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Chapter 5 Review Questions
Terms in this set (39)
Briefly explain the concepts of the socio-ecological approach and evidence-based practice.
Socio-ecological Approach- individuals influence and are influence by their families, social networks, the organizations in which they participate (workplaces, schools, religious organizations), the communities of which they are a part, and the society in which they live.
Evidence-Based Practice- systematically finding, appraising, and using evidence as the basis for decision making.
What is community organizing?
A process by which community groups are held to identify common problems or change targets, mobilize resources, and develop and implement strategies for reaching their collective goal.
Not a science, but an art of consensus building.
Changes in community social structure that have led to loss of a sense of community
- Advances in electronics
- Increased mobility
What are the assumptions (idenitified by Ross) under which organizers work when bringing a community together to solve a problem?
1. Communities can develop the capacity to deal with their own problems.
2. People want to change and can change.
3. People should participate in making, adjusting, or controlling the major changes taking place within their communities.
4. Changes in community living that are self-imposed or self-developed have a meaning and permanence within their communities.
5. A "holistic approach" can successfully address problems with which a "fragmented approach" cannot cope.
6. Democracy requires cooperative participation and action in the affairs of the community and people must learn the skill that make this possible.
7. Frequently, communities of people need help in organizing to deal with their needs, just as many individuals require help in coping with their own individual problems.
What is the difference between top-down and grass-roots community organizing?
Top-Down: when individuals from outside the community initiate community organization.
Ex; judge, social worker
Grass Roots: a process that begins with those who are affected by the problem/concern.
EX: police officer, teacher, politician
Initial organizer- Recognizing the Issue
Organizers- Gaining Entry
Need to know where the power lies, the community power dynamics, what type of politics must be used to solve a problem, and whether the particular problem they wish to solve has ever been dealt with before in the community.
Example with violence:
1. who is causing the violence & why
2. how the problem has been addressed in the past
3. who supports and opposes the idea of addressing this problem
4. who could provide more insight into the problem.
Executive participants- Organizing the People
will become the backbone of the workforce and will end up doing the majority of the work.
- Expanding constituencies:
1. identify who are affected by the problem they are trying to solve
2. Provide "perks" for or otherwise reward volunteers
3. keep volunteer time short
4. match volunteer assignments with the abilities and expertise of the volunteers
5. consider providing appropriate training to make sure volunteers are comfortable with their tasks.
A temporary group that is brought together for dealing with a specific problem
Formal alliance of organizations that come together to work for a common goal.
Assessing the Community
-Mapping community capacity- process of identifying community assets- Community assets:
1. Primary building blocks- organized into assets and capacities of individuals (Ex: skills, abilities, incomes) and those organizations or associations (Ex: faith-based and citizen organization)
2. Secondary building blocks- located in the neighborhood but largely controlled by people outside (Ex: social services agencies, schools, hospitals, and housing structures)
3. Potential building blocks- least accessible; resources outside the neighborhood and controlled by people outside (ex: welfare expenditures and public information)
What does the term gatekeepers mean? Who would they be in your home community?
Those who control both formally and informally, the political climate of the community.
EX: Politician, Teacher, Leaders of activist groups, members of clergy
Identify the steps in the generalized approach to community organizing/ building presented in this chapter.
1. Recognizing the issue
2. Gaining entry into the community
3. Organizing the people
4. Assessing the community
5. Determining the priorities and setting goals
6. Arriving at a solution and selecting intervention strategies
7. Implementing the Plan
8. Evaluating the outcomes of the plan of action
9. Maintaining the outcomes in the community
10. Looping back
What does community building mean?
An orientation to practice focused on community, rather than a strategic framework or approach, and on building capacities, not fixing problems.
What is a needs assessment? Why is it important in the health promotion programming process?
The process of identifying, analyzing, and prioritizing the needs of a priority population.
Important because it not only identifies and prioritizes health problems, but it also established a baseline for evaluating program impact.
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