The Spanish encouraged intermarriage to help spread Spanish culture.
they were a division of Protestants who rejected infant baptism and favored the separation of the church and state.
The English ruler who became queen in 1558. She was the most remarkable female ruler in history. She came to rule over peace, stability and the English Golden Age. She was Protestant. The "Elizabethan settlement" allowed some latitude in theology in religion for the sake of unity. Many Puritans disliked this settlement and left for America.
Giovanni de Verrazano
in 1524 he was sent by the French King in search of a passage to Asia. He sighted North America and traveled the coast as far north as Maine. In 1528 he had a second voyage where he died. French were the first to pose a threat to the Spanish Empire.
Samuel de Champlain
He colonized Canada after 1600. He was "the Father of New France." After 1542 the French lost interest in Canada until Champlain came along.
in 1588 the Spanish armada set out to invade England but the heavy Spanish ships could not compete with the smaller and faster English ships. The defeat of the Spanish Armada marked the beginning of the English naval supremacy and cleared the seas for English colonization of America. The climactic event of Queen Elizabeth I's rule.
An English admiral who led the British fleet against the Spanish armada. His warships destroyed part of the Spanish fleet before it could even set out and postponed the main defeat.
Sir Walter Raleigh
the sponsor of an ill-fated expedition of colonists, who in 1587 settled Roanoke Island on the outer banks of North Carolina. The first of the English attempts at creating colonies.
Sir Walter Raleigh sponsored an ill-fated expedition of colonists, who in 1587 settled Roanoke Island on the outer banks of North Carolina. The first of the English attempts at creating colonies.
the enormous widespread exchange of plants, animals, foods, human population (including slaves), disease, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres. This included North America, South America, Africa, and Europe. Occurred after 1492.
An English writer who notably supported and promoted the English settlements in North America. 1553-1616
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