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a. Worst birthday of his life, yet wonderful at the same time
--Mosquitos bites, days on a tiny boat with almost no seats, sand bars, hot weather
--Finally saw monkeys once in the forest
b. Method to attract monkeys to traps by walking along with a captive monkey that would call frequently and attract the locals monkeys who were interested in the stranger
c. Wanted mustached tamarins for research
d.Built their own houses/shacks at sites
e. Main purpose to study vocal communications in pygmy marmosets
f. He's a psychologist (behavioral neuroscientist)!
--Bored with his work w/mainly rats
g. Worked with monkeys in his lab, used woman with musical training to look for acoustic differences
h. Practiced with electronic calls & the primates' reactions
i. Measured distance between callers and the nearest listener
j. Field work more valid than captive research
--YET his captive monkeys and wild monkeys showed the same behavior and similar vocalizations
k. Babbling in infants and importance of vocal practice
--Mothers' responses to infant babbling speeds human language development
--Promotes greater parental care
l. People selling monkeys as pets
m. Learning of dialects & preference for certain tree populations = basis for culture??
n. Developing methods for sustained captive breeding
o. No innate "parenting instinct" in tamarins
p. Many animals in his care were never handled by a human (put a scale in cage, used air ducts to move animal to a new cage, getting urine when they are just waking up, etc)
q. Hormonal suppression in females (mother near daughter, no mother but with fathers or brothers, still no ovulation...)
--Men had none and were even sexually active with all group members of both sexes in the home cage
r. Men also have higher hormone levels (prolactin) when carrying infants
s. "Helper" tamarins that help raise children, etc but don't procreate themselves?
a. Seeing a gorilla she hadn't seen in 17 years
b. Research no longer possible after 1992 because of war, genocide and political instability in Rwanda
c. Gorilla groups can spread out to cover a football field when they are feeding
d. Understand diversity of patterns in sociality among animals
e. Gorillas occupy 10 countries in Africa (all different habitats)
f. Gorillas are two species and four subspecies
g. Research helps to figure out how to better protect this critically endangered animal
h. "Extreme gorillas"-where most of research comes from, of the Virunga Volcanoes (where Dian Fossey worked)
--Extreme because they live at one of the highest altitudes for any primates (habitat is cool and contains almost no fruit trees so the gorillas eat almost entirely terrestrial herbaceous vegetation)
i. Didn't expect to observe relationship between dominance rank and female RS because food is so abundant and evenly distributed in the Virungas, but there was a small and statistically significant relationship-->higher ranking females were more successful reproductively than lower ones
--Is rank a proxy for some other variable, like body size? Or do higher ranked females have some advantage while foraging?
j. Virgunas seen as the "norm" even though that's a generalization
k. People didn't think she'd last more than a month working in Bwindi
l. Had to convince field assistants they wouldn't be killed if they got closer to the gorillas
m. Still not a ton of info on gorillas in Bwindi
n. Heartbreaking to see silverbacks dethroned by younger ones (but also fascinating)
o. Feels like she's seeing old friends when the gorillas are still alive
p. Mimulopsis?
q. Need wardrobe for every occasion (mountains w/nettles, thick vegetation, cool temps, rain, etc)
r. "Camera traps"
s. Benefit in working in many locations—can still view them with fresh eyes
a. Tracked a female from her birth through the birth of her own offspring (Kathy Lee)
--Throughout the day members of her group arrive to sniff and touch the new arrival
--Researchers worried because male fighting can lead to death of small infants
b. Issue of sexing infant capuchins
c. Tourists also at the park
--Shouting, throwing bananas, staring at the field workers (thinks snake leggings are leg warmers)
d. Why do they watch monkeys in the forest and country that's so far away? Why continue same research for 30 years?
--Inspired by researchers before her and the info they shared with her
--Drawn to questions that need decades of study
--Little was known about white-faced capuchins when she started so she began with the basics before being able to answer more complex questions
e. Chose national park in Costa Rica because of political stability, protected area, UNESCO world heritage site, etc
--Constraints of working in a national park
---Many visitors depending on season
---Guards acting like military at first
f. Many changes in environment and monkey populations
--Had to find ways to stop fires in dry forests, monkey pop. Doubled in 28 years
g. "Sexual conflict" (infanticide, supportive matrilineal kin, behavior of males, etc)
h. Lactating female capuchins eat more food items per hour than do pregnant or cycling females
--Drives seasonal timing of reproduction
i. Alloparenting (when an infant is cared for by an individual other than the mother) and allonursing (suckling an infant other than one's own) are common w/white-faced capuchins
j. Kathy Lee's infant ended up being male, disappeared at the age of seven during a male takeover in his group
--Named Alien because he titled his head and held out his tongue on windy days
--Possibly found in new group as alpha male years later (collected samples and found out it was the same and 11 years old)
