Chapter 5 Review Questions
Terms in this set (39)
Briefly explain the concepts of the socio-ecological approach and evidence-based practice.
Socio-ecological Approach- individuals influence and are influence by their families, social networks, the organizations in which they participate (workplaces, schools, religious organizations), the communities of which they are a part, and the society in which they live.
Evidence-Based Practice- systematically finding, appraising, and using evidence as the basis for decision making.
What is community organizing?
A process by which community groups are held to identify common problems or change targets, mobilize resources, and develop and implement strategies for reaching their collective goal.
Not a science, but an art of consensus building.
Changes in community social structure that have led to loss of a sense of community
- Advances in electronics
- Increased mobility
What are the assumptions (idenitified by Ross) under which organizers work when bringing a community together to solve a problem?
1. Communities can develop the capacity to deal with their own problems.
2. People want to change and can change.
3. People should participate in making, adjusting, or controlling the major changes taking place within their communities.
4. Changes in community living that are self-imposed or self-developed have a meaning and permanence within their communities.
5. A "holistic approach" can successfully address problems with which a "fragmented approach" cannot cope.
6. Democracy requires cooperative participation and action in the affairs of the community and people must learn the skill that make this possible.
7. Frequently, communities of people need help in organizing to deal with their needs, just as many individuals require help in coping with their own individual problems.
What is the difference between top-down and grass-roots community organizing?
Top-Down: when individuals from outside the community initiate community organization.
Ex; judge, social worker
Grass Roots: a process that begins with those who are affected by the problem/concern.
EX: police officer, teacher, politician
Initial organizer- Recognizing the Issue
Organizers- Gaining Entry
Need to know where the power lies, the community power dynamics, what type of politics must be used to solve a problem, and whether the particular problem they wish to solve has ever been dealt with before in the community.
Example with violence:
1. who is causing the violence & why
2. how the problem has been addressed in the past
3. who supports and opposes the idea of addressing this problem
4. who could provide more insight into the problem.
Executive participants- Organizing the People
will become the backbone of the workforce and will end up doing the majority of the work.
- Expanding constituencies:
1. identify who are affected by the problem they are trying to solve
2. Provide "perks" for or otherwise reward volunteers
3. keep volunteer time short
4. match volunteer assignments with the abilities and expertise of the volunteers
5. consider providing appropriate training to make sure volunteers are comfortable with their tasks.
A temporary group that is brought together for dealing with a specific problem
Formal alliance of organizations that come together to work for a common goal.
Assessing the Community
-Mapping community capacity- process of identifying community assets- Community assets:
1. Primary building blocks- organized into assets and capacities of individuals (Ex: skills, abilities, incomes) and those organizations or associations (Ex: faith-based and citizen organization)
2. Secondary building blocks- located in the neighborhood but largely controlled by people outside (Ex: social services agencies, schools, hospitals, and housing structures)
3. Potential building blocks- least accessible; resources outside the neighborhood and controlled by people outside (ex: welfare expenditures and public information)
What does the term gatekeepers mean? Who would they be in your home community?
Those who control both formally and informally, the political climate of the community.
EX: Politician, Teacher, Leaders of activist groups, members of clergy
Identify the steps in the generalized approach to community organizing/ building presented in this chapter.
1. Recognizing the issue
2. Gaining entry into the community
3. Organizing the people
4. Assessing the community
5. Determining the priorities and setting goals
6. Arriving at a solution and selecting intervention strategies
7. Implementing the Plan
8. Evaluating the outcomes of the plan of action
9. Maintaining the outcomes in the community
10. Looping back
What does community building mean?
An orientation to practice focused on community, rather than a strategic framework or approach, and on building capacities, not fixing problems.
What is a needs assessment? Why is it important in the health promotion programming process?
The process of identifying, analyzing, and prioritizing the needs of a priority population.
Important because it not only identifies and prioritizes health problems, but it also established a baseline for evaluating program impact.
Creating a Health Promotion Program
- Involves a series of steps
- Success depends on many factors
- Experienced planners use models to guide work (MAPP, PRECEDE/PROCEED, Social Marketing Assessment and Response Tool (SMART), CDCynergy
- Understand priority population
Assessing the Needs of the Priority population
-Determine purpose and scope of needs assessment
- Gathering data: Primary data (data collected specifically for use in this process) & secondary data(data that has already been collected for some other purposes, EX: BRFSS
- Analyzing data: 1.) Importance of the need, 2.) how changeable the need is, 3.)whether adequate resources are available to address the problem.
- Identifying Risk factors linked to health problem
- Identifying program focus: 1.) have knowledge and skills to begin an exercise program, (predisposing factors), 2.) have access to recreational facilities(enabling factor), 3.) have people around who value the benefits of exercise (Reinforcing factor)
- Validating prioritized need:
1. who is priority population?
