Chapter 10

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Personality
The pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person
Psychodynamic approaches to personality
assume that personality is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness and over which they have no control
psychoanalytic theory
Freud's theory that unconscious forces act as determinants of personality
unconscious
A part of the personality that contains the memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which the individual is not aware
id
The raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality whose sole purpose it to reduce tension. Pleasure principle. what you want to do.
ego
Strives to balance desires of the id and realities of objective, outside world. reality principle. what you should do
superego
represents rights & wrongs (morals) of society as taught and modeled by one's parents. Includes the conscience.
psychosexual stages
developmental periods that children pass through during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges.
fixations
conflict or concerns that persist beyond the developmental period in which they first occur
identification
the process of wanting to be like another person as much as possible, imitating that persons behavior and adopting similar beliefs.
defense mechanisms
unconscious strategies people use to reduce anxiety by concealing its source. Denial, repression, & projection.
Jung
common set of ideas feelings and images that we inherit from relatives, the whole human race, and animal ancestors.
Horney
Women's issues. he was first feminist psychologist. personality develops in context of social relationships and depends particularly on relationships between parent & child
Adler
Human motivation is a striving for superiority in a quest for self-improvement.
Archetypes
Jung. universal symbolic representations of a particular person, object or experience.
Inferiority Complex
Adler. problem affecting adults who have not been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority that they develop as children.
traits
consistent personality characteristics and behaviors displayed in different situations
trait theory
a model of personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality.
The Big Five
Openness- to experience. Conscientiousness- careful/ careless. Extraversion- talkative/ quiet. Agreeableness- kind/ cold. Neuroticism- calm/ anxious. O.C.E.A.N.
social cognitive theory
people understand and make sense of others and themselves
self efficacy
belief in one's personal capabilities. ability to carry out a particular behavior to produce desired outcome.
self esteem
component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self-evaluations
biological and evolutionary approaches to personality
theories that suggest that important components of personality are inherited
Humanistic approaches to personality
theories that emphasize peoples innate goodness and desire to achieve higher levels of functioning
self actualization
a state of self fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential, each in a unique.
unconditional positive regard
an attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does
psychological tests
standard measures devised to assess behavior objectively; used by psychologists to help people make decisions about their lives and understand more about themselves.
self report measures
a method of gathering data about people by asking them questions about a sample of their behavior
MMPI
a widely used self-report test that identifies people with psychological difficulties and is employed to predict some everyday behaviors
test standardization
a technique used to validate questions in personality tests by studying the responses of people with known diagnoses
projective personality test
a test in which a person is shown an ambiguous stimulus and asked to describe it or tell a story about it
rorschach test
a test that involves showing a series of symmetrical visual stimuli to people who then are asked what the figures represent to them
thematic apperception test
a test consisting of a series of pictures about what a person is asked to write a story
behavioral assessment
direct measures of an individuals behavior used to describe personality characteristics