--Disappeared again 5 years later during another takeover (maybe killed this time?)
a. Chimps recognized her and that she had not been there in a while
b. Female chimp (Aimee) and mother hesitant to enter feeding tree crown because of the dominant males
--Pant-hoot and held hand out to researcher (as if for reassurance or greeting or both)
--A year earlier she had carried Aimee back to her group after she was rescued from Poachers. Maybe she had remembered her?
c. Has to ignore champs unless significantly threatened bc of research
d. Fell in love with chimps when she worked as behavioral psychologist with captive chimps at a breeding facility
e. First field experience was at an archaeological site
f. Physical challenges of field work
--She's had malaria multiple times, also mental and emotional toll of field work
g. Need help of local people (i.e. they have names for local flora and fauna, know the habitats, etc)
h. Chimps used caves to cool off during dry season
i. Making relationships with locals was a challenge at first (language barrier, shy, etc)
j. Unprotected chimps survive because the local people do not hurt them, and chimp behavior indicated they considered humans as part of their ecosystem (not as threatening to them as they were to the park chimpanzees)
k. Protocol to stay 10m away, and wear surgical masks if less than 11m away
--Disease contraction less of an issue with primates who are less closely related to humans, but with chimps it's easier (common cold can turn to pneumonia in chimps)
--Difficult if chimp wants to get close to you (try to keep moving)
---David (aspiring alpha male) wanted to get close, if you move away too soon it may be interpreted as a signal that he is supplanting you which could stimulate him to engage in more direct and dangerous threat
--If chimps get too close they could realize how weak humans actually are
l. Chimps portrayed as arising from humans who had somehow lost their way (i.e. by fishing on a Friday when it was forbidden, or escaping a circumcision ceremony)
m. Shifts in what's threatening chimps (locals understanding more about conservation and the effects of farming so mining is now the biggest concern)
n. The chimps at Fongoli will probably not survive much longer than the author will, because of human pressures and their intrinsically low birth rates
--If more people become interested in their welfare, may be able to turn this around (interest of locals is promising)
a. Says he became a primatologist when a young baboon screamed at him yet he did nothing to upset her
--She viewed him as an honorary baboon worthy of trying to dominate (she used males as social tools to raise her own rank)
b. Sexual selection causing infant-killing by langur males?
c. Influence of academic pressure and funding can change intended path
d. Thought people sleeping outside bc of the heat were dead bodies and that he would catch whatever they had and die too
e. Previous research on langurs were almost entirely different from one another
--Single-male troops, all-male bands, and infanticide seen only at some sites?
f. Langurs eat lots of leafs and fruit (strange bc usually fruit upsets stomachs of leaf eaters)
g. The monkeys represent a god, so Hindus protect and sometimes feed the langurs in return
h. Langurs welcome in the town (unlike squirrels, rabbits, bird/nests in US)
i. Lack of privacy—town kids wander into his room to watch him work if door is open
j. Hermit knew all of the members of the focal group, and had interesting backstory of selling drugs and such...can't jump to conclusions bc of appearances
k. Juvenile nearly had his abdominal wall torn open and somehow survived
l. During a fight, an older monkey came by the researcher to watch the fight and figure out what was happening without becoming involved (identical actions)
m. Females deliberately inciting competition?
n. Work suspended bc gov't of India said their permits weren't proper
o. Back in US when looking at work discovered male dispersal to avoid interbreeding
p. Influence of population density on behavior (connect to humans & chimps)
q. Studying chimps was worth all of the discomfort
a. Sitting in a cage out in the wild to hide from lion
--Urge to flee
--Cages meant to trap baboons to collect morphological, genetic and physiological data
b. Baboons sleep on steep cliff edges where predators can't get them
c. Heat more of a threat than predators (bc not many left)
--Baboons typically found in more fertile habitats than this
---However, baboons are "weed" species like humans in that they can be found in almost any habitat
d. Sick female allows humans to keep up with baboon group
e. Wet season there's no water, but dry season there is a ton of floodwater
--Water is cold, don't know what's on other side
f. Training for how to respond to each type of predator
--With lions need to stand ground bc if you run they'll view you as prey, otherwise don't know how to treat humans
g. Hard when baboons don't warn about predators (like hippos, elephants and buffalo)
--Hippos kill more ppl than any other animal in Africa
--Elephants mock charge
h. Gelada baboons, unlike many other primates, do not recognize the other animals around them except those in their own family
--Would expect xenophobia for other groups, but not with geladas...they actually find unknown individuals attractive
--Visual signals and vocalizations allow them to read each other (esp. males to see fighting ability)
i. In Ethiopia trying to get revenue from tourism to benefit local people and to then get local people to be interested in preserving the park
--Help fought a bushfire nearby (gunshots as a "call to arms")
