Construction of equations to explain the pH changes for reactions
- oxides reacting with waterIonic: basic
Na2O + H2O --> 2NaOH
MgO + H2O --> Mg(OH)2
P4O10 + H2O --> 4H3PO4
SO3 + H2O --> H2SO4
More acidic across period (except group 18)PeriodicityIn Chemistry it refers to the phenomenon that, if the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number then a range of both chemical and physical properties show a repeated pattern.Blocks# of orbitals per energy level
Lanthanoids + 7
ActinoidsAtomic radiiDecrease across the periods.
Increase down a group.
Ionic size increase down a group.First ionisation energyis the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom.
It increases from left to right across a period and decrease down a group. e- closest to positively charges nuclei is the hardest to remove.
M (g) → M+ (g) + e-
Difference between first ionisation energy of element in a period: Nuclear charge,
energy level (or distance from the nucleus), and repulsion by other electrons (shielding).ElectronegativityAttraction between atom to its electrons in a covalent bond.
Decrease down a group, because radii increase.