2. What are the needs of the priority population?
3. Which subgroups within the priority pop have the greatest need?
4. Where are the subgroups located geographically?
5. What is currently being done to resolve identified needs?
6. How well have the identified needs been addressed in the past?
7. What is the capacity of the community to deal with the needs?
8. What are the assets in a community on which a program can be built?
Setting Appropriate Goals and Objectives
-Foundation of the program
- Portions of the programming process are designed to achieve the goals by meeting the objectives.
What are the 5 major steps and one quasi-step in program development?
1. Assessing Needs
2. Setting Goals/Objectives
3. Developing Interventions
4. Implementing Interventions
5. Evaluating Results
What are the differences between goals and objectives?
Goals-A future event toward which is committed endeavor is directed; are easy to write and include 2 basic components- who will be affected and what will change because of the program.
Objectives- steps taken in pursuit of a goal; are more precise and can be considered the steps to achieve the program goals.
Compared to objectives, goals are expectations that provide: overall direction for the program, are more general in nature, do not have a specific deadline, usually take longer to complete, and are often not measured in exact terms.
those that are specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-phased
Creating an Intervention that Considers the Pecularities of the setting:
-Activities that will help the priority population meet the objectives and achieve the program goals.
- The program that the priority population will experience
-May be several or a few activities.
-Multiplicity: The number of components or activities that make up the intervention.
- Dose: the number of program units delivered as part of the intervention.
- Best practices, experiences, processes
Implementing the Intervention:
- Implementation: Putting a planned program into action
- Pilot Test: Trial run- implementation to a small group; determine problems and fix before full implementation
- Phasing in: Step by step implementations: implementation with small groups
Evaluating the Results
- Determine the worth/value of an object in interest
- Evaluation should occur during first steps of program development
- Formative evaluation
- Summative evaluation
* impact evaluation
* Outcome evaluation
Name and briefly describe the 6 steps of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's framework for program evaluation.
1. Engage Stakeholders-
2. Describe the Program-
3. Focus the Evaluation Design-
4. Gather Credible Data-
5. Justify Conclusions-
6. Ensure Use and Shared Lessons Learned-
What are intervention strategies? Provide 5 examples.
Activities that will help the priority population meet the objectives and achieve the program goals.
1. Health Communication- mass media, billboards, flyers
2. Health Education- lecture, group work
3. Health policy- Executive orders, laws, ordinances
4. Environmental Changes- no smoking signs
5. Health-related community- clinical screenings
What are the best practices, best experiences, and best processes? How are they different?
Best Practices: recommendation for interventions based on critical review of multiple research and evaluation studies that substantiate the efficacy of the intervention.
Best Experiences: intervention strategies used in prior or existing programs that have not gone through the critical research and evaluation studies and thus fall short of best practice criteria.
Best Processes: original intervention strategies that the planners create based on their knowledge and skills of good planning processes including the involvement of those in the priority population and the use of theories and models.
What does the term pilot testing mean? How is it useful when developing an intervention?
A trial run of an intervention.
It is useful to ensure a smooth-flowing implementation of the intervention.
What is the difference between formative and summative evaluation? What are impact and outcome evaluation?
Formative Evaluation-the evaluation that is conducted during the planning and implementing processes to improve or refine the program.
Summative Evaluation- the evaluation that determines the effect of a program on the priority population.
Impact Evaluation: the evaluation that focuses on immediate observable effects of a program.
Outcome Evaluation: The evaluation that focuses on the end result of the program.
Community characteristics affecting its ability to identify, mobilize, and address problems.
Social action process for people to gain mastery over their lives and the lives of their communities.
Community organizing should start where the people are and engage community members as equals.
Community Organizing Methods
1. Planning and Policy Practice- by using data, community and public health workers generate persuasive rationales that lead toward proposing and enacting particular solutions.
2. Community Capacity Development-based on empowering those impact by a problem with knowledge and skills to understand the problem and then work cooperatively together to deal with the problem.
3. Social Advocacy- used to address a problem through the application of pressure, including confrontation, on those who have created the problem or stand as a barrier to the solution to the problem.* creates conflict
Needs-Based vs. Strength-based
Strength-based: the principle of relevance, or starting where the people are; the principle of participatory issue selection and choice of actions; and the importance of creating environments in which individuals and communities can become empowered as they increase their community capacity or problem-solving ability.
Processes and condition among people and organizations that lead to their accomplishing a goal of mutual social benefit, usually characterized by interrelated constructs of trust, cooperation, civil engagement, and reciprocity, reinforced by networking.
The methods of professional change that deal with issues beyond the individual, family, and small group level.
Criteria to consider when selecting Priority issue.
2. Simple and Specific
3. unite member of organizing group
4. Should affect many people
5. Part of a larger plane
any combination of planned learning experiences using evidence-based practices and/or sound theories that provide the opportunity to acquire knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to adopt and maintain health behaviors.
any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of individuals, groups, and communities.
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