---People came together to put out fire
---Not like this back in Botswana
a. Startled by howling monkey immediately, ended up studying that male until his death
b. Traveled to many parts of the world but always come back to Costa Rica
c. Life histories of 230 animals
d. Dropped feces on him, urinated on him, threw dead branches at him
e. Monkeys became part of his life when he was in the Air Force and working with NASA
--Worked with the first primate that was in space
f. Didn't do well in school at first, had to go to night school (Rudyard Kipling saved his GPA)
g. Comparing leaf eating insects to leaf eating primates
--Unlimited food hypothesis
h. Finding safe method to capture arboreal monkeys
i. Didn't anticipate his role in conservation biology-->his work influenced a farmer to increase his beef production while conserving the forests
j. Went with barely any money and no place to live
k. Costa Rica changed a lot in only 2 years...brothels, postal strike, got sprayed with mace
l. Land used to be used for a drug company but later developed back into a forest as refuge for animals
--Also added hotels for tourism and homes for researchers
--Getting milk and beef from cattle
---Eventually cattle sold and replaced with tilapia
---Beef cattle later brought back along w/tilapia
m. Studying all of the trees there to see what resources were available for the monkeys
n. Had to mark them with colored collars and tags in order to identify
--Required capture and recapture to replace lost or damaged tags
---Have to maintain identification until able to replace
---Capture can lead to injury or death
--Name based on tag color, specific identifier (i.e. Scar), Houdini for ability to escape researchers, etc
o. Their lives are as familiar to him as his own
p. Witnessed fight that was silent...led to subordinance
q. Males attacking infants younger than 12 months is common with howling monkeys
--One took the harassment until at 15 months he left the group and became a solitary individual, became primary tourist attraction because he moved into the tourist part to get away from the other monkeys
---None of the others left until they were 24-30 months old
---Ended up finding a female and expanding the group to 17
r. Recording life history stages by capturing individuals at certain ages to get morphological and physiological data
s. Howler monkeys place unexpected role in economy
t. His research showed the monkeys were getting food from only 331 of 1699 trees
--Was able to alter environment
--Protected soil and created safe haven for animals
u. Ranch hands became interested in his research, serves as his "eyes" while he's gone and fills him in during visits
--Helped track 7 howlers that were translocated into the population while he was gone
--Took part in a dam rescue
--"crazy gringo" who studies monkeys
a. Monkeys of all shapes and sizes in Amazon Basin
b. Exact number of Amazonian monkey species is less of world's last unexplored frontiers
c. Like having keys to a chocolate factory but finding way around is another thing
d. Transportation is a nightmare, can take days
--Little "progress" in area...still use boats to get around. Some towns, airports and highways...
e. Surprisingly flat land is a major drawback for building dams and such
f. Finally got attention when a dam was built to supply the metropolitan area
g. A reserve was established which funded his field work
h. The Devil's Railroad: creating railroad took more than five years and lives of 6000 workers who caught diseases like malaria and yellow fever
--Body buried under each railroad tie?
--Railroad became redundant moment it was inaugurated
i. Monkeys were saddest sight at the fauna rescue station
j. Tamarins so tame that they would scamper curiously over parked bulldozers
k. Tamarins extroverted while marmosets were shy and reclusive
l. Primatologists very partial to "their" species...much like dog owners
m. Marmosets are among few animals able to produce their own food
n. Marmoset species never found together, never coexist with tamarin cousins either
o. Overnight flight that stopped at half the towns in the basin, visited the corporation and had to shake hands of every employee, crammed into pickup...
p. Able to recognize vocalizations
q. Monkeys not upset by his presence, even came into view
r. Tamarins and marmosets coexisting here
s. Tamarins were like a friend to him, marmosets kept their distance
t. Different tamarin species coexist and even group together
u. More primates foraging together, more insects they catch
v. Tamarin predators = birds of prey, those higher up in trees more at risk
w. Tamarin stopped and stared at him, but then kept going
--Tame species bc natural selection made them tolerant of any mammal that wasn't a predator
x. Spider monkey stole apple from tamarin
y. Tamarins out-competing marmosets in undeclared ecological war, possibly taking over their territory
z. Found a new species!!! Already listed as vulnerable to extinction though because restricted to a relatively small area and very rare
--This species might be the only monkey species being driven towards extinction by a nonhuman primate
a. Quotes from Darwin, Locke, John Stuart Mill, etc
--Question of mind as a blank slate
--Repeated "habitual" behavior in animals that's "instinctive" or innate (Darwin)
b. Behaviorist like Skinner, Pavlov, etc (pigeon, rat, monkey = same?)
--Thoughts, feelings, goals and intentions play no role in study and behavior bc they "don't exist" in animals
c. Birds heard both songs but still only sang the one of their species
d. Each species has a mind of its own that, like its limbs, heart and other body parts, has evolved innate predispositions that cause it to organize incoming sensations in particular ways
e. Animals acquire knowledge as a result of their experiences
f. Study about learning in monkeys (shift from behaviorists to cognitive theorists)
--Monkey in chair watching as food is hidden under one of two cups and then is removed from room for several minutes, each of the monkeys chose the cup hiding the food
--Then played tricks like putting a banana under cup while monkey was watching and then putting lettuce under it while the monkey is gone
g. Baboons are one of Africa's most successful species, far from being endangered
--Occupy every ecological niche except the Sahara and tropical rain forests
h. Groups number up to 100 individuals (larger than most chimp communities)
--Complex network of social relationships with relatives and nonrelative (simultaneously cooperative and competitive)
i. Baboons in the wild allow study of how individual's behavior affects her survival and repro
--Also able to study social cognition in the absence of human training, in the social and ecological contexts in which it evolved
j. Natural selection often creates brains that are highly specialized
k. Domain of expertise for baboons is social life (multimale, multifemale groups that typically include 8-9 matrilineal females, linear dominance hierarchy of males that changes often and a linear hierarchy of females/their offspring that can be stable for generations)
l. Most of the problems facing baboons = other baboons
m. Group of baboons habituated to humans walking among them and tolerated their presence
n. Collect fecal samples from males and females for the extraction of testosterone and glucocorticoids
--Can be collected w/o stress
o. Describes what to expect in each chapter following
p. Primate vocalizations provide the key that unlocks the primate mind
q. Reconsidering whether or not monkeys and apes lack a "theory of mind"
a. 80 baboons can feed in a large jackalberry for 3-4 days without completely depleting it
b. Drive dangerous—risk of getting lost, stuck, overheating the engine, puncturing tires, being chased by elephants (on a good day drive takes 4-5 hours)
c. Supplies are ferried from lodge to camp in a small boat (aluminum boat protects against crocs but not hippos)
d. Narrow escapes with hippos more than with any other animal (hippos have one emotional stage—anger)
--Kill more people in Africa each year than any other mammal
e. Almost walked into elephant when leaving shower, stalked by lions when going into tent
f. High density of baboons creates male competition for access to mates
--High rates of turnover in the male dominance hierarchy
---Retain status for only 7-8 months
--Leads to infanticide!
g. Predation accounts for vast majority of deaths among baboons (all ages/genders)
h. 1992-2005 lions and leopards killed 19 baboons in the group, 16 other cases where predation was highly suspected
--Estimate: predation account for 95% of all adult female deaths
i. Predation especially common during flood when animals are forced to make water crossings from one island to another (vulnerable to crocs, lions, etc)
--Anxiety ridden adventure—before entering water they sit at island's edge, nervous grunting and looking toward the island they hope to reach...chorus of alarm calls before making the trip
j. Researcher couldn't find a specific female, then heard alarm calls then couldn't see any baboons at all...then noticed lioness staring right at her
--Got away but then realized the group split into two groups and were all scattered in trees while the ground was covered with lions
--7 baboons killed that day by 6 lions
--Group remained separated for two days after, began giving contact barks and slowly regrouped
--Happened again 5 months later
---Lion w/baboon in her mouth
---Lions fighting over carcass
---Baboons change direction of travel by about 180 degrees after an attack
k. Sleeping in trees keeps them safe from lions, BUT not leopards
--Can attack multiple times a night, even next morning
--Female died and left infant son behind who soon died despite the ministrations of another adult female
--During the day the balance of power between leopards and baboons can shift in the baboon's favor (surround leopard with all members of group)
---One instance the leopard was guarding cubs in the hollow of a tree
---Have actually killed leopards before
---One time when leopard escaped circle it knocked down a researcher and began to scratch and bite him...baboons drove it away!
l. Some baboons survive many attacks but eventually killed
m. Hyenas and wild dogs elicit only scattered alarm barks
--Surprising since they do prey on baboons (but baboons will fight/chase back)
n. Crocs jump out of water and attack, some baboons are able to jump away in time
o. Life of baboon as "one continual nightmare of anxiety"
--Because predator attacks are unpredictable, uncontrollable and unremitting (why they're afraid anytime near water)
p. Stress response in body (why they're looking at glucocorticoids...released into blood by adrenal cortex when emergency is detected)
--Long term consequences! (atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, compromised immune system)
q. Predation esp. stressful for females whose close relatives are killed (significantly higher glucocorticoid levels during following month aka bereavement)
Why so many primates in female-bonded (FB) groups? {note: most mammals are solitary}
-key resource for females = food
1. better fed females begin repro earlier, have healthier offspring, shorter inter-birth intervals, and live longer to repro
2. increasing inclusive fitness differs for males and females (REVIEW SEXUAL SELECTION NOTES)

FB species = females keep affiliative bonds w/each other and normally spend their lives in that group. 2 criteria:
1. they breed w/in their natal group (female philopatry, male transfer)
2. higher levels of affiliative interactions (i.e. grooming, huddling, aiding)

Benefits of group foraging: protection
Costs: subs get less food? more competition for food
Problem: if group foraging increases costs of sharing, then esp. costly if members are close kin?

Wrangham's logic for FB advantages
1. cooperation = "behavior which raises the inclusive fitness of each interacting individual"
2. two requirements: food in discrete defensible patches & patch size big enough for simultaneous eating
3. logic = better to have stable, reliable bonds than random alliances; cooperate with, not exclude, kin; competition within group is side-effect cost of between-group benefits (EXAMPLE NOTES 3/13)
4. food supply- growth vs. subsistence diet (growth promotes grouping, subsistence neither promotes nor disrupts groups)

Wrangham's test of model
1. looked at primarily apes & OWM - 23 of 25 fit expectations well (not all FB, they all have proper diet for group type)
2. since 1980- between-group comp doesn't seem to explain why females group

Article significance:
-generates testable hypotheses/ideas about social organization
---data needed on? general diet & food distribution; agonistic behavior over food
-spawns much research, esp. grad students in 1980s (i.e. Strier work on NWM)
-relegates predator defense to side effect of group benefits due to cooperation/competition within species

Final comments:
-kin should group bc expected to avoid imposing costs on each other
-cooperation not to help "the species" but to compete within the species
-Note: big contrast from "harem" concept; females grouping for own benefits; males often more peripheral than controlling..."female-focused" (reflects combo of sociobiology & feminism)
New data, Wrangham's model & FB
-NWM not good fit, most done since 1980
ex: all atelines are non-FB
-Ateles (spider monkey): "ripe fruit specialists" over 70% of diet is ripe fruit (would expect them to be in FB groups since fruit grows in patches/trees) YET females transfer
-Lagothrix (woolly monkeys): similar diet ^, mainly females transfer, no FB, yet large cohesive groups
-Brachyteles (muriquis): 60% leaves (as expected in non-FB) BUT territorial & strong (unrelated!) female coalitions despite female transfer

Folivore Paradox, Sussman, etc

Model at the crossroads today
-still used, but many disagree on validity of assumptions/predictions...refine or abandon?
-problems w/Wrangham's model:
1. focus on "contest competition", but ignores "scramble competition"
2. predation evidence seems relevant
3. effect of male repro strategies on social org ignored (even tho males have effect on what females do, i.e. infanticide)
4. assumptions difficult, if not impossible, to test (i.e. measuring "patchiness" in context of different species needs)

-behavior is complex; not "if ecology X, then behavior Y" solutions
--some examples:
1. phylogeny matters: cercopithecines (who Wrangham used) strongly show male transfer & FB, reverse for atelines (female transfer)
2. feeding comp may influece aggression rates, coalitions, dom hierarchies, but also:
---social interactions (i.e. infanticide) and random events (i.e. predation/poaching effects) can limit options beyond ecological constraints
For example: Thomas' langurs (colobines, lear-eaters); Sumatra, Indonesia
-high predation, low food comp (expect: large group size, defense from predators and don't have to worry about food comp-->van Shaik)
-BUT small groups, OMU's....why? (if male has 4-6 females, more takeovers...females prefer OMU's to reduce infanticide risk...some herding by males, yet females also able to move to form new OMU)

-other points to keep in mind:
a) cost/benefits easier to hypothesize about, but hugely difficult to estimate in field (i.e. do larger groups travel farther for food?)
b) if no predator problem seen, doesn't mean not influential (maybe it WAS a prob but they figured out how to deal w/it)
--morphology might be better indicator than current behaviors, since takes longer to change (i.e. tapetum lucidum in dirunal)
--even if predation problem, unlikely to see it (similar: when infanticide seems probable in langurs, relatively rarely witnessed)
c) greatly increased understanding w/integration of ecology, sociobiology, predation, infanticide, food comp, phylogeny, yet still MUCH to learn
d) confusion isn't surprising given huge range of variation seen w/in primates
SEE NOTES 3/17 for exmaples (NO TYPICAL PRIMATE!)
1. Females distributed more according to food; males according to female distribution
2. Rich food in discrete, defensible patches promotes contest competition; poor or non-defensible food promotes scramble competition (scrambling can still occur w/defensible patches too)
--partially Wrangham, nothing about FB tho
3. Larger group size correlated with increased contest and scramble competition (if food sources can handle it)
4. Considerable evidence in primates and other vertebrates that sociality reduces predation risk (van Shaik)
5. Small animals tend to hide from predation and be solitary; larger animals tend to defend against predation and be in groups
6. When female mammals in large groups, males tend to compete over them more and there is increased sexual dimorphism (male-male comp leads to selection for bigger body, teeth, etc)
7. Infanticide is more common in groups when one male mates with many females; females have counterstrategies to infanticide, including "confusing paternity" (female mates w/many males so males are nicer in future) and associating with a protective male
8. Primates are unusual mammals in that many species live in stable heterosexual groups; perhaps related to male ability to carry offspring &/or offer protection
9. Among mammals, males are most likely to transfer out of natal group than females (tho not nec among primates)
10. The sexes use different (although tightly related) evolved strategies to survive, mate and raise offspring (sexual selection and different preferred resources--have to work together tho)
-more upright, suspensory locomotion & feeding postures
-largely female transfer, some male philopatry (sometimes both transfer!)
-slower life histories (longer juvenile development, later 1st repro, longer interbirth intervals, lower RS)

1. Howler monkeys and gorillas
-more folivorous
-one or more adult males in group, essential for male RS; correlated with high competitive ability (gorillas herd females)
-infanticide reported when new male enters group of females
-intra-sexual bonds weak; males focus of social attention; high sexual dimorphism
--females tolerate each other, but not really bonded (even males can tolerate each other but don't work together as a unit)

2. Spider monkeys and chimps
-ripe-fruit specialists; fission-fusion groups
-chimps sometimes hunt meat--> due to how much fruit (more fruit, more hunting bc bigger groups make better success)
-group size highly correlated with ripe fruit availability
-cooperative males, patrol terr boundaries
-male aggression towards females
-females mate with multiple males, but usually not overtly (not publicly, prevent comp/any reaction); less sexual dimorphism (esp. w/spider monkey) bc males cooperating and females working together when in groups

3. Muriquis and bonobos
-more folivory, uniform distribution of food
-fission-fusion, but larger groups (than spider/chimp)
-females do not have indiv core areas; foraging parties more often both sexes
-male/female relationships more egalitarian; aggression rare; multiple mates
-overt matings, often other males present, less sexual dimorphism
-sperm plugs in muriquis...might not have morphological competition but compete in other ways like this (also v. large testicles)

(won't ask to list all things shared in the 3 pairings given, but may note what is shared and ask which 2 species share the traits)